ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

心理科学进展 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (7): 1077-1090.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2016.01077

• 研究前沿 • 上一篇    下一篇


谢和平; 王福兴; 王玉鑫; 安婧   

  1. (青少年网络心理与行为教育部重点实验室; 华中师范大学心理学院, 武汉 430079)
  • 收稿日期:2015-12-28 出版日期:2016-07-15 发布日期:2016-07-15
  • 通讯作者: 王福兴, E-mail:
  • 基金资助:


Does Harder-to-Read mean Better-to-Learn? Effects of Disfluency on Learning Outcomes

XIE Heping; WANG Fuxing; WANG Yuxin; An Jing   

  1. (Key Laboratory of Adolescent Cyberpsychology and Behavior (CCNU), Ministry of Education; School of Psychology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China)
  • Received:2015-12-28 Online:2016-07-15 Published:2016-07-15
  • Contact: WANG Fuxing, E-mail:


教育心理学领域的不流畅效应认为, 学习难读材料要比学习易读材料的效果更好。已有研究主要通过操纵学习材料中的文本、画面或声音属性考察知觉流畅性在学习过程中的作用, 并发现不流畅材料可能有助于缓解过度自信现象, 但不一定能提高学习效果, 不流畅效应的稳健性受到质疑。合理难度理论与不流畅理论均认为, 知觉不流畅所引发的额外认知负荷促进了学习; 相反, 认知负荷理论认为这种额外认知负荷会阻碍学习。对现有研究进行元分析, 结果表明, 知觉不流畅既降低了学习判断的自信心(d = −0.54), 也不利于提高学习效果(d = −0.36), 一定程度上支持认知负荷理论。未来研究需关注知觉流畅性本身的操纵、界限及系统性评定, 并探讨不流畅效应的边界条件等。

关键词: 不流畅效应, 合理难度理论, 不流畅理论, 认知负荷理论, 边界条件


Recently, researchers in educational psychology pay much more attention to disfluency effect. Studies showed that students’ learning performance was enhanced if materials were presented in a perceptually harder-to-read format, rather than an easier-to-read format (Diemand-Yauman et al., 2011). Previous studies mainly manipulated the extrinsic characteristics of text, picture, and sound in the educationally relevant materials to investigate the role of perceptual fluency in learning. In this article, we firstly reviewed researches about the effects of disfluency on both judgment of learning (JOL) and learning outcomes. Second, theories of disfluency and their potential controversies were introduced and reviewed. Third, based on empirical studies related to perceptual fluency, a meta-analysis was conducted to examine to what extent disfluency would influence students’ learning outcomes as well as JOL. According to previous studies, metacognitive illusions occurred when information was perceptually easy to process, and yielded a sense of overconfidence from fluent materials. However, learning disfluent materials made JOL more cautiously. It’s possibly leading to a remission of overconfidence. However, it remained various mixed results of the effects of disfluency. The generality of the disfluency effect was questioned by many researchers. From the perspectives of desirable difficulty and disfluency theory, perceptual disfluency is likely to improve the storage strength of memory or activate analytical thinking. More subjective efforts and additional cognitive burden are needed while perceptual difficulty is increased. Therefore, learners would process information more deeply, abstractly, and carefully, and result in better retention or comprehension. However, Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) might predict an opposite result of learning for the reason that disfluency bring about an increase of extraneous cognitive load, rather than germane cognitive load. Results of meta-analysis revealed that disfluency lowered learners’ confidence of JOL (d = −0.54, p < 0.01) and hindered learning (d = −0.36, p = 0.06). This result supported Cognitive Load Hypothesis. Finally, implications and further research were discussed. Future studies should focus on the manipulation, the systematic evaluation of disfluency itself, and boundary conditions of disfluency effect.

Key words: disfluency effect, desirable difficulty, disfluency theory, cognitive load theory, boundary condition