ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B


    25 May 2013, Volume 45 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    The Neural Mechanism underlying Music Perception: A Meta-analysis of fMRI Studies
    LAI Han;XU Miao;SONY Yiying;LIU Jia
    2013, 45 (5):  491-507.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00491
    Abstract ( 1173 )  
    Music is part of the human nature. Music perception involves a series of hierarchical processing levels, including auditory feature extraction, gestalt formation, interval analysis, and structure analysis. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified multiple cortical regions involved in different levels of music perception, but these studies yielded inconsistent findings possibly because different research paradigms and data analysis methods were used. Therefore, the neural mechanism underlying music perception is unclear. In this study we performed a meta-analysis to identify brain regions stably recruited by music perception. Specially, we focused on two processing levels specific to music perception, which were interval analysis and structure analysis. In addition, to explore the hierarchical structure of music perception, we examined the possible overlapping and dissociation of the regions involved in interval analysis and structure analysis. We used meta-analysis approach to re-analyze results from fMRI studies on interval analysis and structure analysis. There were eight studies on interval analysis which included 15 contrasts and 63 peaks, and ten studies on structure analysis which included 19 contrasts and 217 peaks. The coordinates of peak voxels reported in these studies were projected onto a brain template to visualize the distributions of activations recruited by interval analysis and structure analysis respectively. To identify brain regions stably activated by music perception, peaks of each analysis level were segregated into a number of spatially distinct clusters, using a hierarchical classification algorithm that minimized the spatial extent within each cluster while maximizing the peak-to-peak distance between clusters. Then, we calculated mean coordinates for each cluster in the MNI space and used FSL View procedure to identify the anatomical label of each cluster. Finally, to explore whether clusters belonging to the two analysis levels were spatially overlapped or dissociated, we examined the pairs of clusters with distances less than 7mm (about 3 voxels) by K-means clustering. The meta-analysis identified 12 clusters for interval analysis and 29 clusters for structure analysis. Clusters for interval analysis primarily localized in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) with the peaks distribution rate (PDR)being 43%, while clusters for structure analysis mainly localized in the prefrontal cortex with a PDR of 34%. Although both interval analysis and structure analysis involved frontal, temporal, parietal and insular areas, their activations overlapped only in the posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus (STGp). In sum, the meta-analysis suggests that interval analysis and structure analysis are two separate processing levels in the hierarchical structure of music perception, with largely dissociated neural activations. In addition, the two analysis levels intersected only in STGp, which might play a role in information exchanges between interval analysis and structure analysis. Thus, our study provides clues for future researches on neural basis underlying hierarchical structure of music perception.
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    The Electrophysiological Mechanisms of Constraint Relaxation Studied with A Chinese Logogriph Task
    XING Qiang;ZHANG Zhonglu;WANG Mengruo;ZHANG Jinlian;WANG Jing;YAO Yanfen;ZHAN Danling
    2013, 45 (5):  508-516.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00508
    Abstract ( 756 )  
    Although constraint relaxation had been proposed by Knoblich and colleagues in 1990s as a key process in insight problem solving, the involved procedure and stages of information processing and the associated brain mechanisms have not yet been investigated in detail. From a theoretical perspective, the present paper for the first time proposed a preliminary account of the processing stages in hinted constraint relaxation, based on evidence from a logogriph insight problem solving task involving the use of hinted answers. According to this account, in insight problem solving, hinted constraint relaxation consists of three different information processing stages. The first stage involves pre-warning from conflicting messages or preprocessing operations characterized by the engagement of early attention. The second stage is the crucial process of constraint relaxation characterized by the alternation between the old and new ways of thinking. As this process mainly involves the expansion of the space for basic problem representation, the right hemisphere is suggested to play a dominant role during the process. The third stage is the process of re-integration characterized by top-down controlled processing. In support of this account, the ERP results showed that the first stage manifested itself as the N100/P200 complex accompanying constraint relaxation in insight problem solving; that the second stage manifested itself as the P300 varying in the 300-400ms time window illustrated with scalp topography and difference waves; and that the third stage manifested itself as changes in N400 in the 400-800ms time window. Furthermore, the ERP results showed that in stage 2, or the crucial stage for constraint relaxation, the right brain showed significantly stronger activity than the left brain, suggesting that the expansion of the basic problem representation space relies more on the right brain. In contrast, an opposite trend in the pattern of hemisphere lateralization was found in stage 3 or the stage for information re-integration. These findings offer a new view in understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms of constraint relaxation in insight problem solving.
