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    A review of research on psychological statistics in mainland China from 2001 to 2020
    WEN Zhonglin, FANG Jie, SHEN Jiaqi, TAN Yitian, LI Dingxin, MA Yiming
    2021, 29 (8):  1331-1344.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01331
    Abstract ( 47 )  
    A total of 213 articles on psychological statistical methods have been published in 11 journals of psychology in Mainland China from 2001 to 2020. There are mainly 10 areas attractive to researchers (sorted by the number of papers): structural equation models (SEM), test reliability, mediation effect, effect size and testing power, longitudinal study, moderation effect, exploratory factor analysis, latent class analysis, common method bias and hierarchical linear models.
    Research on structural equation models (with confirmatory factor analysis model as a special case) explore five major aspects: model fit evaluation, model estimation, item parceling, measurement invariance and the extensions of SEM. The last aspect includes exploratory structural equation modeling, factor mixture modeling, high-order factor modeling as well as bifactor modeling. Articles on exploratory factor analysis focus on factor extraction. Modern reliability analysis is inextricably linked with factor models, including three main topics: distinction between coefficient α and internal consistency or homogeneity, confidence interval estimation of composite reliability and homogeneity coefficient, and reliability of multilevel data and longitudinal data. Common method bias is also based on factor analysis and studied in three aspects: the relationship between common method bias and common method variance, the influence of common method bias, and the comparison of approaches for testing and controlling common method bias.
    Studies on mediation effects can be summarized in four topics: testing approaches and their comparison, mediation effect size, mediation effect testing for categorical variables, and the extensions of mediation models. The simple mediation model was extended to multilevel or multiple mediation models, moderated mediation models and mediated moderation models, as well as mediation models of longitudinal data. Articles on moderation effects mainly explore three issues: the development of latent interaction models from those with mean structure to those without mean structure, and the change from latent interaction models with product indicators to those without product indicators, as well as standardized estimates of latent moderating effect models.
    Articles on longitudinal data analysis fall into three main groups. The first is the development of models, which includes hierarchical linear models, latent growth models and its mixture models, piecewise growth models and its mixture models, etc. The second is the development of longitudinal data collecting methods, which include intensive longitudinal and accelerated longitudinal design. The last is missing data handing methods of longitudinal data. Hierarchical linear models were studied in three directions: aggregation adequacy testing used in aggregating the ratings of individual level to team level, hierarchical linear model of categorical variables as outcome variables (including multilevel binomial and multilevel multinomial logit models), hierarchical linear modeling of latent variables (i.e., multilevel structural equation model).
    Research on latent class models investigates three main topics: the use of latent class analysis, latent profile analysis and Taxometric techniques in probing latent class structure; precision of classification; regression mixture model (i.e., latent class model including covariates).
    Both effect size and testing power are closely associated with hypothesis testing, and studies in this area introduce types and characteristics of effect size, calculation of testing power, alternative approaches and their supplements for testing null hypothesis significance.
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    Conceptual Framework
    The susceptibility of compulsive traits and neural substrates of the prefrontal and anti-reward systems implicated in drug addiction
    YAN Wan-Sen, LIU Su-Jiao, ZHANG Ran-Ran, XU Peng
    2021, 29 (8):  1345-1357.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01345
    Abstract ( 37 )  
    Compulsivity is a core neuropsychological element connected to perseverations and persistent behaviors that are continued in the face of adverse consequences. It has been assumed that breakdown of the regulatory mechanism for compulsive behaviors in the brain might be a fundamental cause of drug addiction. Although addiction studies in recent decades have manifested a key role of the reward system (i.e., the meso-cortico-limbic circuitry) in addictive behaviors, little is known about the role of compulsivity per se and the neural substrates of the prefrontal cortex-anti-reward system circuitry implicated in the development of drug addiction. Particularly, there was lack of a systematic investigation of compulsivity linked to drug addiction, and family studies and convergent evidence from non-stimulants drugs (e.g., opiates) were rare. This project thus aimed to investigate the compulsivity profiles of heroin addicts and their healthy drug-free first-degree relatives (i.e., siblings), compared to healthy controls, from a family-risk perspective of addictive behaviors. A series of neurocognitive tasks, together with event-related potentials (ERPs) and neuroimaging techniques (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI), would be employed to assess compulsivity facets and the potential neurophysiological correlates among these participants, aiming to probe into the hereditary feasibility and neural substrates of compulsivity in drug addiction. Expectantly, this project might be conducive to future discernment of potential medical or non-medical intervention targets for addictive disorders. This project would be mainly consisted of three human studies: (1) The purpose of the Study 1 was to compare the neurocognitive profiles of compulsive characteristics between heroin addicts, their healthy drug-free first-degree relatives (i.e., siblings), and irrelevant healthy controls, using the Padua Inventory of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Symptoms (PI-WSUR), the Stop-Signal Task, the Stroop Task, the Intradimensional/Extradimensional set-shifting task (IDED), and the Probabilistic Reversal Learning Task (PRLT); (2) From the neurophysiological level, the Study 2 would test the associations of cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) correlates (e.g., N200, P300) with compulsivity measured by several neurocognitive tasks, including the Go/No Go Task and the Probabilistic Reversal Learning Task (PRLT), among the heroin addicts, their healthy drug-free first-degree relatives (i.e., siblings), and irrelevant healthy controls; and (3) The Study 3, combining neurocognitive tasks (i.e., the Go/No Go Task, the Probabilistic Reversal Learning Task, and the Analogic Social Exclusion Task) with structural and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), was targeted at exploring the neural substrates of the prefrontal and anti-reward systems involved in heroin addiction, such as the loops of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex-dorsal striatum and the medial orbitofrontal cortex-ventral striatum/central nucleus of the amygdala, between heroin addicts, their healthy drug-free first-degree relatives (i.e., siblings), and irrelevant healthy controls. Based on these studies, this project expected to improve the understandings of the susceptibility of compulsive traits and neural substrates of the prefrontal and anti-reward systems implicated in drug addiction. Generally, it was hypothesized that main neurocognitive deficits associated with compulsivity might be potential markers for heroin use disorder, that is, as the possible familial risk factors of compulsivity, these neurocognitive deficits would be increased not only in the heroin addicts, but also in their healthy drug-free first-degree relatives (i.e., siblings), compared with the irrelevant healthy controls. Furthermore, on the neurological bases, the abnormalities of certain neurophysiological components (e.g., N200、P300) tested by the event-related potentials (ERPs), would be expected to be highlighted both in the heroin addicts and their healthy drug-free first-degree relatives (i.e., siblings). Most importantly, the structural and functional neural abnormalities in the prefrontal and anti-reward systems, including the loops of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, the right inferior frontal gyrus to the dorsal striatum as well as the ventral prefrontal cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex to the central nucleus of the amygdala, which are mostly linked to cognitive control, stress responses and emotional control functions, might be involved in the poor performance of these compulsivity-related neurocognitive tasks (i.e., the Go/No Go Task, the Probabilistic Reversal Learning Task, and the Analogic Social Exclusion Task). Thus, this project would be of great help for detecting potential biological markers and intervention targets for addictive disorders.
