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ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

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    Conceptual Framework
    Capacity and maintenance mechanism of vibrotactile working memory
    WANG Chundi, WANG Da-hui
    2021, 29 (7):  1141-1148.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01141
    Abstract ( 49 )  
    Working memory can preserve multiple items at one time with a limited capacity is a key issue in working memory research. While visual and verbal domains of working memory are able to store multiple items, we know little about vibrotactile working memory capacity of frequency. Vibrotactile stimulus and visual stimulus have different neural coding mechanisms, and vibrotactile frequency is analogy, one- dimensional and parametric information generated by somatic sensation. Therefore, it is necessary to study the capacity of vibrotactile working memory, and reveal its cognitive and neural mechanism. First of all, different modes of vibratory stimulus presentation and response were used to determine the size of the vibrotactile working memory capacity and its cognitive mechanism. Then using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we will investigate the neural mechanism of maintenance of vibrotactile working memory. The study of vibrotactile parametric working memory is an important part of working memory model, which will contribute to our understanding of working memory system and lay a foundation for cross-modalities research of visual, auditory and tactile information.
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    When will employees report their errors? A perspective from secret revealing framework
    ZHANG Kaili, YIN Kui, TANG Ningyu
    2021, 29 (7):  1149-1162.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01149
    Abstract ( 34 )  
    Errors are not rare in organizations. However, error detection as the initial and key step of error correction has received limited attention. Focusing on employees' proactive error reporting behavior, this study attempts to examine factors that contribute to employees' error reporting behavior. Drawing upon the secret revealing framework, we propose that two error characteristics error severity and error visibility, have positive relationships with employees' anxiety, rumination, and felt obligation to report, all three of which have positive relationships with error reporting. Thus, anxiety, rumination, and felt obligation mediate the positive relationships between error characteristics and error reporting. Employees' personal characteristics, leadership behavior, and team climate were further proposed to moderate the relationships between error characteristics and employees' anxiety, rumination, and felt obligation to report as well as the indirect relationships between error characteristics and error reporting behavior via anxiety, rumination, and felt obligation to report.
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    Meta-Analysis
    EMMN varies with deviant-standard stimulus pair type and emotion type: Evidence from a meta-analysis study
    ZENG Xianqing, XU Bing, SUN Bo, YE Jiantong, FU Shimin
    2021, 29 (7):  1163-1178.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01163
    Abstract ( 33 )  
    The automatic detection of facial emotion changes is crucial for survival. Numerous studies using event-related potential (ERP) technique have found that the amplitude of emotion-related visual mismatch negativity (EMMN) could be used to test the automatic processing of facial emotion. Previous studies suggested that deviant - standard stimulus (D-S) pair (different/same) and emotion type (negative/non- negative) might modulate the EMMN effect, however, the evidence so far was mixed. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to analyze the findings of 35 studies (involving 721 healthy participants) on EMMN. Results showed that: (1) EMMN effects emerged at both the early- (0~200 ms) and late- (200~400 ms) stages, demonstrating that infrequently presented deviant stimulus elicited more negative ERPs at both the early- and late-stages. This suggests that EMMN reflects the probability effect of early- and late- stages emotion-related ERP components; (2) the type of D-S pair moderated the EMMN effect at the early- but not the late-stages. Specifically, the EMMN effect of different D-S pairs was significantly larger than that of the same D-S pairs at the early-stage; (3) in the studies of same D-S pairs, the evidence between equiprobable and non-equiprobable paradigm showed no significant differences in EMMN at both stages; (4) a negative bias was found in both early and late EMMN, i.e., the EMMN elicited by the angry, fearful, angry faces was significantly larger than that of happy faces. These results indicate that the EMMN effect is affected by experimental manipulations such as D-S pair type and emotion type.
