ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

心理科学进展 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (7): 1313-1330.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01313

• 研究前沿 • 上一篇    


李朋波1, 陈黎梅2(), 褚福磊3, 孙雨晴4, 周莹1   

  1. 1 北京第二外国语学院旅游科学学院, 北京 100024
    2 中国人民大学商学院, 北京 100872
    3 首都经济贸易大学工商管理学院, 北京 100070
    4 上海交通大学安泰经济与管理学院, 上海 200030
  • 收稿日期:2020-12-04 出版日期:2021-07-15 发布日期:2021-05-24
  • 通讯作者: 陈黎梅
  • 基金资助:

I am gifted! Perceived overqualification and its influence on employees

LI Pengbo1, CHEN Limei2(), CHU Fulei3, SUN Yuqing4, ZHOU Ying1   

  1. 1 School of Tourism Sciences, Beijing International Studies University, Beijing 100024, China
    2 School of Business, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China
    3 College of Business Administration, Capital University of Economics and Business, Beijing 100070, China
    4 Antai College of Economics and Management, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China
  • Received:2020-12-04 Online:2021-07-15 Published:2021-05-24
  • Contact: CHEN Limei


资质过剩感, 是指个体感知的自己拥有超过工作所要求的教育水平、经验、知识、技能以及能力。员工感到资质过剩是组织中普遍存在的现象, 并逐渐成为组织行为研究中的热点话题。资质过剩感对员工的认知感受、情绪体验, 工作态度、行为和绩效, 以及身心健康等均存在一定的负面影响, 影响强度及性质取决于员工个人特征及所处情境特征。除负面影响外, 资质过剩感对员工主动行为、角色内绩效、创新绩效等还存在一定积极影响, 以及正U型、倒U型的非线性效应。人力资本理论、人-岗匹配理论、相对剥夺理论、公平理论、心理契约理论和资源保存理论等是解释资质过剩感消极影响的主要理论, 自我分类理论、自我验证理论和自我调节理论是解释其积极影响的主要理论。未来可以从开发本土量表、扩展跨层次研究、丰富和整合研究视角、探究动态效应等方面推动资质过剩感的研究。

关键词: 资质过剩, 资质过剩感, 主观感知


Perceived overqualification refers to one’s perception of possessing more education, experience, knowledge, skills, and abilities than the required job qualifications. Overqualification is a common phenomenon in organizations and has gradually become a hot topic in the research of organizational behavior. After years of development and accumulation, existing research has conducted in-depth discussions on the connotation, measurement, effects and situational factors of employees’ perceived qualification, and formed a relatively complete knowledge map; however, in terms of the construct itself and the effects of perceived overqualification, existing research still holds different views and inconsistent conclusions, and needs to be improved in future studies.

What is perceived overqualification? How to measure it? What kinds of negative effects does it have on employees? What are the situational factors of these negative effects? Does it only have negative effects? What are the theoretical mechanisms behind these effects? Based on these questions, this paper systematically sorts out and deeply analyzes the existing studies, and the results show that: (1) perceived overqualification reflects employees’ subjective perception of overqualification, and existing research has not yet achieved consensus on its dimensions and all measurements are developed based on western context; (2) perceived overqualification can negatively influence employees’ work attitudes, behavior and performance, as well as their physical and mental health, through affecting their cognitive feelings and emotional experience. Furthermore, these negative effects can be enhanced, weakened or even eliminated under the influence of different employees’ personal traits (e.g., personality, need orientation, values, cognitive evaluation, etc.) and different situations (e.g., organizational practice, team relationship, leadership style, work-related characteristics, etc.); (3) in addition to the negative effects, perceived qualification also has a positive effect, U-shaped effect or inverted U-shaped effect on some positive outcomes, such as employees’ proactive behavior, in-role performance, creative performance and so forth. (4) human capital theory, person-job fit theory, relative deprivation theory, equity theory, psychological contract theory, and conservation of resource theory are the main theories to explain the negative influences of perceived overqualification, whereas self-categorization theory, self-verification theory, and self-regulation theory are the ones to explain its positive influences.

On the basis of the above research findings, this paper proposes the following four important research directions for future research on perceived overqualification: (1) future research can conduct more extensive and in-depth surveys on Chinese employees and take its root in Chinese context to clarify the connotation and structure of perceived overqualification, explore and develop a more clearly structured scale of perceived overqualification with higher reliability and validity that can reflect Chinese context; (2) future research can overcome the limitation of existing research that focuses on the individual level, and pay more attention to perceived overqualification on the team level, optimizing its measurement and examining its multi-level effects on the team-level and individual-level outcomes; (3) future research can explore the influence of perceived overqualification on employees and its mechanisms from a more integrated perspective. In particular, future research can build a parallel mediation model to compare the mechanism and intensity of negative and positive effects of perceived overqualification, and to explore the boundary conditions of these two different effects; (4) future research can examine the changing process and influencing factors of perceived overqualification from a more dynamic perspective. Besides, future research can take into consideration other important factors, such as external uncertainty, and explore the effect based on a longer time frame to capture its long-term trend.

Key words: overqualification, perceived overqualification, subjective perception