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    The effect of repeated acute stress on aggressive behavior and its regulation mechanisms
    WU Lili, CHENG Gang, ZHANG Dajun
    2021, 29 (8):  1358-1370.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01358
    Abstract ( 44 )  
    In the context of the effect of acute stress on aggressive behavior, most studies on stress responses involve exposing participants to novel, one-time stressors; however, people are constantly exposed to similar stressors in everyday life multiple times. Compared with the response to one-time exposure to stressors, the ability to adapt to repeated stress has greater evolutionary utility as it preserves resources by relieving the response to non-life-threatening stress; however, little is known about the effect of repeated acute stress on aggressive behavior.
    In Study 1, we investigated the effect of repeated acute stress on aggressive behavior. Sixty healthy male college students were selected for this study. A modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G) was introduced as a standardized, economic, and efficient tool to simultaneously induce a psychobiological stress response in a group of subjects. All participants were exposed to the modified version of the TSST-G twice one week apart. The main characteristic of the stress response is the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and sympathetic adrenomedullary (SAM) system. The HPA axis responses were assessed by measuring salivary cortisol levels. The assessment of the SAM stress system during the experiment was conducted by monitoring its correlates—heart rate (HR), and emotional responses were assessed by measuring state anxiety. Following the modified version of the TSST-G, the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP) was adopted to induce and measure aggression. Subsequently, according to the social information processing model (SIP), we explored the influence mechanism of repeated acute stress on aggressive behavior. After each of the modified version of the TSST-G, participants completed a dot-probe task and a single-target implicit association test (ST-IAT).
    In Study 2, we further investigated the change in aggressive behavior after the regulation of repeated acute stress through internal channels. First, we investigated the change in aggressive behavior after regulating repeated acute stress by changing the frequency of repeated stress. Participants were exposed to the modified version of the TSST-G twice on consecutive afternoons. We then investigated the change in aggressive behavior after the regulation of repeated acute stress by reducing the intensity of repeated stress. The TSST-G control condition contains all factors except for the psychosocially stressful components—socio-evaluative threat and uncontrollability. Participants were exposed to the TSST-G control condition twice, at an interval of one week. Self-reported state anxiety, salivary cortisol levels, and heart rate were assessed during the protocol.
    In Study 3, we further investigated the change in aggressive behavior after the regulation of repeated acute stress through external channels. Specifically, using a double-blind, placebo (PL)-controlled between-subjects design, we explored whether intranasal oxytocin (IN-OT) can accelerate the habituation of individuals to repeated stress, thereby reducing aggressive behavior. Participants either took a nasal spray containing oxytocin or a placebo spray. Approximately 40 minutes after OT or PL administration, the participants completed the modified version of the TSST-G. Following the modified version of the TSST-G, the TAP was adopted to induce and measure aggression. Self-reported state anxiety, salivary cortisol levels, and heart rate were assessed during the protocol. The oxytocin receptor (OXTR) genotype is an important factor in IN-OT signal transduction and is also an important reason for individual differences in the behavioral effects of IN-OT. Thus, we further investigated the moderating role of oxytocin receptor genotyping in this process. Specifically, four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in OXTR rs53576, rs237887, rs237897, and rs7632287 were tested.
    These studies have great scientific and practical significance in providing further empirical evidence to support the phenomenon of HPA habituation and the “fight or flight” theory and reveal the effect of repeated stressors in everyday life on aggressive behavior and cognitive processing mechanisms. Additionally, the study of internal and external regulation will help accelerate an individual's habituation to repeated stress and attenuate the HPA axis responses.
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    Dance therapy: Explorations of a bottom-up intervention for schizophrenia
    LI Gujing, ZHANG Lirong, MI Li, HE Hui, LU Jing, LUO Cheng, YAO Dezhong
    2021, 29 (8):  1371-1380.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01371
    Abstract ( 42 )  
    Growing studies have reported the alternations of the cortico-basal ganglia-corticothalamic loops and insular networks, which belong to the sensorimotor system, might be responsible for the clinical symptoms and cognitive deficits in schizophrenes. However, the mainstream researches and clinical treatments have focused on the abnormity of high-leveled brain regions and paid little attention to the primary sensorimotor system in schizophrenes. Relevant studies have revealed the dance training could promote the cortico-basal ganglia-corticothalamic loops and insular networks both in function and structure, which would facilitate the higher brain functions. It indicates that the dance training might be an efficient treatment for the schizophrenia and the related cognitive deficits. Based on multimodal magnetic resonance imaging technology, this study focuses on the sensorimotor network of schizophrenia. It aims to reveal the neuro mechanism of the dance training effects on schizophrenia, in a way of integrative analyzation involving the image/clinical/cognitive data pre-and post- intervention.
    Study 1. Acquiring multimodal data of the schizophrenia participates. This research will recruit 3 groups (the training group, the control group and the healthy control group). We will collect the brain image data, psychology-behavior data and clinical data at the baseline in 3 groups. Then, this study will collect related data of the control group and the training group after dance training. Besides the demology data, this research uses resting fMRI, structural MRI and DTI to gain brain image data before and after dance training; uses Positive and Negative Syndrome(PANSS) and MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) to acquire the clinical and cognitive data before and after dance training.
    Study 2. Designing the dance training scheme. Based on previous researches, we design the dance scheme as 1 hour for each time, twice a week, lasting for 12 weeks. The scheme contains 3 stages, including the early stage (lasting for 3 weeks), the consolidation stage (lasting for 6 weeks) and the integrative stage(lasting for 3 weeks). In the early stage, the participants are asked to train the sense of kinesics, position, coordination, rhythm and so on. In the consolidation stage, the participants are required to learn 6-8 dance sessions, which emphasizes the movement simulation and mirroring. In the integrative stage, all the participants are conducted to feed back their dance movements both in accuracy and coordination. Besides they are asked to perform the whole dance segment independently finally.
