ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    Special Section of Physiological Psychology
    An Important Regulation Factor in Depression: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase
    GUAN Xiting;LIN Wenjuan
    2013, 21 (6):  951-957.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00951
    Abstract ( 579 )  
    There are different theories and hypotheses related to the etiology of depression. Among them, cytokine hypothesis, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hypothesis, monoamine hypothesis and neuroplasticity hypothesis are much more widely accepted. These hypotheses may discuss depression from different points, but they are all related to indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO). IDO is a kind of enzyme which can convert tryptophan (TRP), the precursor of serotonin to kynurenine (KYN). It can be activated by some proinflammatory cytokines. Once activated, more TRP would be siphoned from the formation of serotonin to KYN, which may cause a reduction in serotonin production. IDO can also be activated by stress hormones through tryptophan 2, 3-dioxygenase (TDO) or immune system. In addition, some downstream metabolites of KYN, such as kynurenic acid (KYNA), quinolinic acid (QUIN) and 3-hydroxykynurenine (3HKYN), may contribute to neuroplasticity, as they are neurotoxic or neuroprotective. IDO, the mutual regulation factor among these theories, may play an important role in the onset of depression.
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    Speech Recognition in Schizophrenic under Masking Conditions
    WU Chao;WU Xihong;LI Liang
    2013, 21 (6):  958-964.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00958
    Abstract ( 481 )  
    Some cognitive deficits are specifically trait-related to schizophrenia and are important for early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of this mental disorder. This article reviews the literature on deficits of schizophrenic patients in auditory masking tasks, auditory attention, and auditory working memory, and particularly put the emphasis on the vulnerability of speech recognition to masking stimuli, especially informational masking stimuli. This article will facilitates both the understanding of the etiology of schizophrenia and the explosions of new methods for early diagnosis and treatment of this mental disorder.
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    The Progress of Startle Paradigm in the Clinical Studies of PTSD: Hyperarousal and Fear Inhibition
    DONG Xinwen;WANG Chaoyi;WANG Changli;LI Yonghui
    2013, 21 (6):  965-974.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00965
    Abstract ( 525 )  
    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the only mental illness including startle response alteration in its diagnostic criteria. Compared to self-report, startle response measured in laboratory paradigm is associated more closely with overall symptom severity. There has been many research results on the neural mechanism of startle response in both humans and animals, making it possible to connect pre-clinical and clinical studies. At the beginning of using laboratory measurement of starlte response in PTSD clinical research, it has been mainly used as a specific indicator of hyperarousal symptoms, although it has not been firmly established the relation between startle alteration and overall symptoms yet. Recently, some new paradigms based on the theories of contextual anxiety or fear inhibition reveal the specific relationship of startle reflex and severity of PTSD symptom in particular contexts. The new progress in the application of startle response in PTSD will inspire and advance the discovery of pathological mechanism of PTSD and improvement of clinical diagnosis.
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    DNA Methylation Mechanisms Underlying the Changes of Drug Addiction-related Nuclei Function and Addictive Behavior
    ZHANG Jianjun;LIU Peng;ZHU Ning;SUI Nan
    2013, 21 (6):  975-981.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00975
    Abstract ( 501 )  
    Drug addiction induces long-term changes in the structure and function of the addiction-related circuitries. Recent studies suggested that drug abuse induced the changes of DNA methylation and gene expression in addiction-related nuclei by modulating the expression of three types of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) without changing DNA sequences, which in turn changed the functional neural plasticity. Therefore, DNA methylation is regarded as one of the possible mechanisms underlying persistent addictive behavior. In this review we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how DNA methylation contribute to the addictive behavior and how abusive drugs regulate the DNA methylation, and further proposed a few important directions for future research in the field.
