ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

心理科学进展 ›› 2012, Vol. 20 ›› Issue (9): 1467-1478.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2012.01467

• 研究前沿 • 上一篇    下一篇



  1. 香港中文大学教育心理学系, 香港
  • 收稿日期:2011-11-04 出版日期:2012-09-15 发布日期:2012-09-15
  • 通讯作者: 张雷

Envy: A Social Emotion Characterized by Hostility Envy: A Social Emotion Characterized by Hostility

WU Bao-Pei;CHANG Lei   

  1. Department of Educational Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
  • Received:2011-11-04 Online:2012-09-15 Published:2012-09-15
  • Contact: CHANG Lei

摘要: 妒忌是个体因为意识到别人拥有自己所缺乏的优势时体验到的一种消极感受, 表现为自卑、敌意和怨恨的一种混合情绪, 包括特质和状态两种界定角度。相似性、自我相关是妒忌的近因, 资源竞争则是妒忌的远因, 前扣带皮层、腹侧纹状体和腹中侧前额叶是妒忌加工和识别的相关脑区。妒忌影响人们的身心健康、攻击行为、道德行为、幸灾乐祸、亲社会性以及业绩表现。未来研究可以在善意妒忌、内在机制、进化视角、文化差异等方面进一步扩展。

关键词: 妒忌, 嫉妒, 敌意, 社会情绪, 社会比较, 进化心理学

Abstract: Envy is an intense and painful emotion that is mixed with feelings of inferiority, hostility, and resentment often evoked by witnessing the possession and achievement of one’s own desired objects and goals by other individuals in a competitive relationship. Envy is both a trait and a state variable representing a stable disposition as well as a state of mind. Some of the proximate causes of envy include similarity with the involving competitors, self-relevance, perceived control and sense of injustice. From the perspective of evolutionary psychology, envy functions to heighten one’s awareness of potential competitors in competing for resources such as mates and status, and motivates the individual to take actions. The reason that the feeling of hostility usually accompanies envy may lie in the fact that a self-perception of deservedness or entitlement is the default response that motivates competition. Such brain regions as anterior cingulate cortex, ventral striatum, and ventromedial prefrontal lobe are particularly relevant to the processing envy. Envy influences physical and mental health leading to aggression, schadenfreude, as well as prosocial behavior. We discuss these and other causes and correlates of envy within the evolutionary and social psychological framework.

Key words: envy, jealousy, hostility, social emotion, social comparison, evolutionary psychology g