    Study 3. The integrative analysis. We use 1×3 ANOVA to compare the baseline data in order to identify the disfunction network in schizophrenia. Then, through practicing 2×2 ANOVA in two schizophrenia groups before and after training, we try to identify the dance training effects on brain network plasticity in schizophrenia. Finally, based on results of 1×3 ANOVA and 2×2 ANOVA, we try to determine the training effects on disordered brain areas and the coordination mechanism of ordered areas.
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    Team emotional intelligence: A social network perspective
    ZHANG Hui-hua
    2021, 29 (8):  1381-1395.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01381
    Abstract ( 48 )  
    It is estimated that 60% of teams fail to meet their performance objectives, which presents an important and challenging research topic for the academic community. Emotional intelligence is a concept that includes understanding and managing one's own emotions as well as those of others in interpersonal relationships. Research has shown that team emotional intelligence plays an important role in a team's success in achieving goals. However, the extant research mainly examines individuals-based or team as a whole-based team emotional intelligence and there is no research result investigating team emotional intelligence based on the exchange of emotional intelligence behavior among members of the team. To address an important theoretical and empirical gap in the literature, we employed an approach of integrating team-member exchange theory and social network perspective to examine the emotional intelligence within the team at the dyadic level (two individuals in a one-on-one relationship, i.e., actor-target). Specifically, we focused on dyadic emotional intelligence as the smallest unit, which then is aggregated to create a team-level emotional intelligence network structure. We conducted an empirical study of the network composed of the emotional intelligence behavior exchange between individuals in one to one interactions. The research contributes to the literature in three aspects.
    First, a concept of dyad-based team emotional intelligence is proposed. We argue that the emotional intelligence behavior exchange at the dyadic level in the team can be summarized as the following four aspects: increasing positive energy, increasing negative energy, decreasing positive energy, and decreasing negative energy. Furthermore, we propose the idea of measuring team emotional intelligence by using the total amount of above emotional intelligence behavior exchanges at the dyadic level in the team (i.e., the density of positive behavior and the density of negative behavior) and the distribution pattern of those exchanges (i.e., the dispersion of positive behavior and the dispersion of negative behavior).
    Second, a process model of team emotional intelligence emergence based on the interplay between the positive emotional experience of individuals and the positive emotional atmosphere of the team is proposed. Specifically, on the one hand, we propose that the emotional intelligence ability as a resource input might influence the individual and team's emotional intelligence behavior expressions in the context of the team through the mediation of individual positive emotional experience at the individual-level and the positive emotional atmosphere at the team-level, separately. On the other hand, on the vertical interface, in addition to both the initial state of emotional intelligence ability as a resource and the resulting state of individual emotional intelligence behavior expressions vertically input from the individual to the team, the positive emotional atmosphere of the team activated by team emotional intelligence would top-down affect the positive emotional experience of the individual generated by emotional intelligence ability, and the positive emotional experience of the individual would also bottom-up affect the positive emotional atmosphere of the team. In this way, the initial individual emotional intelligence develops into a dyad-based team emotional intelligence (i.e., the total amount and the distribution pattern of emotional intelligence behavior exchanges at the dyadic level) through the bottom-up process.
    Third, the mechanisms through which team emotional intelligence impacts team outcomes (i.e., team task performance and team viability) are proposed. By developing an integrated model, we propose that the dyad-based team emotional intelligence might influence team outcomes by shaping two team processes: one is the team cognitive process (i.e., the ability of team knowledge integration), and the other is the emotional process of the team (i.e., collective affective commitment). Meanwhile, the shaping of the above team processes would be affected by the moderating variable of team task interdependence.
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    Research Reports
    The role of disappointment in inaction inertia
    LI Xiaoming, ZOU Shi, GAO Youming
    2021, 29 (8):  1396-1401.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01396
    Abstract ( 65 )  
    The present study sought to determine the role of disappointment in the “inaction inertia” effect: The phenomenon that “one is not likely to act on an attractive opportunity after having failed to take advantage of an even more attractive opportunity”. In terms of emotional causes, different researchers have argued for a causal role of regret for this effect (reluctance to accept a current opportunity represents an attempt to avoid the experienced or anticipated regret after missing an even more attractive opportunity), but it failed to explain the inaction inertia effect under the situations when the individual's failure to obtain a previous better opportunity was due to uncontrollable factors such as others or the outside world. The current study demonstrated that disappointment (i.e., anticipated disappointment) might play an important mediational role in the inaction inertia effect when uncontrollable factors account for bypassing a better opportunity, which may be an important supplement to regret explanation.
    Regret and disappointment are emotions that can be experienced in response to an unfavorable outcome of a decision. However, some regret and disappointment theorists argued that they differ with respect to the conditions under which they are felt, and how they affect decision making. They suggested that disappointment is the more general negative emotional response for unfavourable outcome, regret is experienced in cases where the disappointing outcome is attributed to the self, and the experience of disappointment can be more paralysing than that of regret and results in inertia. Totally, there is some theoretical support for the disappointment explanation of inaction inertia when the individual's missing of a previous better opportunity was due to uncontrollable factors, but the empirical evidence is missed. The present study aimed for a critical test of the disappointment explanation. Hence, two experiments did the following: Both disappointment and action likelihood were assessed to test whether factors that influenced disappointment also influenced action likelihood, and investigated whether the effects on action likelihood were mediated by disappointment. Experiment 1 focused uniquely on the escape from current experienced disappointment, and Experiment 2 further studied the avoidance of anticipated disappointment.
    Experiment 1 required participants to estimate their likelihood of becoming a member of a fitness club located 30 min away and the experienced disappointment as a function of the geographical location (5 or 25 minutes) of an earlier forsaken fitness club and the responsibility (high or low) of missing the nearer fitness club. Experiment 2 used the disappointment-version scenery in which whether an initial larger discount can be acquired depends on a lottery activity, and the difference between the price of an initial and a current computer (small difference or large difference) and two level of winning probability (high or low) were manipulated in Experiment 2.
