ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    Conceptual Framework
     Influence mechanism of managerial pro-social rule breaking on employee behavior from the perspective of opposition between favor and reason: A cross-levels and longitudinal study
    LIU Xiaoguang, WANG Zhihao
    2018, 26 (2):  191-203.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00191
    Abstract ( 924 )  
     In Chinese organizations, though employee organizational citizenship behavior and workplace deviance behavior are opposite from each other, both of which are positively related with managerial pro-social rule breaking (MPSRB). In order to explain the mentioned contradictory phenomena, MPSRB was considered as actuality and employee perception at the organizational and the individual level respectively, to explore the cross-level influence mechanism of MPSRB on employee behavior from the opposite perspective of favor and reason. In details, the followings were discussed: (1) Conceptualization and questionnaire development of MPSRB in Chinese context; (2) The mediating effect of supervisor trust and institutional trust on the relationship between actual MPSRB and employee behavior, and the moderating effect of Chinese justice value and zhongyong thinking; (3) The mediating effect of caring climate and rule climate on the relationship between actual MPSRB and employee behavior, and the moderating effect of supervisor communication and guanxi practice; (4) The moderating effect of actual MPSRB on the mediating mechanism at the individual level. The conclusions of the present study can help managers to reasonably handle the conflict between favor and reason, and guide the transformation of management practices.
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     The relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness: A meta-analysis
    LV Hongjiang, HAN Chengxuan, WANG Daojin
    2018, 26 (2):  204-220.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00204
    Abstract ( 1660 )  
     Previous studies on the relationship between the leaders’ emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness had considerable disagreement. A meta-analysis was conducted to explore the causes of the differences, and clarify the overall relationship between the leaders' emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness and the moderators. A literature research yielded 98 qualified papers with 110 effect sizes and 27330 participants. Results of the meta-analysis showed that 1) there was a moderate positive correlation between emotional intelligence of leaders and leadership effectiveness (r = 0.39), supporting the hypothesis that leaders’ emotional intelligence is a significant correlate of leadership effectiveness. 2) Furthermore, moderating analysis of the factors of organizational context revealed that the impact of senior leaders’ emotional intelligence on leadership effectiveness was significantly higher than that of the middle and grass-roots leaders, the impact of leaders’ emotional intelligence on leadership effectiveness in non-profit organizations was stronger than that in profit organizations, and the impact of emotional intelligence of leaders’ on leadership effectiveness in the oriental culture was stronger than that in the Western culture. 3) In addition, moderating analysis of the methodological factors revealed that the influence of the leaders' emotional intelligence measured by mixed models on leadership effectiveness was higher than that measured by the ability model, the correlation coefficient was greater when the leadership effectiveness was measured by objective indicators as compared to subjective indicators, the influence of the leaders' emotional intelligence on work attitude was weaker than that on job performance, and the influence of the leaders' emotional intelligence on the group level was stronger than that on the individual level. Future studies should examine the moderator of the relationship between leaders’ emotional intelligence and leadership effectiveness from aspects of research design and reporting standards.
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    Regular Articles
     Attentional Boost Effect: New insights on relationship between attention and memory
    MENG Yingfang, LIN Huiru
    2018, 26 (2):  221-228.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00221
    Abstract ( 1156 )  
     Divided attention during encoding has long been known to impair later memory performance due to limited attentional resources. However, Swallow and Jiang (2010) reported a surprising variation of this phenomenon using a secondary target detection task. The appearance of a secondary target -- a behaviorally relevant, attentionally demanding stimulus, was associated with enhanced memory for concurrent information, an effect labeled the Attentional Boost Effect (ABE). A dual-task interaction model was proposed to account for the ABE. This model states that the ABE reflects a temporal selective attention mechanism triggered by target-detection, which then facilitates early perceptual processing of the target as well as the background stimulus that coincides with it. However, several following studies do not support this model. So we suppose that the enhanced perceptual encoding might not be the only reason for the ABE; whereas a suppression effect due to distractor rejection might also contribute to the ABE; and the ABE might also arise from the later phase other than the early encoding phase. Therefore, further research is needed to explore all possible mechanisms and hereby modify the theoretical model for the ABE.