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    The relationship between rejection sensitivity and borderline personality features: A meta-analysis
    ZHANG Wen, HU Na, DING Xuechen, LI Junyi
    2021, 29 (7):  1179-1194.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01179
    Abstract ( 52 )  
    Rejection sensitivity (RS) refers to the cognitive-affective processing disposition to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and intensely react to cues of interpersonal rejection. The developmental model of rejection sensitivity suggests that rejection experience is a disadvantaged environment during the growth process of individuals with borderline personality disorder. Therefore, individuals with higher borderline personality features are more inclined to perceive rejection and exclusion. However, findings of previous empirical studies regarding the relationship between borderline personality features and rejection sensitivity are mixed. The current meta-analysis aimed at integrating the results of existing research and examine possible moderators. Fifty original journal articles that met the inclusion/exclusion requirements were included, including 84 effect sizes, and 7, 400 participants. The homogeneity test indicated heterogeneity of effect sizes. Therefore, we used subgroup analysis and meta-regression to explore how different types of study design, source of the sample, sample type, indices of borderline personality feature, and type of rejection sensitivity measurement affect this relationship. The results revealed that (1) the relationship between RS and borderline personality features was the strongest in the subgroup of the cross-sectional design, non-European and American samples, mixed subject samples, overall borderline personality feature, and rejection sensitivity measured by questionnaires; (2) participants' age and the proportion of female participants did not moderate this relationship This is the first meta-analysis to systematically explore the relationship between rejection sensitivity and borderline personality features, and the underlying moderators, which will advance research in this field.
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    A meta-analysis of the relationship between the Dark Triad and aggressive behaviors
    ZHU Yalin, JIN Cancan
    2021, 29 (7):  1195-1209.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01195
    Abstract ( 46 )  
    This meta-analysis was used to explore the relationship between the Dark Triad and aggressive behaviors. This study included 87 quantitative researches, 90 independent samples, and 41, 273 subjects. The results suggested that there were positive correlation between the Dark Triad and aggressive behaviors (r = 0.338~0.405), and the correlation intensity between narcissism and aggressive behaviors was significantly lower than that of Machiavellianism and Psychopathy. The relationship between the Dark Triad and aggressive behaviors was affected by many factors, such as culture, gender, and the types of aggression. The discussion implied that narcissism is quite different from Machiavellianism and Psychopathy, and the following researches can further explore the Dark Triad in combination with oriental culture.
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    Research Reports
    Continuum effect in assimilation process of facial attractiveness
    HOU Wenxia, TIAN Xinran, LIU Lizhi, YI Bing, OU Yuxiao, CEHN Wenfeng, SHANG Junchen
    2021, 29 (7):  1210-1215.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01210
    Abstract ( 43 )  
    Previous research suggested that the attractiveness rating of a face tends to be similar to the attractiveness of its surrounding faces in the context, resulting in an assimilation effect. However, these results were usually based on the comparison among ratings of the target faces under different attractiveness contexts, without considering the attractiveness rating of the target face in isolation, and might lead to incorrect conclusion on the contextual influence on target evaluation. This study investigated the influence of duration and difference in attractiveness rating between the target and the context faces on the rating of target face. The assimilation effect was measured by taking mean rating of the same face in isolation as a reference value. The results found that attractiveness rating of the target face was similar to the attractiveness of its surrounding face in the context, and the differences between target and context faces led to a continuum effect in assimilation process, i.e., the more different in attractiveness rating between the target and the faces in the context, the smaller in the effect size of an assimilation was observed.
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    Regular Articles
    Attention bias to faces in infants and toddlers: Inborn predispositions and developmental changes
    JING Wei, ZHANG Jie, FU Jinxia, TIAN Lin, ZHAO Wei
    2021, 29 (7):  1216-1230.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01216
    Abstract ( 47 )  
    Typically developing individuals not only show an inborn predisposition to pay attention to faces from birth, but also present a stable attention bias to faces in different developmental stages and situations. There remains a theoretical divergence on the underlying mechanism of this innate predisposition of facial attention between the sub-cortical face template and the proto-organization of the visual cortex. However, the neural basis of the postnatal development of this mechanism is generally considered to be the preferential selective response of the face-selective area that gradually forms with the accumulation of facial visual experiences. However, infants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may suffer from insufficient input of face visual experience due to impaired perception and attention or the lack of social motivation, which may hinder the formation of the face-selective area. Studies have confirmed that infants with ASD have an initial predisposition to pay attention to faces, but gradually deviate from the normal track during the critical period of facial cortex development, showing an obvious impairment of facial attention at the end of infancy. In future research, we should explore the origin of the congenital predisposition of facial attention in neonates by using genetic methods and near-infrared brain imaging technology, and systematically investigate the influence of perceptual and social characteristics on the development track of face attention in high-risk infants with ASD to identify the potential mechanism responsible for facial attention impairment.
