ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B


    25 July 2013, Volume 45 Issue 7 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Affect Labeling can Reduce Negative Emotions: Evidences from Autonomic Nervous Activity
    BAI Xuejun;YUE Pengfei
    2013, 45 (7):  715-724.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00715
    Abstract ( 1193 )  
    In this study of affect labeling there are two main questions. The first one is whether affect labeling will enhance or reduce the negative emotion of subjects, especially for Chinese subjects using Chinese characters. The second one is whether using words to describe the non-emotional aspects of the negative faces or pictures will reduce the emotion or not. To test these questions, we conducted two experiments. In the first experiment, 30 female university students participated. The pictures of negative faces (fear and anger) were used as materials and physiological responses, including finger temperature, skin conductance, and finger pulse, were recorded using BiopacMP150 under affect-labeling, affect-matching, gender-labeling, gender-matching, and shape-matching conditions. In the second experiment 28 female university students participated. The pictures of negative scenes were used as materials and the same physiological responses as in the first experiment were recorded using BiopacMP150 under affect-labeling, artificial vs. natural labeling, picture-matching, and shape-matching conditions. The results showed that in the first experiment, the finger pulse rates were lower in the affect labeling condition than in the affect-matching condition, but there were no differences in finger pulse rate between the gender-labeling and the picture-matching condition. In the second experiment, the finger temperatures were lower in the affect-matching condition than in the affect-labeling condition, and they were also lower in the artificial vs. natural labeling condition than in the affect-labeling condition. There were no differences in finger temperatures between the artificial or natural labeling condition and picture-matching condition. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that affect labeling can reduce the activity of the autonomic nervous system, but that gender labeling and artificial or natural labeling cannot reduce the activity of the autonomic nervous system.
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    Source Memory Under Different Emotional Contexts: An ERPs Study
    HU Zhe;ZHANG Qin;LIANG Jiuqing;GUO Chunyan
    2013, 45 (7):  725-739.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00725
    Abstract ( 934 )  
    The interaction between recognition memory and emotion has become a research hotspot in recent years. Dual process theory posits that familiarity and recollection are two separate processes contributing to recognition memory. It has been hypothesized that item retrieval is based on both familiarity and recollection, whereas source retrieval relies solely on recollection. Event related potentials(ERPs) studies on recognition memory have identified two old/new effects that refer to familiarity and recollection, respectively. The mid-frontal old/new effect, occurring at approximately 300~500ms over frontal electrode sites, is attributed to familiarity. The parietal old/new effect, approximately 500~800ms maximal over parietal electrode sites, reflects recollection. In source memory paradigm, when both the item and source are remembered accurately, it is inferred that the memory decision is based on recollection. When correct item recognition is accompanied with an incorrect source attribution, it is posited that the memory decision is based on familiarity. Recent studies have discussed the interaction between source memory and emotion under “emotional context.”, and many studies have supported the theory that source retrieval is mediated by valence of emotional context. In the present study, we used ERPs techniques to explore the cognitive and neurological mechanisms of source retrieval under different emotional contexts while applying a source memory multiple-task paradigm. Subjects in our experiment were seven men and ten women. In the study phase, participants were asked to study a series of Chinese characters (item) with emotional pictures of three valences (source) appearing as the background of the items. Meanwhile, participants were told to press a button when an animal name was shown. In the test phase, only the Chinese characters were presented. Participants were instructed to press one of four buttons on the response box to indicate whether the word was presented at encoding phase with a neutral background, a positive background, a negative background, or whether it was new. It was found that ERPs were more positive for old items of both successful and unsuccessful source retrieval than new items under all three emotional contexts between 300 and 500 ms after stimulus onset (old/new effect). The old/new effect of successful source retrieval did not differ from unsuccessful source retrieval under the neutral context, but it was larger for successful source retrieval compared to unsuccessful source retrieval under emotional context (positive and negative). At 500-650 ms, there were old/new effects for successful source retrieval under all three emotional contexts, and there were no significant differences between unsuccessful source retrieval and new items. Observations gather from similar scalp topographies of successful source retrieval and unsuccessful source retrieval revealed further supporting evidence. Moreover, emotion appeared to have a prominent effect on successful source retrieval during this time window. ERP Amplitudes of items presented with positive context were greater than those of items with negative and neutral context. In addition, results of intracranial source estimation analyses showed different brain regions related to retrieval of negative and neutral context. Our results show that item retrieval and source retrieval are based on two different cognitive processes: familiarity and recollection, respectively. Furthermore, our findings suggest that successful source retrieval and unsuccessful source retrieval may be supported by a common mechanism. Finally, there is evidence to indicate that both item retrieval and source retrieval are influenced by the emotional valence of context. Our results show that item retrieval and source retrieval are based on familiarity and recollection respectively, which are two different cognitive processes. Successful source retrieval and unsuccessful source retrieval might be supported by a common mechanism. It is also indicated that both item retrieval and source retrieval are influenced by the emotional valence of the context.