    In the two experiments, the factor (Responsibility of missing a nearer fitness club in Experiment1) that did not influence disappointment had no significant effect on action likelihood, and the factors (Difference in attractiveness between an initial and a current opportunity in both experiments, and winning probability in Experiment 2) that influenced disappointment affected action likelihood. Experiment 2 further indicated that anticipated disappointment played a significant mediational role in inaction inertia. The current study introduced disappointment into this field for the first time, and demonstrated that disappointment (i.e., anticipated disappointment) plays an important role in inaction inertia when the freedom of choice and personal responsibility are reduced, which will help us understand the emotional mechanism of inaction inertia.
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    Influence of vocal attractiveness on decision-making in a two-person ultimatum game and a three-person ultimatum game
    SHANG Junchen, LIU Zhihui, WANG Xiaoyu, CHI Zhichao, LI Weijun
    2021, 29 (8):  1402-1409.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01402
    Abstract ( 35 )  
    Vocal attractiveness plays an important role in social interaction. Different levels of vocal attractiveness could convey different information. Previous studies found that the speakers with attractive voices got more positive social evaluation. This phenomenon is similar to the "beauty premium" which was reported by vast research about facial attractiveness. In addition, both attractive voices and attractive faces can activate the reward system of brain. Many studies revealed that face attractiveness can influence decision-making. For example, in the ultimatum game, attractive faces increased the acceptance ratio of offers compared with the unattractive-face condition. However, it is not clear whether vocal attractiveness can also impact decision-making. The present research adopted a two-person ultimatum game (Experiment 1) and a three-person ultimatum game (Experiment 2) to examine the effect of vocal attractiveness of a male proposer and the effect of vocal attractiveness of a powerless male third player on decision-making.
    32 male voices (16 attractive voices, 16 unattractive voices) were selected before the formal experiments as the stimuli. In Experiment 1, 50 participants (36 females, 14 males) were recruited to participate in a two-person ultimatum game. In each trial, a voice of the proposer was presented first. Then, the proposer's offer to split ¥10 between himself and the participant was displayed on the screen. As a responder, each participant had to decide whether to accept the offer. If the offer was accepted, the money would be divided as proposed. Otherwise, both the proposer and the participant got nothing. In Experiment 2, 40 participants were recruited (20 males, 20 females) to participate in a three-person ultimatum game, which included a proposer, a responder (the participant) and a powerless third player. A voice of a powerless third player was presented first. Then, an allocation of how to split ¥12 among the three players was shown on the screen. The participants had to decide whether to accept the offer after thoroughly thinking not only for themselves but also for the powerless third player. If the offer was accepted, the money would be divided as proposed. If not, all players got nothing.
    The results of Experiment 1 showed that the unfair offers from the proposers with attractive voices were more likely to be accepted, comparing with those from the proposers with unattractive voices. However, the acceptance ratio of fair offers was not affected by vocal attractiveness. The acceptance ratio of fair offers was greater than the acceptance ratio of unfair offers. Consistent with Experiment 1, the results of Experiment 2 showed the acceptance ratio of “fair/fair” offer was significantly higher than the other three offers. The acceptance ratio of “unfair/unfair” offer was significantly lower than the other three offers. There was no significant difference between the “fair/unfair” offers and the “unfair/fair” offers. More importantly, in the “unfair/fair” offer condition in which participants received a smaller allocation than the third player, the acceptance ratio was higher when the third player had an attractive-voice.
    In conclusion, vocal attractiveness of the proposers modulated the acceptance ratio of unfair offers in the two-person ultimatum game. Moreover, in the three-person ultimatum game, vocal attractiveness of a powerless third player modulated the acceptance ratio of offers in which the participants got less money than the third player, suggesting that attractive voice increased the participants' altruism towards the third player. Our findings provided evidence that the "beauty premium" phenomenon also exists in vocal attractiveness. It is easier for people with attractive voice to get economic reward in social interaction. Vocal attractiveness can modulate the participants' fairness consideration and reduce the participants' aversion to inequality.
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    Regular Articles
    Discriminating the concepts of goal and its influence on decision-making
    HE Jiamei, JIN Lei
    2021, 29 (8):  1410-1419.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01410
    Abstract ( 49 )  
    Decision-making is the process that individuals evaluate and make a choice among multiple alternatives, in order to maximize their possible benefits. Individuals usually think about and predict what may happen in the future and set reasonable goal to guide their decisions. The goal is not only the reason why the decision-maker makes their choice, but also the ideal result that the decision-maker anticipates to achieve.
    Individual decision making under the guidance of a goal involves two mental processes, such as setting a goal and accomplishing the subsequent decision task. Based on goal's content, motivational function, and other features, previous studies believe that the goal is a future result that individuals anticipate to achieve and it has motivational effects on their cognition and behavior. However, only one future result that individuals intended to achieve was discussed in previous researches. Usually, individuals want to attain multiple goals at the same time, potential conflict of interest among these future results might exist. So, in the first step, individuals have to make a choice among these future results that they wish to achieve at the same time. The one that is chosen would possess motivation power to arouse individuals' cognitive process and behavior. Therefore, goal is the winner of the competition for motivation. On the basis of the evaluation of their desirability and feasibility, specific future results are selected as the goal and endowed with motivation by the decision-maker.
    Behavior habits, personality traits, and life experience affect individuals' goal setting. For example, high construal level helps decision makers to recognize better their goal and focus their attention on decision scheme that is conducive to the goal's achievement. Among decision-makers with high trait self-control, a temptation has lower subjective value, compared with the goal. Individuals with high trait self-control would have less intention to approach the temptation and might experience fewer conflicts between the goal and the temptation. The asymmetric effect between temptation and goal caused by the successful experience in executing self-control has changed the value of the future results assigned by the decision-maker. The cues related to the temptation can activate the goal while they inhibit the temptation among individuals with high trait self-control.
    The goal can influence decision-making by changing the decision-maker's attitude and selective attention towards decision scheme in accomplishing subsequent decision tasks. In the process of achieving a goal, decision-makers are more likely to overestimate the positive emotions related to the goal. Therefore, positive anticipation would be endowed on the decision scheme that is benefit for the goal. The activated goal can drive selective attention and allocate attention resources to benefit the goal achievement. Moreover, selective attention increases the time duration that the decision-maker pays their attention on its corresponding decision scheme. It further helps the decision maker to improve its subjective value estimation.
    In the future, it is necessary to investigate how an unconscious goal weakens the effect that it has on negative consequences and how to measure the two mental processes directly.