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    Auditory temporal processing deficits in developmental dyslexia
    WANG Runzhou, BI Hongyan
    2021, 29 (7):  1231-1238.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01231
    Abstract ( 42 )  
    Developmental dyslexia is a neurological disorder characterized by a specific deficit in reading, despite adequate intelligence and socioeconomic opportunity. A large number of studies have revealed that dyslexics usually exhibit impaired auditory temporal processing. At the behavioral level, dyslexics struggle to discriminate the sequence of rapid and successive stimuli as well as dynamical temporal characteristics. At the neural level, dyslexics evoke weaker mismatch negativity (MMN) and have abnormal neural synchronization. These deficits have been found in the processing of both verbal and non-verbal stimuli, suggesting that such deficits are not specific to speech processing. Further studies are needed to elucidate the following questions: 1) the temporal windows in which auditory temporal processing deficits occur in dyslexia, and how will they change with age; 2) what is the neural time course of auditory temporal processing deficits in dyslexia; 3) whether auditory temporal processing deficits are core causes of dyslexia.
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    The neural mechanisms of developmental motor disorders in children with autism spectrum disorder
    WANG Lin, WANG Zhidan, WANG Hongjing
    2021, 29 (7):  1239-1250.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01239
    Abstract ( 35 )  
    Developmental motor disorders are the common feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Through a systematic review of the neuroscience literature, it is found that the alteration in the concentration of GABA and of serotonin and the abnormal expression of GABA-related protein and of shank protein led to not only the defects of the development of the central nervous system but also the synaptic excitation/ inhibition imbalance, thus in turn resulting in the changes of the functional connectivity between cerebellum and motor cortex in children with ASD. The abnormalities in the structure of the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and corpus callosum had a negative impact on the whole-brain connectivity in children with ASD. The disorders in neurobiochemical mechanisms and the abnormalities of brain structure together triggered abnormal brain function of children with ASD, which ultimately resulted in developmental motor disorders. In addition, the common neural basis shared by the developmental motor disorders and the core symptoms of ASD mainly included the mirror neuron dysfunction, the abnormalities of the thalamus, the basal ganglia, the cerebellum and mutations of SLC7A5 and PTEN. Future researches need to focus on other neurotransmitters closely related to motor, such as acetylcholine and dopamine, to explore the dynamic mechanism and formation of the neural network of developmental motor disorders, and to analyze the interaction between the underlying neural mechanisms of motor developmental disorders and that of core symptoms of autism.
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    How does sleep affect creative problem-solving: An interpretation based on memory reorganization
    WANG Zhengyu, HU Jinsheng
    2021, 29 (7):  1251-1263.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01251
    Abstract ( 26 )  
    Sleep boosts creative problem-solving by promoting memory reorganization, which is the focus of this review. Studies have shown that rapid eye movement sleep mainly facilitates novel associations, while non-rapid eye movement sleep facilitates the abstraction of rules, the formation of relational memory, and the integration of memories. However, several factors have been shown to moderate the impact of sleep on creative problem-solving; these include sleep structure changes, the manipulation of information processing during sleep, and task types. In the existing theoretical mechanisms, the spreading activation model has gradually been replaced by the mechanisms at the systemic and cellular levels, including hippocampal- neocortex dialogue, synaptic plasticity, and the overlapping memory replay during sleep. Future studies should broaden the scope of research by transforming problem types. Moreover, efforts should be focused on emotional memory and the cross-modal transfer of memories during sleep to deepen the mechanism research.
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    Evolutionary continuity and origin explanation of syntax
    YIN Rong, ZHAO Jia
    2021, 29 (7):  1264-1278.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01264
    Abstract ( 41 )  
    Syntax is an important characteristic of human communication system that distinguishes humans from other animals. Comparative behavioral studies have shown that other primates besides humans can understand serial order rules; Comparative neurobiological studies have shown that the neural mechanisms that support order processing come from brain regions shared by humans and other primates. Therefore sequence learning ability on which syntax depends have evolutionary continuity between humans and other primates. Lexical constraint hypothesis, event perception hypothesis and self-domestication hypothesis explain the evolutionary origin of human syntax from different perspectives. Future research should clarify whether the neural mechanisms found in artificial grammar tasks are common processors for hierarchical processing in all fields, and further explore the relationship between syntactic processing and semantic processing.
