ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

心理科学进展 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (4): 707-722.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.00707

• ·研究前沿· • 上一篇    下一篇


张亚坤1,3, 陈宁1, 陈龙安2(), 施建农1,4,5,6()   

  1. 1中国科学院心理研究所, 北京 100101
    2中华创造力训练发展协会, 台北 10683
    3北京理工大学, 北京 100081
    4中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    5中国科学院行为科学重点实验室, 北京 100101
    6Department of Learning and Philosophy, Aalborg University, Denmark
  • 收稿日期:2020-07-27 出版日期:2021-04-15 发布日期:2021-02-22
  • 基金资助:

Wisdom minds with creative wings: Igniting creative dynamics focusing on its interest cultivation

ZHANG Yakun1,3, CHEN Ning1, CHEN Lung An2(), SHI Jiannong1,4,5,6()   

  1. 1Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2China Creativity Training Development Association, Taipei 10462, China
    3Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
    4University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049, China
    5Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    6Department of Learning and Philosophy, Aalborg University, Denmark
  • Received:2020-07-27 Online:2021-04-15 Published:2021-02-22


创造力是一个集个人、团体、社会、文化相互交织的系统, 因此创造力的培养也需要综合考虑。本文在融合以往创造力研究的基础上, 建构了一套系统创造力培养的“蝴蝶理论”, 创造力培养需要抓住核心来统领全局, 同时兼顾创造力培养所需要统筹兼顾的各个部分。动力系统的激活是创造力培养的核心。新颖、适用的创造性成果的产出, 需要社会文化中的个体或团体在创造性心理动力的基础上来完成。创造性心理动力有效的激活则需要一些基本条件, 如在认知层面, 需要具备一定的能力, 如一般认知能力、思维方法的掌握、元认知以及高效的资源整合能力等; 在非智力因素方面, 基本心理需要的满足, 个性心理的健康发展等是创造力得以发挥的必要条件, 推而广之还包括:合理的社会支持、互动以及文化的包容等等。除了理论方面的整合, 本文还从实践的角度分析如何激活学生的动力系统, 重点分析了什么是兴趣以及如何激发个体的兴趣, 因为以兴趣爱好为核心的内部动机是自主性最高的动力来源。本文从理论(创造力培养的蝴蝶理论)与实践(创造力培养的兴趣激发)两个角度为创造力培养提供了支持。

关键词: BSI模型, 创造力培养的蝴蝶理论, 智力导入量, 兴趣理论, 失谐解困理论, 四向度幽默风格模型, 福流动态发展模型


Creativity is an interwoven system, encompassing individuals, groups, society, culture, etc. The cultivation of creativity should also be systematic. However, we must distinguish the priorities when it comes to creativity cultivation. Otherwise, we would be putting the cart before the horse. In this paper, we integrated some creativity-relevant theories to generate practical advice on the challenges of supporting creativity within the classroom. Based on previous research on creativity, we put forth the “Butterfly Theory of Nurturing Creativity” to give a bird’s eye view of nurturing creativity. In this theory, the core and premise of being creative are both to have creative impulses or creative dynamics (i.e., dynamic systems). We generalized the conditions supporting the dynamic systems into “two forewings” named capability and vitality (i.e., the supportive system). At the level of capability, creativity calls for general cognitive ability, multimethod enlightenment, attention to metacognition, and efficient knowledge information management. At the level of vitality, creative dynamics also rely on the satisfaction of basic psychological needs, the healthy development of personal traits, and reasonably supportive social interaction in an inclusively social and cultural environment. Besides, if an individual wants to fly freely in a creative life, he also needs “two hindwings” (conducting daily creative thinking and problem solving; forming creative habits and a creative personality) that should be constantly improved in everyday life to adjust the balance (i.e., the regulating system). The ‘two forewings’ mainly involve the essential prerequisites for developing human ability and vitality (necessary cognitive, non-cognitive, and socio-cultural conditions). In contrast, the ‘two hindwings’ mainly involve methods, habits, and beliefs related to creative problem solving and innovative personality formation. Whether two forewings or two hindwings, all factors are converged into the one core factor, the creative dynamics. Teachers cannot foster children’s creativity unless they can intrigue children’s creative impulses—no creative dynamics, no creative behavior. We argue that people who are creative show motivation to make novel and appropriate products in their domains of interest. The cultivation of creativity is not just to teach children specific creative methods but to teach them creatively by improving children’s creative impulses and making them more willing to invest their time and energy (creative dynamics) into innovative outcomes. Although education cannot directly change one’s creativity, it can influence their preferences, vitality, attitude, which are closely related to the creative dynamics toward being creative and concurrently encourage children to be engaged in creative activities. These will ultimately affect their future achievements. Above all, creativity cannot be taught unless teachers find ways to intrigue their students’ creative impulses. Intrinsic motivation, like interest, is the most excellent autonomous motivator. The key points of this paper are to find what the essence of interest or fun is and how to raise it. The nature of fun or humor is reasonable in a sense but beyond expectation (i.e., incongruity-resolution). Similarly, to make the process of creativity cultivation full of fun or humor, we need to design unexpected-apprehensible scenarios constantly,from them flows a host of unexpected consequences. These are the first step of effectively igniting children’s creative dynamics. In order to maintain the creativity-related flow experience, we need to make the well-designed challenging creative tasks match the students’ abilities as much as possible so that children can still in the flow channel, that is, in a good positive mood or optimal experience to improve creativity. Combining theory with practice, this paper also shows a general way to activate fun or interest in the classroom.

Key words: BSI model, the butterfly theory of nurturing creativity, intelligence current, fun theory, incongruent- resolution theory, the humor style model, the dynamics of flow model