ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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     Psychological issues inside social governance
    XIN Ziqiang
    2018, 26 (1):  1-13.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00001
    Abstract ( 2739 )  
     In recent years, some psychologists began to pay attention to psychological issues in social governance. To correctly identify these research issues and problems, we should realize that the core of social governance is human being, on the basis of the psychological essence of social governance. Concretely, the subject of social governance is human beings such as civil servants, social workers and citizens; the object of the governance is social affairs related to human beings; the process of the governance is the activity of group decision making carried out by multiple subjects; and one pathway to good governance is mind construction. Therefore, psychological research should focus on the innate issues inside social governance, including the governance competences of various subjects, realistic social psychological problems as the object of governance, the psychological process of group decision making, and the strategies and solutions of mind construction. Research on these issues would produce an original framework of “social governance psychology”, and achieve the goal of “good governance based on mind”.
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    Conceptual Framework
     Research on the impact mechanism of TMT cognition on organizational ambidexterity: From organizational character perspective
    FU Yue
    2018, 26 (1):  14-25.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00014
    Abstract ( 1077 )  
     It is not surprising that some famous companies may fail. Today's success may turn to be tomorrow’s failure. Therefore, companies should not only be good at learning from experience, but also focus on the future plans. A model of organizational ambidexterity based on Top Management Team (TMT)’s cognition is expected to help companies to balance these two demands. TMT’s cognition on organizational character reflects team members¢ general ideas about the past, present and future of their organization. The impact of TMT’s cognitive congruence/differences in organizational character on organizational ambidexterity, as well as the mediating role of TMT behavioral integration is examined. In addition, the relationship between organizational ambidexterity and organizational performance, as well as the moderating role of industry dynamics is explored. The results may deepen our understanding of TMT cognition and enrich the organizational ambidexterity theory. Finally, the improved Organizational Character Index (OCI) provides reliable tool and method for future research.
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    How do autism spectrum disorders process human face? A meta-analysis of eye-tracking studies
    HAO Yanbin, WANG Fuxing, XIE Heping, AN Jing, WANG Yuxin, LIU Huashan
    2018, 26 (1):  26-41.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00026
    Abstract ( 1505 )  
    Aberrant eye gaze is one of important indicators for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) according to previous studies. Recent eye tracking studies yield inconsistent findings on whether ASD may pay less attention towards the mouth region compared with typical development (TD) participants. In this study, a meta-analysis is conducted with fixation durations on both eyes and mouth regions as dependent variables. Twenty-seven eligible ASD eye-tracking studies were included in the current study. As a result, 43 independent effect sizes containing 1,343 participants are computed in the eye-related meta-analysis, and 36 independent effect sizes containing 1,112 participants in the mouth-related meta-analysis are analyzed. The results revealed that individuals with ASD fixated significantly shorter on the eye region than the TD (d = −0.75). However, no significant difference was found on fixation duration of the mouth region between two groups (d = −0.29). The moderator analysis indicated that age (d children = −0.89, d adult = −0.04) and face inversion (d upright = −0.79, d inverted = 0.31) moderated eye-related fixation duration. In addition, age (d children = 0.40, d adult = −0.56), verbal IQ (d match = 0.63, d no match = −0.62), nonverbal IQ (d match = 0.27, d no match= −0.51), the severity of autism (d high function = 0.43, d low function = −0.65), and task types (d free view = −0.48, d discrimination task = 0.90) moderated the effect of experimental manipulation on the mouth-related fixation duration. These findings suggest that fixation duration on the eye region is a potential indicator of ASD but the mouth region may not be.