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    The effects of prosocial spending on subjective well-being and its mechanism
    CUI Xinyue, LI Bin, HE Ruwan, ZHANG Shuying, LEI Li
    2021, 29 (7):  1279-1290.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01279
    Abstract ( 37 )  
    Prosocial spending refers to spending money on others in the form of gifts or charitable donations. Prosocial spending not only benefits the recipient but also exerts a positive effect on the giver's subjective well-being. This effect depends on the type of recipient (individual vs. organization or society at large), and the universality and the persistence of the effect have been extensively investigated. Both internal and external factors have been shown to contribute to the boundary conditions facilitating the effect. Several theories, such as self-determination theory, social norm theory, evolution theory and social exchange theory, could be used to elucidate the mechanism underlying the effect of prosocial spending on subjective well-being. Future studies should focus on examining the boundary conditions of the effect, exploring the long-term positive effects of prosocial spending, and improving the ecological validity of research on prosocial spending.
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    Negative discounting in intertemporal choice
    SUN Hongyue, LU Pan, JIANG Yuanping
    2021, 29 (7):  1291-1299.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01291
    Abstract ( 29 )  
    Mainstream models on intertemporal choice assume that a temporal discounting process occurs when people choose between outcomes occurring at different times in an intertemporal choice. Temporal discounting refers to people's tendency to discount the value of delayed outcomes by the amount of time one must wait for them, thereby reducing the subjective value of these future outcomes. The negative discounting phenomenon, which was found in money and non-money domains with benefits and losses, violates the temporal discounting process and can possibly be explained by anticipated emotion. While most studies on negative discounting have attempted to understand this phenomenon, only few have directly verified its mechanism. Researchers should explore such mechanism by using fMRI techniques and further investigate its influencing factors.
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    Inspiration of Bayesian decision theory for action anticipation in complex decision making in sports: Taking tennis and soccer as examples
    WANG Ze-Jun, CHU Xin-Yu
    2021, 29 (7):  1300-1312.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01300
    Abstract ( 43 )  
    The study of decision making in sports has always been a significant field of cognitive psychology in sports. Action anticipation is the core of decision making in sports, which is thought to be influenced by kinematic and non-kinematic information factors. One of the key issues in the study of action anticipation is to explore the contribution of diverse information sources to the expectation of action outcome and the interaction between them. The researchers explain the integration process of different information in action anticipation in sports and analyze how athletes make the optimal choice in complex competition situations in sports by using Bayesian decision theory, especially its potential applications in tennis and soccer. Although not all choices, outcomes, or probabilities in competitive sports are known in the context of uncertainty, some researchers believe that probability theory and canonical decision theory cannot effectively solve such problems, the newly proposed heuristic approximation provides a theoretical basis for athletes to make a rapid choice in the Bayesian framework. First of all, in complex and time pressure competitive situations, heuristic approximation assumes that athletes are likely to choose a switching heuristic between kinematic information and contextual priors according to the uncertainty of different information sources in the competition, so as to improve the efficiency of action anticipation. Secondly, judgement utility affects the integration of two information sources through the effect of convolution, so as to reduce the impact degree of contextual priors.
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    I am gifted! Perceived overqualification and its influence on employees
    LI Pengbo, CHEN Limei, CHU Fulei, SUN Yuqing, ZHOU Ying
    2021, 29 (7):  1313-1330.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2021.01313
    Abstract ( 32 )  
    Perceived overqualification refers to one's perception of possessing more education, experience, knowledge, skills, and abilities than the required job qualifications. Overqualification is a common phenomenon in organizations and has gradually become a hot topic in the research of organizational behavior. Perceived overqualification leads to employees' negative reactions, which are manifested in cognitive perceptions, affective experiences, job attitude, behavior, performance, and physical and mental health. The nature and magnitude of such influences depend on the characteristics of employees and the situations. However, there is also a positive, U shaped or inverted U shaped relationship between perceived overqualification and some positive outcomes, such as employees' proactive behavior, in-role performance, creative performance. Human capital theory, person-job fit theory, relative deprivation theory, equity theory, psychological contract theory, and conservation of resource theory are the main theories to explain the negative influences of perceived overqualification, whereas self-categorization theory, self-verification theory, and self-regulation theory are the ones to explain its positive influences. Future research is encouraged to develop indigenous scale for perceived overqualification, examine its multilevel effect, enrich and integrate current theoretical perspectives, and explore its dynamic effect.
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