ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

心理科学进展 ›› 2022, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (5): 1158-1167.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2022.01158

• 研究前沿 • 上一篇    下一篇


郭玉冬1, 欧琪雯2, 段锦云1()   

  1. 1华东师范大学心理与认知科学学院, 上海市心理健康与危机干预重点实验室, 上海 200062
    2漳州卫生职业学院, 福建 漳州 363000
  • 收稿日期:2021-02-11 出版日期:2022-05-15 发布日期:2022-03-24
  • 通讯作者: 段锦云
  • 基金资助:

Psychological and behavioral responses of leaders toward proactive behaviors from subordinates

GUO Yudong1, OU Qiwen2, DUAN Jinyun1()   

  1. 1Shanghai Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Psychological Crisis Intervention, School of Psychology and Cognitive Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
    2Zhangzhou Health Vocational College, Zhangzhou 363000, China
  • Received:2021-02-11 Online:2022-05-15 Published:2022-03-24
  • Contact: DUAN Jinyun


员工主动行为因有利于个人和组织的长远发展而受到学界和业界的广泛关注。以往的研究主要关注主动行为对员工本人的人际内影响, 而较少考虑对领导者的人际间影响; 同时, 考虑到员工在领导过程中扮演的重要角色, 对员工的主动行为如何影响领导的心理与行为反应做理论性整理将极大丰富对员工主动行为的认识。学界基于归因理论、内隐追随理论、自我-他人评价一致性理论等对上述自下而上的影响过程进行了初步探索, 发现领导者对员工主动行为的态度评价和行为反应受到多重边界条件的影响。未来研究可具体化员工主动行为所诱发的领导者心理与行为反应, 探索员工主动行为与领导方式的循环关系, 以及深挖主动行为与绩效评价之间的内在机理。

关键词: 员工主动行为, 领导反应, 边界条件, 领导方式, 追随研究


Employee proactive behaviors have so many benefits for the actors and their organizations that it has received extensive attention from scholars and practitioners. Previous studies on the consequences of proactive behavior mainly explored it from different levels (individual, team or organization) or the direction of influence (positive vs. negative), and left the psychological and behavioral reactions of leaders underexplored. Enlightened by the followership research, which highlights the important and active role of employees in actively shaping leaders’ mind and behavior, and wise proactive behaviors, which call on scholars to do more comprehensive exploration about the consequences of proactive behaviors to provide more effective practical guidance and achieve optimal results, we thus believe that to review and summarize leaders' psychological and behavioral responses to employees' proactive behavior has great theoretical values and practical implications.
Because of different orientations, the same form of proactive behavior (e.g., promotive voice vs. prohibitive voice; positive feedback seeking vs. negative feedback seeking) will lead to leaders’ different attitudinal (likes vs. dislikes) and behavioral responses (support vs. opposition), and the influence process will be shaped by many factors from different aspects. In specific, at present, scholars have made preliminary exploration on the function mechanisms how subordinate proactive behavior affects leaders’ psychological and behavioral reactions based on attribution theory, implicit following theory, self-other rating agreement theory and other explanatory theories. The results found that when facing subordinate proactive behaviors, leaders will experience a series of cognitive appraisal process, then determine their attitude according to the behavioral intention of focal subordinates and the potential benefits and costs of such behavior, and further take action to promote or restrain the development of the proactive behavior and strengthen or break their current relationship simultaneously. In addition, the factors from employees, leaders and situations will affect the leaders’ cognitive evaluation and attribution process about subordinate proactive behaviors, and enhance or weaken the leaders’ various psychological and behavioral responses. Specifically, the factors from employees, such as employees’ demographic characteristics, personal traits and some abilities, will affect the attribution process of leaders, which will lead to different coping responses of leaders. As for the factors from leaders’ side, for example, leaders' traits and resources will affect leaders' internal expectations of employees' behaviors. When employees' proactive behaviors conform to or deviate from such expectations, leaders' cognitive evaluation and behavioral responses will change accordingly. The situations, like organizational goals, atmosphere and other situational factors, may reflect leaders' work demands or orientation, and whether employees' proactive behavior is helpful to the realization of leaders' such goals will determine the nature of leaders' responses.
Focusing on the perspective of leaders, this study reviewed and summarized the literature about effect of employees' proactive behaviors on their leaders. We found that scholars had explored the attitudinal and behavioral reactions of leaders toward employees' proactive behaviors, but the research on leaders’ emotional reactions and other psychological states was insufficient, which will limit our understanding about proactive behaviors. Besides, most extant studies inferred leaders’ internal responses from their behaviors or performance evaluations about the focal employees, which indicated the deficiency of straightforward and deep exploration about leaders’ internal responses. Therefore, future research can (1) refine the extant explorations about the relationship between subordinate proactive behaviors and leaders’ attitudes, examine leaders’ responses directly and deepen the research on its influence mechanism; (2) further explore the potential psychological and behavioral responses of leaders induced by subordinate proactive behavior, such as leaders’ self-efficacy; (3) explore the bi-directional causal relationship between employee proactive behaviors and leadership style, and development trend of such bi-directional relationship; (4) expand the multi-level research on leader's responses to employee proactive behaviors.

Key words: employee proactive behaviors, leaders’ responses, boundary conditions, leadership style, followership research