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     A meta-analysis on Co-Rumination
    LAI Lizu, REN Zhihong, TAO Rong
    2018, 26 (1):  42-55.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00042
    Abstract ( 1761 )  
      Co-rumination refers to excessively discussing personal problems within a dyadic relationship. The meta-analysis examined how co-rumination was correlated with gender, mental health, and relationship quality. Our results revealed (1) Female co-ruminate more than male (g = 0.57, p < 0.001), which appeared most significantly in adolescents, especially for friends; (2) co-rumination was significantly correlated with mental health (r = 0.15, p < 0.001); and this effect is still significantafter controlling the rumination (partial correlation r = 0.08, p < 0.001); (3) age, study design, and co-ruminator didn’t moderate the aggregated correlation; (4) The aggregated correlation between co-rumination and relationship quality was also significant (r = 0.42, p < 0.001). Future research should further examine the causal relationship between co-rumination and mental health.
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    Research Reports
     The effects of superior outcome of the foregone option on the relationship between responsibility and regret
    ZHAO Yixin, SHI Xiaoran, SHI Huiying
    2018, 26 (1):  56-61.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00056
    Abstract ( 485 )  
     In the current study of the relationship between regret and responsibility, the superior outcomes of foregone options are usually known. The aim of this study was to examine the possible changes in the relationship between the two in the absence of this outcome, and to clarify the role of outcome evaluation and cognitive dissonance. Results showed that when people are aware that another alternative would have been better, they tend to be more dissatisfied with the chosen option and more pleased with the foregone one. In this case, participants may have more cognitive dissonance, their responsibility will amplify regret. Nevertheless, when the superior outcome of the foregone option is unknown, people will suppress cognitive dissonance by raising the evaluation of existing result and reducing the foregone outcome’ s evaluation. Under such circumstances, personal responsibility may curb regret following a negative outcome. Mediation analysis suggested that cognitive dissonance could be an intermediary between outcome evaluation and regret.
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    Regular Articles
     Categorical perception of lexical tone and the neural mechanisms
    WU Qian, WANG Yunjia
    2018, 26 (1):  62-71.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00062
    Abstract ( 561 )  
      Categorical perception (CP) refers to the ability that listeners can distinguish cross-category stimuli, but cannot discriminate different stimuli within the same category. The degree of categorization for lexical tone perception may be influenced by the acoustical similarity of different tones. The perception of two similar tones seems to be less categorical than that of dissimilar tones. In addition to the internal features of tones, the factors influencing the categorical perception of lexical tone include language experience, age, tonal context and stimulus type (speech or nonspeech). The use of electrophysiological techniques has advanced the study of categorical perception of lexical tone, and is expected to be helpful in solving more theoretical problems.
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     Visual-spatial attention processing in developmental dyslexia
    HUANG Chen, ZHAO Jing
    2018, 26 (1):  72-80.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00072
    Abstract ( 1315 )  
     Considering basic visual decoding is the first step of reading, a growing group of studies focused on the visual-spatial attentional processing of the dyslexics. Visual-spatial attention refers to attentional processes that select visual stimuli based on their spatial location, and it can be measured by a set of visual tasks, such as visual search task, visual attention span task, Posner cue task. Many studies in the context of alphabetic language and Chinese reported that individuals with developmental dyslexia may exhibit poor behavioral performance and abnormal neural activity in visual-spatial attention tasks. The underlying mechanism of the relevant neural deficit may not only stem from the atypical activation in the parietal gyrus which were responsible for the visual-spatial attention, but also might be associated with weak functional connectivity between brain regions (e.g., the functional connectivity between parietal lobe and visual word form area). Future studies should explore the development in visual-spatial attention of the dyslexics by cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Meanwhile, it is necessary to investigate the possible modulation of language characteristics on visual-spatial attention deficit of dyslexia.
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     Scene gist processing and its mechanisms
    LI Mengqi, CHEN Zhimin, ZHENG Yuanjie, REN Yanju
    2018, 26 (1):  81-97.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00081
    Abstract ( 794 )  
     With a mere glimpse of a scene, observers can grasp a variety of perceptual and semantic information. This is referred to as scene gist. In recent years, scene gist processing has become an important topic in visual perception domain. Research on this theme can reveal the processing mechanisms for visual information and provide important implications for developing intelligent machine vision. The influencing factors, the controversial issues, and the neural basis of scene gist processing are reviewed. Some important issues, including the primary element of scene gist processing, the relevant theoretical explanations, the modulating factors of the hierarchical processing, the modulatory effect of attention, the timing dynamic characteristics and the construction of the brain function network, should be further explored.