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    Controllable empathy? The adjustability of empathy from a top-down view
    CAO Si-Qi, LIU Xun, WU Hai-Yan
    2021, 29 (8):  1420-1429.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01420
    Abstract ( 51 )  
    Empathy is our general ability to empathize with the emotional states of others. Studies have shown that empathy features automation and contextual dependence. However, the theoretical models and underlying neural mechanisms about empathy remain controversial. To meet real-world demands, researchers gradually shift their focus on the structure and function to the adjustability of empathy. Recently, it is indicated that the top-down psychological processes can play an important role in the adjustability of empathy, especially the goal of empathy and how to represent the value of the goal. A growing number of researchers recognize that empathy consists of three distinct but related processes (bottom-up emotional processes, top-down cognitive processes, and behavioral processes):1) affective empathy/experience sharing: the degree to which the emotional state matches the state of another; 2) cognitive empathy/mentalization/emotion identification: the mentalizing ability to recognize the emotional states of others; 3) empathic concern: internal motivation to improve the state of others. In recent years, some researchers have proposed that the top-down psychological process is related to the regulation of empathy, especially the representation of goals and the value trade-off between different goals significantly affect the generation and regulation of empathy. The forms of goal representation include: 1) high- and low-level goal. On the one hand, to prevent lower-level outcomes such as physical and mental fatigue, people tend to avoid empathizing with others. On the other hand, people are more likely to empathize with others when they pursue higher-level goals and positive outcomes such as social prestige. 2) long- and short-term goal. If empathy is regarded as a decision-making process with the attribute of time, time influences the manifestation of individual empathy by influencing the value representation of the goal in empathy. 3) Assuming dimensions of social meaningfulness. When empathizing with others, people may have a tendency toward an imaginary dimension that is regarded as socially meaningful, on which they are more likely to consider higher-level, long-term goals (morality, responsibility and obligation, self-concept, etc.) when making decisions. From the perspective of motivation, empathic motivation is a goal-oriented internal force that drives people towards or away from social connections. The two main types of goal-oriented empathic motivation include the opposite types of empathic motivation: approach motivation (altruism) and the avoidance motivation (apathy). The researchers show that targeted interventions can change the preferences and degrees of empathy. To sum up,the adjustability of empathy is discussed from a top-down perspective and the plasticity of empathy is emphasized. Studying empathy from the perspective of goal and motivation is crucial to understand the internal construction mechanism and external manifestation of empathy. Given goal influences the internal construction and external manifestation of empathy, future research should investigate empathy adjustability from a top-down perspective. In particular, the representation of goals and the trade-off between costs and benefits in goal-oriented empathy.
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    Affect spin and its impact on mental health
    ZHANG Shanshan, WANG Jingyi, LI Yuru
    2021, 29 (8):  1430-1437.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01430
    Abstract ( 42 )  
    Affect spin reflects the time-fluctuation characteristics of the individual. As non-cognitive personality that measures the intraindividual variability of core affect, affect spin is important for us to understand the individual difference in affect intravariability over time and its mental functions. Relative to affect flux, affect pulse, and other affect variability indicators within the individual, the main advantage of affect spin is that it constructs the position change trajectory in core affect space by using the method independent of reference dimension and experience intensity. And it focuses on temporal characteristics of the naturally occurring core affect state, rather than relies on a certain type of core affect dimension characteristics to explain affect variability.
    For the measurement, experience sampling method and day reconstruction method are generally adopted, and individuals assess their affect state in the present situation (or recall it) by constructing Affect Grid or performing adjective rating. The acquisition process and conversion method are relatively complicated in that people need to repeatedly track their daily core affect state, and affect spin can be representative as cross-time standard deviation of the vector angle of individual core affect space position within the evaluation period.
    Affect spin is thought to play a central role in the mental health such that having stable affect would strengthen people's sense of security and control, thereby enhancing the level of adjustment of their mental health. Instead, when people always change their affects, it is difficult for them to anticipate their lives, and might generate self-conflict. As a result, they may lower their expectations for the future, and furthermore weaken mental health. Based on Affective Events Theory and Dynamics Model of Affect, we suggest that the experience of negative-inducing events and its assessments lead to the individual affect spin, and psychological adjustment, psychological disorders, problem behaviors, etc. are the consequences of affect spin. However, some qualities of mental health, such as interpersonal relationship, are difficult to determine whether it is the cause or the result of affect spin. It is more likely that there is a bidirectional relationship between them. In short, the occurrence and development of affect spin reflect the nature of the process of affect's temporal dynamic variability on individuals' physical and mental health, that is, the most fundamental reason that affect spin influences mental health lies in the affect destruction caused by negative events in life.
    However, the current empirical research about the effect of affect spin on mental health is still very limited. In the future, it is highly suggested to explore the process mechanism of affect spin on mental health. Attention should also be paid to investigate the joint mechanism of affect variability and its stability indicators on mental health function. At the same time, it should be strengthened to examine the influencing process of state affect spin on the individual's mental health function, especially the dynamic relationship mechanism with the stability of interpersonal relationship.
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    The structural and functional changes of the insula in people with addiction
    HE Xinyu, HE Qinghua
    2021, 29 (8):  1438-1449.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01438
    Abstract ( 57 )  
    Located deep in the lateral sulcus, the insula is associated with a variety of psychological functions such as emotions and interoception. As an important nerve center of the interoception, the insula plays a critical role in the formation, maintenance, withdrawal and relapse of addiction.
    The function and structure of the insula show distinctive heterogeneity and anterior-posterior distribution. The differentiation of the anterior and posterior insula is mainly reflected in the posterior insula being more responsible for perceptual activities such as sensory motor, pain and language processing, while the anterior insula is more involved in cognitive and executive functions.
    In addicted individuals, the structure of the insula has changed, most of the findings point to a decrease in the volume and density of the insula gray matter, and this change is correlates with the length of time the addictive substance was used. Addiction has also led to changes in salience network function and connectivity between insula and executive function areas. In various types of addiction, the insula-centric network function and its functional connection are generally weakened.
    Therefore, how stimulations in the insula could lead to changes in addictive behaviors becomes the focus of ongoing research. A large number of studies have shown that insula is a highly promising target area for intervention in addiction. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are both effective methods of brain stimulation. Currently, published human experience with DBS for drug addiction is limited to a few promising case series or case reports, and further animal and human studies are needed to determine the role of DBS in drug addiction treatment. High-frequency rTMs targeting insula regions have been beneficial for craving associated with nicotine use disorder, but the available evidence does not adequately support the effectiveness of rTMs in the treatment of alcoholism. In terms of behavioral addiction, although there are no stimulation studies that target the insula, it is worthwhile to explore the cognitive and neurophysiological characteristics unique to behavioral addiction, and to establish separate brain stimulation methods targeting the areas related to behavioral addiction. Brain stimulation technology is progressing, which also allows researchers to use the insula as the direction of treatment of addiction, to provide promising treatment results for addicts.