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    An fMRI Study for Problem-Finding in Scientific Inventional Situation
    TONG Dandan;DAI Tianen;LI Wenfu;QIU Jiang;ZHANG Qinglin
    2013, 45 (7):  740-751 .  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00740
    Abstract ( 809 )  
    Albert Einstein ever said that the mere formulation of a problem is far more essential than its solution, which may be merely a matter of mathematical or experimental skills. To raise new questions, new possibilities, to regard old problems from a new angle require creative imagination and marks real advances in science. Thus, finding problems is likely to be more valuable than solving problems in our life. There have been many researches about the creative problem solving, especially including about studies of neural mechanisms. However, less attention has been paid on the issue of problem finding. Hence, it’s necessary to research the neural mechanism of problem finding. When facing similar problem situation but different heuristic prototypes, people may find different valuable levels of problem. Scientific problems can lead one to acquire new thoughts on problem solving; Normal problems can only help us to get to know the problem goals but no clue. But whatever problem it finds, it will include the basic process of problem finding. In addition, the heuristic prototypes which participants learned recently or storage in brain previously may have difference in scientific valuable problem finding. As for the neural mechanism, Brain-imaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have made it possible for us to record precisely the brain activation associated with problem finding. Therefore, in the present study, using real life scientific innovations materials and fMRI techniques to explore the brain mechanisms of problem finding. In this study, 76 problem situations (on scientific innovation) were selected as materials. Of the 76 problem situations selected, 36 have related prototype and 40 do not have related prototype. The learning-testing paradigm was used to explore the brain mechanisms of problem finding with fMRI. Participants were asked to find a problem based on the given problem situation. Behavior date showed the mean accuracy rate was extremely significant higher for finding scientific problems with heuristic knowledge than without heuristic knowledge [t (17) = 8.12, p < 0.001]. And our fMRI data showed that the contrast between finding scientific problem with heuristic prototype and finding normal problem without heuristic prototype resulted in common activation in the left precentral gyrus (BA 44), the left medial frontal gyrus (BA 6), the left fusiform gyrus (BA 19), the left lentiform nucleus and the right cerebellum; The contrasts between finding scientific problems with related heuristic prototype and finding scientific problems without related heuristic prototype resulted in significant activation in the left precuneus (BA 7), the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 10) and the left middle temporal gyrus (BA 39). Based on these results above, the common activation showed that: (1) the left fusiform gyrus might be responsive to the semantic processing of each sentence. (2) The left medial frontal gyrus might be associated with the entire semantic processing and “problem finding” existed in inter-semantic (the left lentiform nucleus and the right cerebellum might be separately involved in the directing of attention and allocating attention resources). (3) The left precentral gyrus might be responsible for expressing “the problem” existed in inter-semantic in language sentence; the significant activation showed that: (1) the left precuneus might be involved in the automatic retrieve of episodic memory. (2) The left inferior frontal gyrus might be associated with cognitive control. (3) The left middle temporal gyrus might be related to the automatic activation of novel heuristic prototype.