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     The positive participant role in school bullying: The defenders
    REN Ping, ZHANG Yunyun, ZHOU Yanyun
    2018, 26 (1):  98-106.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00098
    Abstract ( 947 )  
     Defenders are the only participants in bullying which have a positive role and hence they play an important part in school bullying prevention and intervention. Despite this, theoretical researches and practical applications involving defenders are limited. Defenders are distinguished from other participant roles at function, as well as gender, age, trait and coping strategy. In addition, context factors like peer pressure, companion status and evaluation of potential danger in bullying situations will also have an impact on behavior of defenders. Taking the KiVa program as a specific example, we demonstrated the great value and effectiveness of conducting bullying prevention programs which emphasized the importance of defenders. Finally, potential future research areas and educational interventions on school bullying based on defenders were discussed.
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     Older and wiser? The relationship between wisdom and age among adults
    WANG Yuling, WANG Fengyan
    2018, 26 (1):  107-117.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00107
    Abstract ( 707 )  
     The relationship between wisdom and age is a crucial issue in wisdom psychology. The majority of scholars believe that wisdom is gained during adolescence and early adulthood. However, the relationship between adult’s wisdom and age remains controversial. There are four generalized views: (1) positive theory; (2) decline model; (3) stable model; (4) plateau model. The former two have been less empirically supported than the latter two. Through the review and reflection of these viewpoints, the present article proposes that there are three most urgent tasks in the empirical aspect and six questions in the theoretical aspect. In addition, we offer a wisdom-age relation theory based on individual-situational differences, which may provide us with a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between wisdom and age.
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     Being envied: An ambivalent affective experience
    LIU Dege, HUANG Xiaozhi, CHEN Wenjing, LI Wendong
    2018, 26 (1):  118-133.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00118
    Abstract ( 1589 )  
     Most previous research in the envy literature has focused on one’s envy toward another person. Thus, there has been limited research attention on being the target of another person’s envy. After clarifying the definition of being envied and its nature as an ambivalent experience, this paper lays out the theoretical basis for the construct of being envied, and describes the potential antecedents of the ambivalent affective experience of being envied as being related to individual, leadership, organizational and cultural variables. Furthermore, this paper analyzes the mitigating and intensifying strategies that can be used by the envied to cope with the envy from others, and the roles of individual cognitive appraisal and cultural factors in shaping how the envied chooses coping strategies. Future research should examine the relationship between organizational and cultural factors, and being envied; the influence of prediction errors of the envied on their choice of coping strategies; and the dual influence mechanisms in the relationships between being envied and its outcomes.
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     The theoretical framework and neural mechanisms of self-control failure
    DONG Jun, FU Shuying, LU Shan, YANG Shaofeng, QI Chunhui
    2018, 26 (1):  134-143.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00134
    Abstract ( 1463 )  
      Self-control refers to the mental processes that ensure people to overcome thoughts and emotions, thus enabling behavior to vary adaptively from one situation to another. While self-control plays an important role on individual’s well-being, the failure of self-control is one of the key problems of human society. Based on the sequential-task paradigm, researchers have explored the cognitive mechanisms of self-control failure and have proposed multiple theories such as the strength model, the process model, the central governor model and the prefrontal-subcortical balance model of self-regulation. In the field of neuroimaging studies, the researchers have identified the involvement of several brain regions, including inferior frontal gyrus, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. In the future, the researchers should emphasize the integration of different theories, strengthen the neural mechanisms associated with self-control failure, and explore the relationship between self-control failure and social behaviors.