    Although most studies have shown a decrease in the volume and density of the insula gray matter and the function of the network centered on the insula and its functional connections were generally weakened, some studies have shown the opposite conclusion. On the one hand, the contradictory results of the insula may be related to the functional and structural heterogeneity of the insula itself, the different sub-regions of the insula have different functions and participate in different functional networks, and some of the above conclusions do not distinguish the sub-regions of the insula. On the other hand, the insula is a typical region with dynamic functional changes, and changes in the interoceptive state (such as whether the patient is in a state of withdrawal or craving) are critical to the functional response of the insula. In addition, the commonalities and characteristics of different addictions also need to be considered. A large number of studies have shown that long-term adaptive changes in the nervous system under the action of addictive drugs are the basis for the formation of substance addiction behavior. Compared with the addictive behavior of substance dependence, behavioral addiction is not affected by any intake of substances, so the formation of its dependence state is mainly due to psychological mechanisms. Even different substance addictions have different characteristics. Therefore, future research should further investigate the specific role of insula in addiction through fine segmentation and a combination of multiple methods, and explore the commonalities and characteristics of different types of addiction in order to better carry out brain-based addiction intervention.
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    How to overcome boundary conditions: Implications from the molecular mechanism of memory strength as a constraint on destabilization
    ZHU Junping
    2021, 29 (8):  1450-1461.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01450
    Abstract ( 58 )  
    Retrieval of long-term memories can induce a destabilization process that returns them into a labile state, and then the labile state will be followed by a reconsolidation process that helps memories to restabilize and maintain their relevance. The reconsolidation process can be interfered by electroconvulsive shock, pharmacological treatment or behavioral training to update the original memories. Disrupting memory reconsolidation could become an approach tackling maladaptive memory. However, some boundary conditions such as training strength and memory age may prevent memory destabilization. Memory destabilization is the prerequisite for reconsolidation to occur. Therefore, they make reconsolidation-based interventions invalid. This may be taken as a potential stumbling block for reconsolidation-based interventions: in clinical practice, old and strong maladaptive memories are the norm rather than the exception. Therefore, overcoming the boundary conditions has become an urgent problem, and it is also one of the hotspots in the field of reconsolidation in recent years. It is because boundary conditions hinder the memory destabilization that memory can't experience reconsolidation. Therefore, this paper first summarized and analyzed the molecules involved in memory destabilization and their respective roles in memory destabilization. Among the boundary conditions, memory strength is the most studied. Therefore, combining the molecules of memory destabilization and a series of experimental evidences about the effect of memory strength on memory reconsolidation, we inferred that the molecular path of memory strength hindering memory destabilization may be: as the memory strength increases, the noradrenergic projection from locus coeruleus to amygdala will be enhanced, and then the expression levels of NR2B and GluA2 in basolateral amygdala, the key molecules of memory destabilization, will be changed through this projection, and thus memory destabilization will be inhibited. Boundary conditions can affect the activities of key molecules involved in memory destabilization, thus hindering memory reconsolidation. This suggests that, in turn, pharmacological manipulation of the molecules involved in memory destabilization before memory activation can overcome the barrier of memory destabilization caused by the boundary conditions formed during memory coding. Previous animal experiments have shown that NMDAR, one of the key molecules involved in memory destabilization, was pharmacologically regulated before memory activation, which successfully promoted memory destabilization and overcome the boundary conditions. It can be seen that the boundary conditions are not absolute. All the molecules involved in memory destabilization are expected to be the target molecules to overcome the boundary conditions. The role of other molecules involved in memory destabilization, except NMDAR, in overcoming the boundary conditions is still unknown and needs to be further explored. The effect of these molecules in overcoming the boundary conditions may be different, and the clinical application potential is also different, which requires a lot of comparative experiments to select the best target molecules. Future research can further explore more and better methods to promote memory destabilization and overcome boundary conditions, and enhance the clinical application potential of reconsolidation-based interventions.
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    The influence of peers on adolescents' risk-taking behavior and its mechanism
    ZHANG Weiwei, ZHU Liqi
    2021, 29 (8):  1462-1471.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01462
    Abstract ( 39 )  
    Puberty is a unique period during which individuals experience rapid growth in social, emotional and cognitive aspects, yet remain immature. Compared with adults, adolescents are more inclined to engage in risky or reckless behaviors that are detrimental to their physical and mental health, such as smoking, alcohol abuse, and dangerous driving. At the same time, from childhood to adolescence, the influence of parents on adolescents gradually weakens, while the influence of peers gradually increases. Regarding the question of how adolescents' adventurous behavior is affected by their peers, the results of previous empirical studies are mixed. In addition, the mechanism of this influence, which is a more crucial research question, remains unknown. From the perspectives of personal characteristics and social interaction, this paper reviews the results of previous studies and finds facilitating effect of peers on adolescents' risk-taking behaviors. Specifically, when adolescents complete a risk-taking task, being watched by a peer can increase the adolescent's risk-taking behavior, even when the peers and the participants are not at the same place. When the adolescent and the peer are in the same room, and the peer can communicate with them or even give advice during the task, peers can play an even stronger role in facilitating the adolescent's risk-taking behavior. Compared with the influence from adults, adolescents are particularly sensitive to the influence from their peers. In addition, personal traits (such as resistance to peer influence and gender) and situational factors (such as the certainty of situation: vague/explicit, and different forms of peer participation: cooperation/competition) play a moderate role. The influence of peers on adolescents' risk-taking behavior and its underlying mechanisms can be explained from multiple aspects, including psychology, neurology, gene, society and culture. From the psychological aspect, this influence stems from the needs of adolescents to seek peers' recognition and belonging, as well as learn from peers (i.e., social learning). From the aspect of neural mechanism, this influence comes from the interaction between cognitive control network and stimulus processing system: when adolescents make decisions involving risks in the presence of a real or virtual companion, activation of the cognitive control network decreases, and that of the reward system increases. From the genetic perspective, the effect may be due to susceptibility of specific genes. For instance, 5-HTTLPR short allele carriers are more sensitive to peer influence. From the social and cultural aspect, while the influence of peers on risk-taking behavior has a certain generality, the degree of the influence differs in different cultural contexts. For example, compared with white adolescents, risk-taking behaviors of non-white adolescents are more likely to be influenced by peers. In collectivist culture, adolescents' smoking behavior is more positively correlated with that of their peers. Future research should further explore the influence of peers on adolescents' risk-taking behavior from the perspectives of development, cultural psychology and construction of complex model network.