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    The Roles of CRF Receptors in the Modulation of Serotoninergic System and the Effects of Early Environmental Factors
    YUAN Sanna;WANG Qiong;SHAO Feng;WANG Weiwen
    2013, 21 (6):  982-989.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00982
    Abstract ( 364 )  
    Early environmental factors had long-term effects on the development of brain and behaviors, and led to a variety of psychopathological changes. It is well known that the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN)-serotonin (5-HT) system is implicated in the onset and treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) modulates activity of this system during stress via activation of two receptors: CRF1 and CRF2. CRF1 and CRF2 mediated inhibition and excitation of the DRN-5-HT system respectively. Therefore, the regulation of the relative contribution of the two CRF receptors to brain CRF pathways may be essential in coordinating 5-HTergic responses to stress. The early environmental factors (e.g. stress) induced long-term even lifetime changes in the distribution and reactivity of CRF receptors, and the DRN-5-HT system response to further stressful stimuli, which might be involved in the individual differences of susceptibility to stress-related psychiatric disorders.
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    The Animal Model and Neurobiological Mechanisms of Maternal Separation
    XUE Xiaofang;LI Man;WANG Weiwen;SHAO Feng
    2013, 21 (6):  990-998.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00990
    Abstract ( 420 )  
    Establishment of animal models of schizophrenia through the social environmental deprivation was the focuses for understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this severe mental disease. As an important means of early social environmental deprivation, maternal separation from birth to weaning is being regarding increasingly. By comprehensively describes the latest research results about the impact of maternal separation on rodent behavior and neurodevelopment, this article shows that the feasibility of maternal separation on studying schizophrenia; what's more, further analysis of the various factors which is influencing the results, provides some theoretical support for in-depth study in the future.
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    Neurodevelopmental Mechanisms of Prenatal Cocaine or Morphine Exposure on Addiction-related Behaviors in Offsprings
    WANG Yuanyuan;WANG Dongmei;SUI Nan
    2013, 21 (6):  999-1006.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.00999
    Abstract ( 431 )  
    Prenatal exposure to addictive drugs can influence the development of fetal brain, leading to abnormality of the main neurotransmitter system and behavioral malfunction. Recent studies showed that prenatal exposure to cocaine or morphine affects the proliferation, migration and apoptosis of neural progenitor, resulting in changes of neuronal morphology, receptor function and synaptic plasticity. Such changes are widely found in dopamine, GABA and glutamate system in mesocorticolimbic system, which leads to behavioral deficits in learning and memory and altered susceptibility to addictive drugs. Here we summarize related studies on behaviors, neural development, neurotransmitter system and brain function and try to put forward further research prospects.
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    Neural and Behavioral Developmental Toxicity of the Plasticizer DEHP
    YANG Yanling;XU Xiaohong
    2013, 21 (6):  1007-1013.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01007
    Abstract ( 413 )  
    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is an environmental endocrine disruptor that possesses weak estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity. Humans and wildlife exposed to DEHP lifetime through different channels. Maternal DEHP can be transferred either to the fetus across the placenta during pregnancy, or to the nursing infant through breast milk during lactation. Perinatal DEHP exposure can interfere with the effect of estrogen on brain development through sex-specifically changing the activities of aromatase enzyme and estrogen receptor in hypothalamic preoptic area of rat offspring. DEHP and its metabolites affect the proliferation and differentiation of neurons, synapse formation, and the regulatory effects of amino acid neurotransmitters system on gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons which are modulated by sexual hormones. DEHP affects the development of dopamine neurotransmitter system of the midbrain and induces motor hyperactivity. These effects of DEHP ultimately lead to abnormal development of behaviors such as early behavior, learning and memory, and emotional behavior of animal.
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    Zebrafish Model and Physiological Psychology Research
    CHEN Sijie;PENG Gang
    2013, 21 (6):  1014-1019.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01014
    Abstract ( 377 )  
    Zebrafish model has often been used in development, genetics and drug discovery studies. As a vertebrate model systems, the genetic makeup of the zebrafish shares high degree of homology with higher vertebrate including human. The central nervous system of zebrafish also has similarity to that of the mammalian animals. More recently, zebrafish has increasingly been used in studies of neuroscience and physiological psychology related areas. Researchers have investigated a wide range of behaviors in zebrafish larvae and adults. Taking advantage of the strength of the zebrafish model, genetic mutations and drug screening have been utilized to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the animal behaviors.