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    Stable Egocentric Representation Acquired from Sequential Proprioceptive Learning
    XIAO Chengli
    2013, 45 (7):  752-761.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00752
    Abstract ( 536 )  
    It is generally believed that the egocentric representation is transient and primarily supported by perception. However, recent theories suggest that the egocentric representation can be an enduring component and preserved in memory. Wang (2012) proposed that the enduring egocentric representation, also referred as the egocentric snapshot, was stable and would not be disrupted by disorientation. She further suggested that the egocentric snapshot was not restricted to retinal images and could be acquired from other modalities. Her statement is consistent with the functional equivalence hypothesis (Loomis et al., 2007). These hypotheses were examined in the present study. Thirty two university students (16 men and 16 women) participated in this experiment in return for monetary compensation. Participants stood at a learning position amidst a geometrically irregular 9-object array. Half of them viewed the layout with objects being simultaneously presented, and the other half were blindfolded and led to sequentially walk to each object’s location from the learning position (proprioceptive learning). After learning the layout, all the participants were blindfolded and tested in the baseline, updating, and disorientation conditions in sequence. In the baseline condition, participants maintained their heading to scissors. In the updating condition, participants rotated 240° by themselves. Within each group, right before rotation, half the participants were explicitly instructed to use allocentric spatial relations during locomotion. The other half were not given such instruction. In the disorientation condition, participants rotated in situ until got disoriented. In each locomotion condition, it included four blocks of trials, each block involving pointing to all nine objects once in a random order. The major dependent measure was the configuration error, defined as the standard deviation of the means per target object of the signed pointing errors, which indicated the internal consistency of the pointing response among different targets. An increased configuration error after disorientation provides evidence of a disorientation effect, indicating the use of the transient egocentric representation, whereas an equivalent configuration error between these two conditions indicates the use of stable spatial relations. Finally, all participants were taken to another room to perform judgments of relative direction (JRDs) among the remembered object locations. The JRDs test included 48 trials, six trials at each of eight imagined headings (0° to 315° at 45° intervals). The dependent measures were the absolute angular error and the latency of the pointing response. Configuration errors on egocentric pointing were subjected to mixed-model analyses of variance (ANOVAs), with locomotion condition (baseline, updating, and disorientation) as the within subject variable, learning modality (vision, proprioception) and allocentric instruction (yes, no) as the between subjects variables. The results revealed no main effects or interactions of allocentric instruction. The configuration errors increased after the rotation of the participants who visually learned the layout, but were equivalent before and after the rotation of the participants who proprioceptively learned the layout. The configuration errors were indistinguishable for visual and proprioceptive learning in the baseline and the updating conditions, but significantly larger for visual learning than for proprioceptive learning in the disorientation condition. Performance data on JRDs were subjected to mixed-model analyses of variance (ANOVAs), with imagined heading (0° to 315° at 45° intervals) as the within subject variance, learning modality (vision, proprioception) and allocentric instruction (yes, no) as the between subjects variables. The results revealed no main effects or interactions of allocentric instruction. The participants’ performance on JRDs was indistinguishable for visual learning and proprioceptive learning, which indicated that participants constructed an allocentric spatial representation of equivalent fidelity through visual and proprioceptive learning. In conclusion, the results in the present study provided evidence that participants constructed a stable egocentric representation when they proprioceptively learned the irregular object array. These results are parallel to Xiao & Chen’s (2012) finding, and support Wang’s (2012) generalization of the egocentric snapshot and functional equivalence hypothesis.
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    Visual Perceptual Learning in Chinese Developmental Dyslexia
    LIN Ou;WANG Zhengke;MENG Xiangzhi
    2013, 45 (7):  762-772.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00762
    Abstract ( 1056 )  
    As to the origin and mechanisms of developmental dyslexia, nonlinguistic framework proposes that the phonological and other deficits at the linguistic level may stem from more fundamental deficits in sensory information processing, including acoustic-auditory and auditory temporal processing and visual perceptual processing. Previous studies have shown that visual perceptual deficits of dyslexic children may stem from the deficit in processing more basic visual attributes, as basic visual features are fundamental to higher-level visual processing. Perceptual learning is the improvement of perceptual performance as a function of training (Gibson, 1969), which has been found in various visual tasks involving basic visual features. Here, using visual searching tasks, the main purpose of the present study was to investigate to what extent dyslexic children would show deficits in perceptual processing and learning and whether these deficits are related to their performance in linguistic tasks. Eighteen participants, 9 with dyslexia, 9 chronological age- and nonverbal IQ-matched control children, were screened from a large pool of students in 3, 4, 5 grades with the standardized Chinese written vocabulary test, the reading fluency test and the Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices test. We tested 9 children in dyslexia group and 9 age-matched children in control group with a parallel search task, a serial search task and a serial search task in restricted time. Study 1 utilized a parallel searching task to examine whether there is a deficit in the basic searching processing and learning in dyslexia group. Study 2 used a serial searching task to explore whether there is a deficit in more complex searching processing and learning. Study 3 adopted a serial searching task with restricted time to investigate whether the ability of serial searching processing will be affected by the restricted time. The results showed that there was no difference between dyslexics and control children in parallel searching task, however, children with dyslexia had significantly longer reaction time than normal children to retrieve the target stimuli in serial searching processing. In addition, the searching accuracy was significantly lower for children with dyslexia than for control group in serial searching task with restricted time. Moreover, the searching accuracy in the serial searching task with restricted time was significantly correlated with the performance of the standardized written vocabulary test. These results showed that Chinese developmental dyslexia has deficits in perceptual processing and learning in serial searching process, suggesting that the deficits may underlie the development of Chinese reading skill to some extent.