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     Two kinds of action representation in manipulable object recognition
    YU Wenyuan, LIU Ye, FU Xiaolan
    2018, 26 (2):  229-240.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00229
    Abstract ( 704 )  
     A number of researches suggest that dorso-dorsal stream represents grasping action and ventro- dorsal stream represents using action. They form structure-based action representation and function-based action representation respectively, which play a role in manipulable object representation and recognition. Difference exists between the two kinds of action representation in neural substrates, activation condition, time course, and their relationships with long-term memory. Researches on the two kinds of action representation not only demonstrate the importance of action information for manipulable object recognition, but also provide implication for further researches on how manipulable objects are represented in human brain.
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     The role of facial attractiveness in cognitive process and its neural mechanism
    SHANG Junchen, CHEN Wenfeng, JI Luyan
    2018, 26 (2):  241-253.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00241
    Abstract ( 1020 )  
     Facial attractiveness is of particular relevance to evolution. Facial attractiveness can be perceived rapidly and subsequently pose large impacts on other cognitive processes. Researchers have done a lot of behavioral and neural studies on the roles of facial attractiveness from the perspectives of attention, temporal perception, learning, memory, and decision-making over recent years. The discrepancies in past research mainly focused on the different behavioral and neural responses evoked by facial attractiveness in similar experimental tasks. There are also several extensible aspects in this line of research, such as the topics, technical methods and materials. Future fMRI studies are needed to further explore the neural mechanisms of how facial attractiveness influences cognition.
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     The advantage in recognition of happy faces and its cognitive neural mechanism
    YU Mingyang, LI Fuhong, CAO Bihua
    2018, 26 (2):  254-261.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00254
    Abstract ( 1348 )  
      There is an advantage in the recognition of happy faces, such that happy facial expressions are identified more accurately and quickly than other types of facial expressions. This phenomenon has been found in a large number of studies utilizing either expression categorization tasks or visual search tasks, in which schematic faces and facial expressions were used as stimuli. There are three theoretical explanations for this advantage: the diagnostic value hypothesis, affective uniqueness hypothesis and frequency of occurrence hypothesis. In recent years, event-related-potential (ERP) studies have found that this advantage is formed in the response selection stage of the recognition process, but it remains unclear when this advantage initially emerges. Future studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methods are necessary to investigate the cognitive neural mechanism of this advantage in recognition of happy faces.
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     Mechanism of the irrelevant speech effect in reading: Is the interference determined by content, or process?
    MENG Zhu, YAN Guoli
    2018, 26 (2):  262-269.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00262
    Abstract ( 1023 )  
      The irrelevant speech effect (ISE) refers to the interferential performance in visual cognitive task when the background speech is presented at the same time. In the present paper, we first introduced two main theoretical accounts of the mechanism underlying ISE in reading: interference-by-content hypothesis and interference-by-process hypothesis. Then extant studies of ISE in reading were summarized and discussed over these two opposite hypotheses. Lastly, we proposed several issues which are worth to be focused in the future studies: a) what and how the relevant factors impact on ISE; b) the cognitive stages concerning ISE during reading; c) the application of new technologies including brain imaging technology and eye-tracking technology into studies of ISE in reading.
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     Cognitive characteristics of communication language
    ZHANG Hengchao
    2018, 26 (2):  270-282.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00270
    Abstract ( 755 )  
      Communication is a way of social interaction with language as the core medium. Different from the cognitive process of individual language, the interaction of communication determines the complexity and flexibility of the cognitive process of communication language. Focus on summary and review: content features of communication language, communication language processing theory, the relationship between communication language and non language factors. We should hold a relatively open attitude to explore the cognitive characteristics of communication language in the future, experiment with the design of multi factor superposition, consider the nature of the communication experimental situation and understand the characteristics of language cognition on the basis of multi seed processing.