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    Negative exchange and mental health of the elderly
    XU Lujie, ZHANG Zhen
    2021, 29 (8):  1472-1483.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01472
    Abstract ( 51 )  
    Social exchange is one of the important factors affecting the mental health of the elderly. A large number of literatures have pointed out that positive exchanges support mental health, however, the adverse effects of negative exchanges and its psychological mechanisms remain to be further examined. Based on extant literature, the article reviews and summarizes the effect of negative exchange on mental health of the elderly from the following aspects: research status, relevant mechanisms, theoretical explanations, coping strategy, and future direction.
    Firstly, this paper discusses the adverse influence of negative exchanges on mental health from three different dimensions: type, source and intensity. Specifically, some basic types of negative exchanges, such as social isolation, widowhood and divorce could damage the mental health of the elderly. The influence of negative exchanges from different sources on the mental health of the elderly is different. For example, the influence from spouse and children is stronger, while the influence from friends and other immediate family members is weaker. The long-term and high-intensity negative exchanges will have a sustained adverse impact on mental health.
    Secondly, we review the mechanisms of effect of negative exchanges on mental health. Negative exchanges can not only directly affect mental health, but also indirectly affect mental health through other factors, such as individual perception of social exchanges, self-esteem and so on. In addition, we point out that gender, marital status and education can moderate the relationship between negative exchanges and mental health. Specifically, when negative exchanges occur within the family, women will suffer more than men; when outside the family, the psychological pressure of women will be lower than that of men. In the face of emotional setbacks, the elderly with a partner suffers more psychological trauma; when facing economic difficulties or social exclusion, the loneliness of the elderly without a partner is stronger. The level of education will weaken the negative link between negative exchanges and mental health, that is to say, individuals with higher level of education will be less affected when they encounter negative exchanges.
    Thirdly, this article attempts to explain the relevant mechanisms of negative exchanges on mental health from four theoretical perspectives, and points out the differences in the explanation mechanism and application scope of these theories. Based on the socioemotional selectivity theory, negative exchanges could hinder the smooth realization of the emotional goals of the elderly, and then damage their mental health. This theory is mainly applicable to the elderly. According to the strength and vulnerability integration theory, negative exchanges can lead to continuous tension of physiological state and reduce the sense of well-being. This theory is applicable to high-intensity or continuous negative exchanges. In the light of the social exchange theory, the weak side in negative exchanges is relatively passive, which leads to lower self-esteem and poor mental health. This theory is applicable to the weak side in social exchanges. Through the theory of looking-glass self, the negative atmosphere in the process of negative exchanges will be internalized into the negative cognition of the individual, which will lead to the deterioration of mental health. Extant literatures pointed out that “forgiveness” and “cognitive distancing” may be effective strategies to alleviate the negative effects of negative exchanges.
    Finally, the article points out limitations of extant researches and research direction in future. Although the above theories can explain the adverse effects of negative exchanges, their explanatory power remains to be verified, and special theories of negative exchanges have yet to be put forward. At the same time, it is necessary to find practical intervention means to reduce the harm of negative exchanges. Researchers also need to pay attention to the differences in the roles of negative exchanges in different situations, such as cultural background, online communication on the internet and exchanges nested in social networks.
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    “Advantages and disadvantages” of individual proactive behavior in organizations
    LI Lingling, HUANG Gui
    2021, 29 (8):  1484-1496.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01484
    Abstract ( 148 )  
    Individual proactive behavior refers to the future-oriented and change-oriented work behavior, which is made actively by individuals in organizations. In the changing and uncertain organizational environment, whether an organization has appropriate individual proactive behavior determines whether the organization can survive and develop better. But does that mean that proactive behavior always has a positive impact on the organization? Scholars have given similar answers from different perspectives, that is, whether at the individual level or the organizational situation level, individual proactive behavior has advantages and disadvantages in the results. Specifically speaking: (1) On the themes of the researches, most studies found that individual proactive behavior could bring positive results, while some scholars also noticed the cost of individual proactive behavior; (2) From the perspectives of the analyses, the positive and negative effects of individual proactive behavior on individuals and organization situations were mainly included; (3) In terms of the theoretical mechanisms, the “advantages and disadvantages” due to individual proactive behavior could find answer in dominance complementarity theory, self-determination theory, attribution theory.
    Although the positive and negative effects of individual proactive behavior have attracted the attention of scholars, and some preliminary research attempts have been made on its principles, there is still a lack of integration. Such as dominance complementarity theory, self-determination theory, attribution theory, etc., explained the positive and negative effects of different characteristics of leaders or employees on individual proactive behavior results from different theoretical perspectives. In fact, just as “a coin has both positive and negative sides”, the three factors that affect the results of individual proactive behavior, namely, different forms of individual proactive behavior, the characteristics of proactive actors and observers and various aspects of the situation, also have inherent two sides. They just cover the two sides of the characteristics of leaders or employees explained by the previous three theories, which are relatively more comprehensive and can reveal the internal mechanism of the advantages and disadvantages of individual proactive behavior to a certain extent.
    Therefore, this study looks at proactive behavior from the perspective of contradictory duality, and points out that the duality of the factors affecting the outcome of proactive behavior is the main reason for the “advantages and disadvantages” effects of individual proactive behavior. In the long run, the two sides of the contradiction can partially or conditionally transform each other. From the perspective of organizational management, understanding how to deal with the inherent dual contradiction of individual proactive behavior and effectively manage it should also be included in the theoretical framework. This study proposes that future research can integrate the following theories from the perspective of two sides of contradiction:(1) Starting from the types of individual proactive behavior itself, its internal mechanism will be revealed, based on the perspective of wise proactivity theory; (2) From the perspective of the two sides of characteristics of actors or observers of individual proactive behavior, the mechanism behind it will be discussed empirically; (3) Dynamic researches will be conducted from the perspective of the development of the subjective and objective characteristics of proactive behavior. By revealing the dynamic and static internal mechanism of the “advantages and disadvantages” effects of proactive behavior, we hope to further develop the “advantages” side of individual proactive behavior, avoid its “disadvantages” side, especially the interference of subjective factors, complete the research framework of proactive behavior, and deepen the regular understanding of the result effects of proactive behavior.