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    The Syntactic Processing of English Passive Sentence for Late Chinese-English Bilingualists: An ERP Study
    CHANG Xin;WANG Pei
    2013, 45 (7):  773-782.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00773
    Abstract ( 642 )  
    Ample studies have investigated the effect of second language proficiency or cross-linguistic similarity on second language sentence processing. But most of them have paid more attention to one of the two factors rather than both, so it remains to be resolved which factor plays a more important role during sentence processing. Meanwhile, previous studies have mainly focused on morphosyntactic and inflectional violations of simple active sentences in Indo-European languages. Few studies on the processing of Chinese bilinguists’ passive English sentence which are difficult language points for them because the structure involves both the past participle forms of the verbs and especially passive usage of verbs. Thus, to investigate the influence of second language proficiency and syntactic similarities on the sensitivity and processing of English passive sentences, 40 late Chinese-English bilinguists were recruited (27 female, 13male; mean age = 23.88 years) who, according to their L2 proficiency, were divided into two groups (high-proficient group including 17 female and 3 male (mean age = 24.15 years) and intermediate-proficient group including 10 female and 10male (mean age = 23.6 years) to read passive sentences carefully and to indicate for each sentence whether or not it was correct. At the same time, according to cross-linguistic similarity between Chinese and English, the experiment materials -- English passive sentences were divided into literal translation sentences which and can be directly converted into Chinese Bei sentences without changes of the order of the key words in sentences and free translation sentences which are different from Chinese syntactic structure and must change the order of the words, especially the order of the agent and the recipient. In this way, these passive English sentences must be converted into active sentences in Chinese, which conforms to Chinese expression and comprehension. And the study adopted four kinds of syntactic anomalies (respectively sentences with no anomaly, sentences with syntactic anomaly 1 referring to the misuse of verb past participle forms, sentences with syntactic anomaly 2 indicating the misuse of verb original forms and sentences with syntactic anomaly 3 involving the misuse of verb present participle forms). Compared to those in free translation sentences, faster reaction time and higher accuracy rate were found in literal translation sentences, which effect was more significant in intermediate-proficient group. Syntactic anomalies with different difficulties directly influenced the passive sentence processing: the response time to obvious syntactic anomalies was fastest while the response time to “partial-correct syntactic information” was longest. Accuracy rates for obvious syntactic anomalies were highest while accuracy rates for fundamental syntactic anomalies were lowest which elicited a biggest P600 compared to P600 evoked by sentences with no anomaly. For high-proficient group, the biggest P600 was found in the fundamental syntactic anomalies while P600 in intermediate-proficient group was not influenced by different syntactic anomalies. The results showed that a better performance (shorter reaction time and higher accuracy rates) was found for high-proficient group than intermediate-proficient group. However, neural activities did not show cross-linguistic similarity effect, indicating that second language proficiency played a more significant role in English passive sentence processing. As for English passive sentence processing, it is difficult even for high-proficient bilinguists to attain the native-like biphasic ERP components due to insensitivity to the structure.