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     Relationship between leadership behaviors and HRM practices: Causal, joint, substitute or strengthen effect?
    YIN Kui, CHEN Leni, WANG Zhen, PENG Jian, XU Haoying
    2018, 26 (1):  144-155.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00144
    Abstract ( 1096 )  
     Leadership behavior and HRM practices are two hot topics in the fields of organizational behavior and HRM. Previous studies usually focus on their effects separately, while recent studies show a trend to examine their effects spontaneously. With a systematic review of the latest empirical studies, we came out four types of relationship between leadership behavior and HRM practices as causal effect, joint effect, substitute and enhancing effect. Moreover, we also discussed the variable levels, outcomes attributes and social cultures in affecting the impact of the above four kinds of relationship. Finally, it figured out future directions as to further explore the relationship between a specific leadership behavior and a specific HRM practice; to construct an integrative framework; and to identify the boundary conditions in influencing their relationship.
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     The influence of power on consumer behavior and its theoretical explanation
    JIANG Hongyan, LIU Bangshun, SUN Peizhen
    2018, 26 (1):  156-168.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00156
    Abstract ( 1372 )  
     Power, which refers to the perception of one’s capacity to influence others, is ubiquitous in consumer behavior. The existing research about the influence of power on consumer behavior has mainly focused on four aspects, i.e., the impact of power on consumer psychological perception, consumer value, consumer behavioral tendency, and consumer information processing and persuasion. The relevant theories in social psychology can be utilized to explain the influence of power on consumer behavior and its underlying mechanism. Future research should distinguish the influence of different types of power on consumer behavior, explore the boundary conditions of the effect of power on self-control behavior, strengthen the indigenous research of power in Chinese background, and compare the discrepancies of consumer behavior caused by power under different manipulation methods.
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     Ritual in the psychology field: A repetitive but meaningful behavior
    RAN Yaxuan, WEI Haiying, LI Qing, LEI Chao
    2018, 26 (1):  169-179.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00169
    Abstract ( 2098 )  
     Ritual is so widespread that people are always involved in these activities. Ritual refers to a predefined sequence of symbolic actions often characterized by formality and repetition that lacks direct instrumental purpose. Integrating theoretical and empirical conceptualizations of rituals, the present research identifies three key criteria for rituals: a fixed sequence of behaviors, symbolic meaning, and non-functional behavior. There are two kinds of research methods of rituals: recall task and scenario task. In addition, individuals’ emotion factors and cognitive factors could predict one’s intention to participate in a ritual. Further, based on five theoretical perspectives–evolutionary theory, embodied cognition theory, interaction ritual chains theory, learning theory, and social control theory, ritual could comfort one’s emotional state, recover one’s attention and control, promote one’s social relationship, and reinforce social norms and social culture. Finally, future research on ritual should pay more attention to the operational definition, the indigenous research design, the double-edged sword effect, the experimental methodology, and the neuro mechanism.
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     Happiness-income paradox and the latest explanation
    YAN Xiaohua, LIU Zhenliang, WANG Xiangkun, MU Shoukuan
    2018, 26 (1):  180-189.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.00180
    Abstract ( 2309 )  
     The cross-sectional studies show a positive relationship between income and happiness whereas the long-term series studies—usually a period of 10 years or more—show there is a nil relationship between them, which is the so-called happiness-income paradox. Previous studies usually explain the happiness- income paradox from the perspective of theory such as Set-Point Theory, Adaptation Theory, or Relative Utility Theory. Recently, researchers have paid much concern to the omitted variables. Five types of omitted variables, including income inequality, education, social capital, individualism-collectivism and marital status, are introduced in this article to interpret the phenomenon. The negative effects of omitted variables on happiness offset the positive effect of income, which leads to an occurrence of happiness-income paradox.
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     reviewers in 2017
    2018, 26 (1):  191-192. 
    Abstract ( 1152 )  
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