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    Emotional Processing in the Amygdala: Integration of Automatic Process and Attentional Modulation
    DU Yi;WU Xihong;LI Liang
    2013, 21 (6):  1020-1027.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01020
    Abstract ( 501 )  
    Given the flooding environmental information entering the cognitive system, together with its processing capacity limitations, a critical function shared by both attentional and emotional processes is to prioritize the processing of pertinent events. Although it is generally accepted that emotional stimuli can capture and affect the allocation of attentional resource, whether the processing of emotional stimuli is automatic without attention and awareness or depends on available attentional resources and receives top-down modulation is a long-term debate. Recent neurophysiological recordings with high spatio-temporal resolution reconciled this controversy by demonstrating that responses to emotional stimuli in the amygdala, a critical sub-cortical structure in emotional processing, contained both an early and rapid automatic component which was not affected by attentional and cognitive load and a later component that received top-down attentional modulation from fronto-parietal cortices. This functional integration in the amygdala supports the dual-pathway model of emotional processing.
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    Sound Localization in Auditory Midbrain
    MEI Huixian;ZHOU Zhijin;CHEN Qicai
    2013, 21 (6):  1028-1033.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01028
    Abstract ( 385 )  
    The neural basis of locating and psychologically determining sound source has been demonstrated by a lot of neural electrophysiological studies. Sound source location has resulted from the complicated integration in auditory system. The great ability of auditory central neuron in sound location is achieved by comparing the difference in characters of sound signals arrived at two ears. The auditory midbrain nucleus, inferior colliculus (IC), plays an important role in processing the information of sound location. Many binaural response neurons in one IC may decode the sound location information, moreover interactions between two ICs are likely to modulate the binaural auditory responses.
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    The Neural Mechanism of Rhyme Processing
    ZHANG Jing;LIU Chang
    2013, 21 (6):  1034-1040.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01034
    Abstract ( 418 )  
    Rhyme can be defined as a pair of words that are phonologically identical from the last accented vowel to the end of a word. Researches of rhyme processing mainly focus on two fields: rhyme identification and rhyme generation, both of which have similar cognitive processes, including orthographic coding, graphic-phonetic transformation, phonological representation and phonological segmentation. Investigations about the neural basis of rhyme processing, from two aspects: phonological processing and orthographic processing, indicated that the left inferior frontal gyrus and the left superior temporal gyrus control phonological representation and phonological segmentation respectively, and the left fusiform gyrus involves in orthographic coding, while valid graphic-phonetic transformation depends on neural network composed of left inferior parietal lobule and left inferior frontal gyrus. In future, results from different research methods and tasks should be integrated, and further discussion on rhyme generation should be employed.
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    The New Development of Diagnostic Research of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
    SUN Ling;WANG Jianping
    2013, 21 (6):  1041-1047.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01041
    Abstract ( 651 )  
    Whereas evdence from clinical practice and research suggests that current diagnostic criteria of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have not met the need of therapists’ work, more clirifications are needed to be discussed about the patients’ insight and clinical significance criterion. Considering the debate about the core symptom of OCD, researchers proposed that it’s necessary to reconsiderate the relationship among the OCD, anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder and hoarding disorder. Furture research should identify the core symptoms of OCD in the perspective of cognitive neuroscience and provide a basis for the OCD diagnostic standard.