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    An Eye Movement Study about the Effect of the Illustration-text Relativeness on the Reading of College Students with Different Cognitive Styles
    FEI Guanghong;WANG Xiying;GONG Guihong
    2013, 45 (7):  783-789.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00783
    Abstract ( 942 )  
    Reading is an important cognitive activity in our daily life. Illustrations are usually used to facilitate the reading comprehension of the readers. Forty college students were sampled for this experiment. Using Eye View Monitoring Systems, this research examined the effects of two different levels of illustration-text relativeness (e.g. high vs. low) on the reading of two groups of the college students. One group was identified with the field dependence cognitive style, while the other was with the field independence cognitive style. The results indicated that: (1) the level of illustration-text relativeness demonstrated different effects on the reading of the two groups of the participants. No significant effect of the level of illustration-text relativeness was found on the reading of the participants with the field independence cognitive style, while corresponding significant effect was detected for the group with the field dependence cognitive style. Besides, the group with the field dependence cognitive style scored significant higher on the reading with high level of illustration-text relativeness than that with low level of illustration-text relativeness. (2) the participants with the field dependence cognitive style tended to actively adjust their focus of reading based on the level of the illustration-text relativeness. It is found that when the level of relativeness was high, these participants would focus more on the illustrations, while when the level was low, they would focus more on the texts instead. Besides, the average duration time for switching between the illustration and text as well as the attention on text was found to be longer for the participants with the field dependence cognitive style than for those with the field independence cognitive style. This study implied that high level of illustration-text relativeness could facilitate the reading comprehension of the readers with the field dependence cognitive style, who could actively adjust the objects to be processed when they read the materials with different levels of illustration-text relativeness.
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    Searching the Self: Encoding Self-relevant Possessive Pronoun and Theta Activity
    ZHOU Aibao;LI Shifeng;SHI Zhan;LIU Peiru;XIA Ruixue;XU Kepeng;ZHU Jing;REN Deyun
    2013, 45 (7):  790-796.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00790
    Abstract ( 676 )  
    Numerous studies have demonstrated that there is a processing bias existing in the human brain toward self-related information rather than other-related information, such as one’s own face and name. Self-related information, due to its high social/adaptive value, seems to have a preferential access to our attentional resources (the cocktail party effect) and memory system (self-reference effect). Electrophysiological studies confirmed this effect and found that self-relevant information induced enhanced ERP activations. However, in these studies on self, self-related information were adopted in concrete object. Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies showed that phase-locked electrophysiological activities mediate self-relevant possessive pronoun processing relative to non-self-relevant possessive pronoun “his”, self-relevant possessive pronoun “my” elicited a signi?cantly increased P300 amplitude. It means that even if separated from the specific object, abstract self-relevant possessive pronouns also obtained an advantage processing. However, whether non-phase-locked neural oscillations are involved in self-relevant possessive pronoun remains unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the functional role of non-phase-locked neural oscillations in encoding self-relevant possessive pronoun. The experiment was adopted a three-stimulus oddball paradigm. The experimental materials include four categories, big circle, small circle, and two types of possessive pronouns (“my”, “his”). The big circle was served as standard stimulus (80%), the small circle was served as target stimulus (10%) and two categories of possessive pronouns (“my” (5%), “his” (5%)) distractors. The task of the participants was to observe the stimuli carefully and make behavioral response to the small circle. Twenty healthy students participated in this experiment. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was continuously recorded from scalp electrodes using the 256-channel HydroCel Geodesic Sensor Net (Electrical Geodesics, Inc., Eugene, OR) while subjects were performing the tasks. Time-frequency analysis of the data was conducted using wavelet-based analysis. The maximum amplitude of the mean power of theta (4~8Hz) was extracted from a 0~800ms time-window, for each participant. The extracted power data were then analyzed using repeated measures ANOVAs, with the possessive pronouns (my, his) and the location as within-subject variables. Wavelet analysis result shows that, relative to non-self-relevant possessive pronoun “his”, self-relevant possessive pronoun “my” elicited a signi?cant higher theta-wave (4~8 Hz) power in a large range of scalp. Our EEG results provide evidence showing that, similar to the phase-locked ERPs, non-phase-locked neural activities were also modulated the processing of self-relevant possessive pronouns, and this modulation involves the interplay of multiple cortices. Based on the existing related research, in this study, the large-scale increase in theta power that was found in processing self-relevant possessive pronouns might reflect the attention preference triggered by its intrinsic psychological significance and the encoding and retrieval of abundant information that can be called in “My”.