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     Children’s understanding of social power and its relationship with social behavior
    CHENG Nanhua, LI Zhanxing, ZHU Liqi
    2018, 26 (2):  283-293.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00283
    Abstract ( 1449 )  
     While there has been much research concerning how adults understand the social power, recently researchers have been increasingly interested in how children conceptualize social power. Social power understanding is an important aspect of children’s social cognition, which can be reflected on the level of social dominance and social status. From early on, children can use different cues to judge social power, and based on these cues their cognition of social power are adaptive in evolutionary fitness. Meanwhile, children’s understanding of social power develops across the whole childhood. While younger children are more likely to acknowledge the way to get social power with dominance, older children prefer the way to get social power basing on prestige. Children’s cognition of social power can influence their selective trust, resource allocation, and prosocial behavior. Future research should consider the underlying mechanism of children’s social power cognition, and examine the processing mechanism of the relationship between children’s social power cognition and their social behavior. Moreover, cultural factor and early social interactive experience should be concerned to contribute to children’s cognition of social power.
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     Selecting the best treatment: Client-treatment match
    ZHOU Shegang, ZHANG Xiaoyuan
    2018, 26 (2):  294-305.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00294
    Abstract ( 453 )  
     Client-treatment match holds the idea that to maximize the effect of psychotherapy, different clients should be matched with different treatments. Influenced by the evidence-based psychotherapy approach, the match between clients and treatments can be determined by the diagnosis of the client, the client profile including demographic, clinical, psychological and culture factors as well as the personal preferences, and the suitability between the style of the treatment and the psychological characteristics of the client. In order to achieve personalized treatment and the best possible effect, future studies may need to further understand the relationship among all the relevant variables of the client, to choose appropriate indicators for treatments comparison, to improve research paradigm, and to closely integrate the research and the clinical practice.
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     Counterproductive work behavior: Research perspective, content and design
    ZHANG Lvyi, HUANG Qing, JIANG Yunjie, JIANG Chunyan
    2018, 26 (2):  306-318.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00306
    Abstract ( 966 )  
     Counterproductive work behavior refers to the intentional damage by employees in the workplace which may impair the legitimate rights and interests of stakeholders as well as the organization. Based on 100 papers from the top 13 international journals in the field of management and psychology, we systematically make a particular review of counterproductive work behavior in terms of research perspective, research content and research design. This review indicates that the research perspective consists of four theories, which are trait-based approach, social exchange theory, social cognitive theory and frustration-aggression model. It has showed a multiple perspective and interdisciplinary trend. Based on a personality trait-based model of job performance, we build an interactive integration model of person and context to discuss dependent variables, moderators and mediators of counterproductive work behavior. The majority researches are quantitative, and the research scales show high consistency. We also find the research design is normative and researchers have paid much attention to multiple methods and measures. Finally, we carry through pertinence evaluation and provide useful expectation for future research.
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     Fairness preferences in the Ultimate Game: A dual-system theory perspective
    ZHANG Hui, MA Hong-yu, XU Fu-ming, LIU Yanjun, Shi Yan-wei
    2018, 26 (2):  319-330.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00319
    Abstract ( 979 )  
     The ultimatum game is commonly used to examine fairness-related economic decision making, and the trade-off between fairness preferences and self-interest is assumed to determine whether individuals reject or accept unfair offers. With respect to the dual-system theory, there are controversial understandings on whether fairness preferences result from the automatic response in System 1 or the deliberation processes in System2. Our study discussed such controversy from three aspects of this theory, including theoretical hypotheses, influential factors, and neural mechanisms. The automatic negative reciprocity hypothesis and the social heuristics hypothesis contend that fairness preferences are automatic, whereas the controlled-processing hypothesis contends that fairness preferences are products of deliberation process that suppresses self-interest motivation. System 1 identifies and evaluates fairness via anterior insula, amygdala, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex; while System 2 reassesses and adjusts System 1 to make the final decision via dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, ventrolateral PFC, dorsomedial PFC, and left dorsolateral PFC. Individual differences and experimental task characteristics may affect individuals’ automatic responses in System 1. Future research need to further improve the experimental paradigm; explore the moderators within the dual system and its neural network.