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    Clinical Translation of Neuroimaging Research in Depression: A New Approach to Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment of Depression
    DAI Bibing;QU Zhiyi;LIU Huijun;YU Bin
    2013, 21 (6):  1048-1058.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01048
    Abstract ( 545 )  
    Prevention, diagnosis and treatment of depression are main clinical challenges. The improvements in these fields are anticipated when new methods and techniques transcend traditional ones. The neuroimaging approach applied to translational research in depression provides a new breakthrough for achieving such aim, which refers to translate the neuroimage basic findings into clinical applications. The paper reviewed its latest findings and potential application value in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of depression. Future directions are aimed at enhancing bidirectional transmission, placing more emphasis on turning innovations into everyday clinical practice and health decision-making, improving multidisciplinary cooperation and personal training, and requiring further research on specific topics during translational process.
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    Conceptual Framework
    The Experienced Utility of Well-being and the Deviation Mechanism of Irrational Decision-making
    LI Aimei;LU Fanfan
    2013, 21 (6):  1059-1070.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01059
    Abstract ( 680 )  
    From the experienced utility perspective, the subjective well-being includes expected well-being, instant well-being and retrospective well-being. There are extremely important and essential differences among the three forms of experienced utility, which can lead to judgment bias and irrationality. The research project contributes to explore the relationships between experienced utility of well-being and irrational decision making by combining the methods of behavioral science and cognitive neuroscience. The study will be received breakthrough findings by the behavior level, information processing level and neural mechanism level. The research contains three parts: (1)The intrinsic character and behavioral discipline of expected well-being, instant well-being and retrospective well-being; (2)The cognitive mechanisms of bias produced by the three forms of experienced utility. (3)The neural mechanism of the bias induced by experienced utility and irrational decision making. Through a series of studies, we intend to solve three critical issues: (1)In the process of judgment and decision-making, how people are influenced by the expected utility,instant utility and retrospective utility; (2)What is the information processing mechanism and Neural Mechanism of the bias induced by each experienced utility; (3)The discipline of experienced utility bias and inspiration for government public policy. It is not only a contribution to the development of behavior decision theory,but also has much instructive effect on the government administration in order to avoid “index pursuing and real-experience sacrificing”. It enlightens to solve the problem of “Easterlin Paradox”.
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    Research Methods
    Review of Measuring Imagery
    MA Xiao;ZHANG Yu
    2013, 21 (6):  1071-1085.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01071
    Abstract ( 634 )  
    Measuring Imagery is widely used in training. It also a critical step of generating successful training. Three methods of Measuring Imagery are discussed in this paper: the paper and pencil tests, the experiments, and Physiological Psychology Indicators. The paper and pencil tests mainly involve measurement scales, such as the Betts’ Questionnaire upon Mental Imagery, the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (VVIQ), the new version of VVIQ (VVIQ2), the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire (VMIQ), and the revision of VMIQ. For the experimental method, imagery rotation serves as the basic paradigm. As Physiological Psychology Indicators, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are used to observe the vividness of different brain regions during various imagery processes. Each of the three methods has its own advantages and drawbacks that require further improvements.
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    Regular Articles
    Distortions of Time Perception: The Oddball Effect
    LI Baolin;HUANG Xiting;BI Cuihua;CHEN Youguo
    2013, 21 (6):  1086-1094.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01086
    Abstract ( 841 )  
    Duration perception can be affected by the oddness of stimuli. An oddball stimulus will be judged to have lasted longer than others of equal physical duration in a repeated series. It has been suggested that there are three main hypotheses to explain the subjective expansion of duration: attention hypothesis, arousal hypothesis and the neural coding efficiency hypothesis. The issues, such as variable confusion, the cross-modal effects and the time factors, are worth considering for future studies. Furthermore, no agreements are reached on the psychological and neural mechanisms of the subjective expansion of duration, and further explorations to these problems are of great significance to understand duration perception.