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    Peer Rejection, Peer Acceptance and Psychological Adjustment of Left-Behind Children: The Roles of Parental Cohesion and Children’s Cultural Beliefs about Adversity
    ZHAO Jingxin;LIU Xia;ZHANG Wenxin
    2013, 45 (7):  797-810 .  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00797
    Abstract ( 2502 )  
    The widening gap in societal and economic development between urban and rural communities and the relaxation of migration restrictions in China since the 1980s have led large numbers of rural laborers to leave their countryside homes in search of better job opportunities in urban areas. As a result of this wave of migration, millions of children were left behind by their migrant parent in rural communities, in the care of the nonmigrant parent, the children’s grandparents or other relatives, even some are left to care for themselves. Long-term and long-distance family separation and lack of face-to-face communications characterize the interactions between migrant parent(s) and their left-behind offspring, and this relative absence of parental affection puts left-behind children at a disadvantage compared with children from nonmigrant families. Although left-behind children were reported to have a higher probability of risk for maladjustment than their peers from nonmigrant families, literatures suggest that there are considerable variations in the adaptations of left-behind children; while some children are at a high risk for delays in adaptive functioning, some do not experience adaptive problems, and still some even show positive development. A key issue with important preventive and theoretical implications in the study of left-behind children involves the identification of potentially protective processes that support positive adaptation in children from migrant families. The present study was designed to examine the moderate effects of parental cohesion and children’s cultural beliefs about adversity on the relationship between peer rejection/acceptance and adaptive functioning by comparing left-behind children with children from nonmigrant families. A total of 424 rural children were recruited from a rural area in Henan province of China, including 76 children from two-parent-migrant families, 133 children from father-migrant families, and 215 children from nonmigrant families. Peer rejection and acceptance, children’s aggression and school disengagement were measured by peer rating. The participants also completed self-report measures of parental cohesion, Chinese cultural beliefs about adversity and loneliness. The results showed that peer rejection was positively associated with children’s aggression, loneliness and school disengagement, while peer acceptance was negatively associated with children’s loneliness and school disengagement. Father-child cohesion, mother-child cohesion and positive beliefs about adversity predicted lower levels of children’s loneliness. Moreover, father-child cohesion and mother-child cohesion respectively moderated the relationship between peer acceptance and children’s loneliness. Specifically, at lower levels of parental cohesion, peer acceptance was negatively associated with children’s loneliness, but such association was not significant at higher levels of parental cohesion. Additionally, the moderation effect of parental cohesion on the relationships between peer rejection and children’s aggression and between peer rejection and school disengagement varied according to the status of parental migration (two-parent migrant families and nonmigrant families). Compared with children from nonmigrant families, higher levels of father-child cohesion and mother-child cohesion better attenuated the relationship between peer rejection and the external problems among children from two-parent migrant families. These findings did not support the hypothesis that migrant parent serves as the by-stander in left-behind children’s development, and highlight the importance of parental cohesion and peer acceptance for the positive adaptations of left-behind children. The implications of these findings for interventions directed at left-behind children were also discussed.
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    Intergenerational Latent Solidarity Class and Relationship Quality among Chinese: Implications for Self-reported Health and Well-being
    2013, 45 (7):  811-824 .  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00811
    Abstract ( 924 )  
    The present research aimed to investigate the associations between solidarity and quality of intergenerational relationships between adult children and their parents and their physical and psychological consequences. In Study 1, latent class analysis on the basis of data from Chinese adult children (N = 1283) shows that six latent solidarity classes emerged, and results of multinomial logistic regression indicate that the characteristics of both generations affect latent solidarity class and relationship quality. In Study 2, data from 367 Chinese intergenerational dyads (adult child-parent, N = 734) were analyzed by actor-partner interaction models, and results indicate that better latent solidarity class (both self and partner) and better relationship quality (self not partner) are associated with both generations’ higher well-being, and better latent solidarity class (both self and partner) and better relationship quality (both self and partner) predict both generations’ lower distress; generation and gender modulate effects of solidarity class and relationship quality on self-rated health and well-being, whereas interaction and similarity between solidarity classes reported by both generations’ also affect well-being and distress.
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