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     Attitudinal ambivalence: Origins and coping strategies
    XU Zhan-Fei, XI Ju-Zhe
    2018, 26 (2):  331-343.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00331
    Abstract ( 901 )  
     Attitudinal ambivalence refers to the co-existence of positive and negative evaluations and feelings of attitude toward to an object. Recent studies of the domain investigated the origin of attitudinal ambivalence as well as the strategies adopted by people to cope with ambivalent feelings. In this article, we report a systematic review of recent research on attitudinal ambivalence, highlighting the origins (from the perspective of cognition, society and individual differences, respectively) and individual coping strategies (emotion-focused strategies, information processing strategies and compensatory strategies) of this domain. We proposed that future studies on attitudinal ambivalence should integrate different measures of attitudinal ambivalence and unveil how attitudinal ambivalence vary among different cultures and development stages. In addition, researchers can explore further into the variables influencing the relationship between attitudinal ambivalence and behavior.
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     Correlation heuristic of accumulation judgment in dynamic systems
    WANG Xiaozhuang, WANG Sicong, MU Weili, ZHANG Jiane, YIN Wenchao
    2018, 26 (2):  344-357.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00344
    Abstract ( 567 )  
      Correlation heuristic is a mental model in which judgment bias in understanding accumulation is aroused when people correlate accumulations and flows and assume that the patterns of accumulations and flows are similar. Correlation heuristic bias, termed as “stock-flow failure”, can be found in understanding interactive dynamic systems. Due to lack of appreciation of the basic principles of accumulation, individuals tend to use this heuristic, where they intuitively assume that the pattern of stock highly correlates with the pattern of inflow or net flow. They attempted to match the stock’s trajectory along with the inflow rate. Research shows that correlation heuristic bias is common in decision making for simple as well as multi-faceted decision making tasks. The heuristic has significant implications in business management decision making and is not conducive for people’s sustainable decision-making. Results of research on the individual factors such as object bias, attribution substitution, and insufficient adjustment and contextual factors that may influence correlation heuristics are inconsistent. Empirical studies that explore factors impacting correlation heuristics have emerged. Effort to explore ways of reducing such bias has started. This article systematically reviewed the correlation heuristic literature and recommended areas to be further explored in future studies, including clarifying its inner mechanism, digging into potential influencing factors and their interactions, enhancing research paradigms, and developing methods that can reduce correlation heuristic.
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    Research Methods
     Full-information item bifactor analysis: Model, parameter estimation and application
    MAO Xiuzhen, XIA Menglian, XIN Tao
    2018, 26 (2):  358-367.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00358
    Abstract ( 651 )  
     Full-information item bifactor analysis is an important statistical method in psychological and educational measurement, which can be seen as a rediscovery of the classical bifactor model and has seen wide applications in the past two decades. The item response model of full-information item bifactor analysis is described upon the introduction of the conception and characterization of full-information item bifactor analysis. Further, we introduced the dimension reduction method used in parameter estimation. Then, examples are provided for applications of the full-information item bifactor model in test measurement structure exploration or confirmation, score interpretation, and computerized adaptive testing. The measurement structure of full-information item bifactor analysis is accordance with most tests in the areas of psychology, education, and medical science. With the advantage in dimension reduction, it is believed that the full-information item bifactor analysis could be valuable and useful in various situations. At last, some future research directions and suggestions are put forward including parameter estimation, test linking, differential item functioning, model fit testing, and application of bifactor item response theory to computerized adaptive testing.
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     Item Position Effect: Conceptualization, detection and developments
    NIE Xugang, CHEN Ping, ZHANG Yingbin, HE Yinhong
    2018, 26 (2):  368-380.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00368
    Abstract ( 903 )  
     Item position effect (IPE) refers to the item parameter non-invariance when the same item is placed at different positions of the tests, after controlling for the influence of random errors. The presence of IPE causes the violation of the critical parameter invariance assumption made in item response theory, making the applications such as test equating and computerized adaptive testing at risk. At present, the existing researches in this field mainly focus on the detection and modeling of IPE. However, more research efforts are needed to further explain the consequences of the detected IPE and to provide an in-depth discussion of IPE under different scenarios, which is of great importance to both basic research and practical applications.
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