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    Development of Children’s Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression
    SHANGGUAN Fangfang;ZHANG Xingli
    2013, 21 (6):  1095-1103.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01095
    Abstract ( 569 )  
    Several cognitive theories of depression vulnerability have been proposed, but development of these cognitive factors has not caught much attention. This paper reviews the research investigating development of cognitive vulnerability to depression (CVD) among children and adolescents. First, it is suggested that it is necessary to understand when CVD emerges and becomes relatively stable in childhood, especially early childhood. Second, development of three cognitive factors, including attributional styles, dysfunctional attitudes and rumination response style, were reviewed to support continuity of CVD. New insights and implications for assessment and etiology of CVD are discussed.
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    A Review of Cognitive Neuroscience Studies on Internet Addiction
    NIU Gengfeng;SUN Xiaojun;ZHOU Zongkui;WEI Hua
    2013, 21 (6):  1104-1111.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01104
    Abstract ( 980 )  
    The techniques and methods of cognitive neuroscience are increasingly used in the study of internet addiction as the deepening of research. The current studies are mainly focusing on the impairment of the cognitive processing functions, the attentional bias, the preference of cognitive processing, the inhibitory control and sensation seeking of internet addicts, as well as the neural pathways of internet addiction. On this base, this paper points out the value of these results in the exploration into the mechanism of internet addiction and its practical application, and it puts forward some suggestions that future research should clarify the relationship between internet addiction and the impairment of higher cognitive functions, integrate the current research methods, expand research object and indexes, and highlight the application value of research results in the identification and intervention of internet addiction.
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    A Review of Career Decision-Making Difficulties
    XIE Baoguo;XIA Mian
    2013, 21 (6):  1112-1124.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01112
    Abstract ( 728 )  
    The construct of Career decision-making difficulties was defined as the problems individuals would encounter in making their career decision. Career decision-making difficulties could affect the individual’s decision outcome in one of two possible ways: a) preventing the individual from making a decision; or b) leading to a less optimal decision. Career decision-making difficulties have been one of central research topics in career psychology. In present study, we reviewed the studies on career decision-making difficulties published during the period of 1980-2012, and presented the findings and issues in concept, typology, measurement, antecedents and intervention. Further, we suggested the directions for the future studies in this field: a) clearly defining the connotation and extension; b) reaching a consensus on the dimension; c) penetrating the mechanism; and d) strengthening the research on tailoring intervention of career decision-making difficulties.
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    Persuasion by Narrative Transportation
    YAN Jin;YANG Shanshan
    2013, 21 (6):  1125-1132.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01125
    Abstract ( 758 )  
    Described as “absorption into a story”, narrative transportation is a distinct mental process and a peculiar mechanism by which people are persuaded by stories. Decision-makers who are transported by stories feel as if they were separated from the real world, experienced strong spontaneous emotion, which can be identified to the stories. Finally, their attitudes changed after transportation even though they stepped back into the real world. After reviewing the concepts of narrative processing, narrative transportation and related theories, we compared the distinction between narrative transportation and analytical elaboration by aspects of information organization, approach to persuade, logic for judgment, cognitive effort and distance to decision problems. There are important theoretical and practical implications for further research on the topic of attitude change in stories, such as narrative transportation, analytical elaboration, self-control and choice in context.
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    The Metaphorical Mapping of Social Affection on Temperature: Action Mechanisms and Its Explanation
    DING Yi;JI Tingting;ZOU Wenqian;LIU Yan;RAN Guangming;CHEN Xu
    2013, 21 (6):  1133-1140.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01133
    Abstract ( 737 )  
    Based on the perspective of conceptual metaphor theory, several recent empirical studies have suggested that there is a deeper psychological significance to the connection between temperature and social affection. Metaphor consistency effects and metaphor compensation effects are used to illustrate its mechanism. And this temperature-social affection metaphor is grounded on the early experience of the social world, and developed through scaffolding processes. In addition, the insula may be a key shared neural substrate that mediates the influence of temperature on social affection processes. Future researches on temperature-social affection metaphor should focus on the following aspects, such as improving the experimental paradigm of this metaphor, deepening our understanding of its action mechanisms, exploring the formation mechanisms from the perspective of development and at last carrying out the application work of temperature-social affection metaphor.
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