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    The influence of selfie related behavior in social media on body image
    GU Xiao, WANG Yuhui, LEI Li
    2021, 29 (8):  1497-1507.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01497
    Abstract ( 40 )  
    Social media has now become a part of the social life, in which selfie is a kind of common information of personal appearance oriented by appearance on social media. It is found that the selfie related behaviors are closely associated with users' body image. Such behaviors on social media include selfie investment, selfie manipulation, selfie posting, selfie viewing, and selfie feedback investment. Since individuals are both publishers and receivers of information on social media, selfie investment, selfie manipulation and selfie posting can be regarded as publishers' initiative selfie behavior, while selfie viewing and selfie feedback investment fall into the category of receivers' reactive selfie behavior.
    This study summarizes how selfie related behaviors would affect body image from two perspectives: initiative and reactive behaviors. It finds out that the reactive behaviors could generally do harm to body image, while the relationship between initiative behaviors and body image is relatively complex. To be specific, preparations before posting selfies (including selfie investment and selfie editing) would deliver negative influence on body image; meanwhile, as shown in existing researches, the effect of posting selfies on body image is not constant. Therefore, further studies are required to clarify the relationship between posting selfies and body image and find out moderating factors.
    The objectification theory and social comparison theory provide some theoretic perspectives to explain how selfie related behaviors affect body image. In this process, body surveillance, standard internalization and appearance comparison are involved. Although the continuity of different selfie related behaviors is relatively obscure, behaviors in different categories would influence body image in certain paths, which would change with individuals' identities as an information publisher or receiver. When an individual act as a publisher, he or she would constantly monitor and adjust his or her body from the perspective of spectators, thus strengthening body surveillance. On the other hand, when an individual act as a receiver, he or she would learn standards of beauty from the media and peers and then internalize them gradually. Meanwhile, social comparison runs through the whole process: individuals would compare themselves with the selfie images posted by others when they browse social media, present themselves online by posting selfies, or view the feedback on their posted selfies. Since individuals are usually intended to show their best aspects to the audience online, the selfies posted are generally edited and enhanced. As a result, upward social comparison would be naturally elicited afterward. What is more, the relationships between selfie related behaviors and body image as well as the process would be influenced by intrapersonal, interpersonal and environmental factors, such as gender, age, media literacy, etc.
    Research on the relationships between selfie behaviors and body image can be expanded and deepened in the future from the following aspects; firstly, to widen the scope of research groups to explore the similarities and differences in the problems faced by different groups; secondly, to optimize research designs, so as to explore the relationship between selfie related behaviors and how they develop with body image; thirdly, to identify the subtle differences between selfie behaviors, while exploring different effects of various selfie related behaviors on body image; fourthly, to focus on the moderating variables which may affect the relationships between initiative and reactive selfies and body image; and fifthly, to take environmental variables into account, so as to explore the similarities and differences of the relationships between selfie behaviors and body image in different social media environments. Last but not the least, it is necessary to summarize the relevant phenomena to study the self-construction process in cyberspace, and discuss it from a theoretical perspective in order to gain more insight.
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    The development of empirical paradigms and their theoretical values in moral dilemma research
    LIU Chuanjun, LIAO Jiangqun
    2021, 29 (8):  1508-1520.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01508
    Abstract ( 36 )  
    Moral dilemma is a type of decision-making situation in which moral principles are in conflict. Under this condition, a decision maker may violate certain moral principles whether he or she endorses or rejects a behavior proposed for a given situation. As research on this topic has advanced, scholars have developed a variety of research paradigms of moral dilemmas. Thus, a systematic analysis of the development process of moral dilemma research paradigms is needed. Such work would not only provide a more accurate methodological understanding of moral dilemma research but would also provide a methodological reference for research on similar psychological conflicts. This paper systematically described the advantages and disadvantages and theoretical value of four current research paradigms in the study of moral dilemma: the classic dilemma (CD) paradigm; process dissociation (PD) paradigm; the consequences, norms, and generalized inaction/action preferences (CNI) model; and the consequences sensitivity, overall action/inaction preferences and norms sensitivity (CAN) algorithm. CD paradigm makes the utilitarianism principle of maximizing the consequences of conflict with the deontology principle of pursuing the normative behavior itself, making it possible to explore moral principle preferences in moral choices. However, it cannot independently measure preference for the utilitarianism principle and preference for the deontology principle, which makes the interpretation of results ambiguous. Based on this paradigm, PD paradigm considers both utilitarianism and deontology principles against a proposed behavior and independently measures these preferences in moral decision-making. PD paradigm has helped resolve many research controversies. However, it does not completely dissociate moral decision preferences. For example, it cannot demonstrate the inclination to generally endorse/refuse a behavior while not considering any moral principles. Particularly, it confounds the inclination to generally refuse behavior proposals while not considering any moral principles in the preference of deontology principle. In this way, it systematically overestimates deontology preference. To overcome this limitation, the CNI model applies a multinomial processing tree model with a factorial design of moral scenarios (norm: prescriptive/proscriptive × consequences: benefits greater/smaller than costs), so that the preferences of generalized action/inaction irrespective of moral principles can be estimated. However, it presupposes that the agent sequentially considers norms—consequences—generalized inaction/action preferences, which results in an overestimation of norms sensitivity and makes the generalized inaction/action preferences untenable. To address this important limitation, CAN applies a new algebraic method to estimate norms sensitivity, consequences sensitivity, and overall action/inaction preferences in moral decision-making. In the development of these four paradigms, later ones resolved the limitations of former ones. Different psychological processes are gradually uncovered with new developed paradigms. The development of research paradigms reveals some directions for future research. First, some controversies in moral decision studies might be due to fundamental limitations of earlier research paradigms. CNI and CAN can be used to solve these controversies. Second, the moral theories based on early research paradigms should be reevaluated using the new paradigms, to verify the tenability of these theories. Third, these research paradigms could be applied to explore other psychological conflicts. In sum, this paper systematically reviewed the development procedure of the methodological paradigms in moral decision-making. It provided a methodological reference for moral dilemma studies and related research.
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