ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

心理科学进展 ›› 2012, Vol. 20 ›› Issue (9): 1426-1447.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01426

• 研究前沿 • 上一篇    下一篇


席居哲;左志宏;WU Wei   

  1. (1华东师范大学心理与认知科学学院; 2华东师范大学学前教育与特殊教育学院, 上海 200062) (3 Department of Psychology and Center for Research Methods and Data Analysis, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045-7556, USA)
  • 收稿日期:2011-11-07 出版日期:2012-09-15 发布日期:2012-09-15
  • 通讯作者: 左志宏
  • 基金资助:


Approaches to Research on Resilience

XI Ju-Zhe;ZUO Zhi-Hong;WU Wei   

  1. (1 School of Psychology and Cognitive Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China) (2 School of Preschool Education and Special Education, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China) (3 Department of Psychology and Center for Research Methods and Data Analysis, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045-7556, USA)
  • Received:2011-11-07 Online:2012-09-15 Published:2012-09-15
  • Contact: ZUO Zhi-Hong

摘要: 心理韧性研究自发轫至今出现了若干可供遵循的进路, 主要有:以人为中心模型、以变量为中心模型、时间路径模型和因素-过程模型等。以人为中心进路围绕“人”开展研究, 将甄别出的心理韧性者与非韧性者及未经历严重压力/逆境者进行比较, 尝试理解心理韧性的由来。以变量为中心进路则聚焦于压力/危险逆境指标、心理韧性相关因子及心理社会发展功能指标, 经由分析这些变量的关系以探寻和推测心理韧性发展的机制。时间路径进路专注于时间进程, 追踪研究对象在严重压力/逆境开始前后到相当长一段时期心理社会功能变化过程特点, 以解读人类压力/逆境适应系统的运作特征及其功能差异, 推断心理韧性发展的过程及机制。因素-过程整合进路则以生态系统理论为指导, 兼顾因素与过程, 尝试提供一个更具研究指导性的心理韧性整合模型和一套机制解释策略基准框架。诸心理韧性研究进路各有侧重, 互有长短, 研究者对之了然于胸将有助于选择适切的研究设计与分析策略, 取长避短, 从而提高研究揭示效力。

关键词: 心理韧性, 研究进路, 以人为中心模型, 以变量为中心模型, 时间路径模型, 因素-过程整合模型

Abstract: Several approaches to resilience research have been developed since the starting of this scientific domain, including person-focused models, variable-focused models, pathway models and an integrated factor-process model. Person-focused models tend to identify resilient people and understand how resilience develops by comparing them to nonresilient ones who are not faring well in the face of adversity and to those who have not experienced any detrimental threats to their development. Variable-focused approaches focus on the relationships among indices of stress/adversity, the influencing factors of resilience and psychosocial functions. The purpose of variable-focused research is to capture the mechanism behind resilience development. Characterized by longitudinal design and analysis, pathway models try to disentangle how human adaptation systems operate and how resilience develops by focusing on change before and after the incidence of traumatic events or disasters. The integrated factor-process approach is on the basis of ecosystem theory. This approach emphasizes both the processes of resilience development and factors related to it. The integrated factor-process approach provides a more generic strategy for investigating resilience and interpreting the results. Each of the research approaches to resilience has its own strength and weakness. Familiarity with these approaches is crucial for a researcher to appropriately design the research, analyze the data and interpret the results, which would highly improve validity and efficiency of researches on resilience.

Key words: Resilience, approach, person-focused models, variable-focused models, pathway models, an integrated factor-process model