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    Effect of Earthquake Experience on the Perceptual Interference with Unfilled Intervals in Chinese Characters
    YANG Xinyue;WANG Quanhong;LU Qilin
    2013, 45 (5):  517-522.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00517
    Abstract ( 701 )  
    The perceptual interference effect states that a moderately degraded stimulus is less readily identified when depicted in a sequence of exposures from a highly degraded form than when presented all at once (standard condition). Thirty-two middle-school students from Mianzhu City (an earthquake-prone area), Sichuan province, China, were selected as major (experimental) participants, while thirty-two middle-school students from Beibei, Chongqing were chosen as control participants. This study, which consisted of two experiments (major and control), explored the effect of earthquake experience on the identification of Chinese characters with a paradigm of perceptual interference with unfilled interval (blank screen between exposures). The participants in each experiment were required to identify fragmented target characters in eight conditions by typing down the identity of each target. These conditions resulted from a within-participant design of 2 (material conditions: earthquake-related and unrelated characters) × 4 (presentation conditions, namely, three incremental conditions with interval durations of 0, 450, 900 ms, and the standard condition). These two experiments were combined into a dummy experiment of a mixed design for further analyses. Repeated measures analyses of variance were first conducted on percentages of the correct completion of target fragments. The major experiment indicated a significant difference in the performance between material conditions. The interference effect remained for earthquake-related characters in the critical 450 ms condition, while the effect for the unrelated characters disappeared. By contrast, the control experiment showed no difference in performance between material conditions. More critically, the results found no difference in the identification of the unrelated characters (i.e., recognition ability) between the control and major participants, yet the interference effect disappeared even for the earthquake-related characters in the 450 ms condition among the control participants. Based on these results, the identification performance of the participants with earthquake experience was higher on earthquake-related characters than the unrelated characters, and the perceptual interference for “normal” (unrelated) characters disappeared on the duration of 450 ms. However, the interference for the earthquake-related characters remained. The notion of persistent activation of representation cross unfilled intervals in the competitive activation model could explain why sometimes the interference occurred at the interval of 450 ms, and why sometimes it disappeared. The present study also supported the view that emotion (such as fear) drives perceptual processing.
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    Roles of Semantic Similarity and Category Size on Semantic Effect in Picture-Word Interference Paradigm
    FANG Yanhong;ZHANG Jijia
    2013, 45 (5):  523-537.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00523
    Abstract ( 783 )  
    One of the workhorses in studying spoken word production is the picture-word interference paradigm (PWI). In this paradigm, speakers are instructed to ignore superimposed written distractor words while fulfilling the picture-naming task. An essential finding in picture - word interference paradigm is that people spend more time in naming pictures when distractor word is of the same semantic category as the picture naming (semantic related word) than when the distractor is unrelated. That effect is often referred to as “semantic interference effect (SIE)”. A reversed finding is that pictures naming latency is shorter in condition of semantic related words than in condition of unrelated words. That effect is referred to as “semantic facilitation effect”. At present, there are several theories about the nature and level of semantic effects in picture - word interference paradigm. Lexical selection by competition hypothesis assumes that SIE is the result of competition between the representations of semantic related distractor word and the target word and then arises at lexical level. Conceptual selection model interprets the semantic effects as the result of competition between the representations of distractor conception and the target conception. As a result, semantic effect should arise at semantic level. Response selection account proposes that there is a single-channel output buffer in word production and the non –target response would occupy the buffer earlier than the target. It will take some time to exclude the non-target response from the buffer and induces SIE. So SIE arises at the post-lexical stage in word production. Each account has its experimental evidence and each has its difficulty in explaining some semantic phenomenon. In the present study, 2 experiments were conducted to investigate the universality of current semantic theories and to explore the roles of semantic similarity and category size on semantic effect in PWI. In Experiment 1, subjects were asked to name pictures accompanied by words with high semantic similarity or words with low semantic similarity at either basic level or at category level. Results showed a shorter picture - naming latency in condition of high semantic similarity distractor words than in condition of low semantic similarity words, leading to significant semantic similarity effect. Nevertheless, semantic similarity effect occurred in basic - level naming rather than in category - level naming and the effect was stronger for low familiar pictures than for high familiar ones. Experiment 1 also showed that latency of category - level naming was shorter than that of basic-level naming and high familiar pictures were named faster than low familiar ones. Combining previous studies, these results suggested that the intensity of semantic relationship between pictures and words would affect the direction of semantic effect in the PWI. Semantic facilitation effect will be found when there is strong semantic relationship between pictures and words. Otherwise, semantic interference will be found. In Experiment 2, subjects were asked to name pictures accompanied by semantic related words or by unrelated words. Thirty pictures from large size of category and another thirty pictures from small size of category were chosen for this experiment. Results showed that semantic related words had rather different influences on pictures naming in different condition. They would promote pictures category-level naming, thus giving rise to semantic facilitation effect. However, they would interference pictures basic-level naming, thus causing semantic interference effect. Category size had a prominent influence on these semantic effects. Semantic interference effect would be stronger for large size of category pictures in basic-level naming and semantic facilitation effect also would be stronger for big size of category pictures in category-level naming. Combining previous studies, the experiment suggested that the range of semantic relationship between pictures and words affects the size of semantic effect. When there is wide range of semantic relationship, the semantic effect will became stronger. Otherwise, the semantic effect will be weaker. Single current theory of semantic effect couldn’t give a proper explanation for the findings in this study. Results in this study were discussed with reference to the equilibrium between conceptual priming and lexical competition. If the conceptual priming overweight the lexical competition, semantic facilitation effect would be found, otherwise semantic interference would be found.
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    The Vertical Spatial Metaphor of Moral Concepts and Its Influence on Cognition
    WANG Zeng;LU Zhongyi
    2013, 45 (5):  538-545.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00538
    Abstract ( 1437 )  
    Three studies investigate the vertical spatial metaphor of moral concepts and its influence on cognition. Study 1 was a paper-pencil forced-choice task in which participants saw a cartoon character and two square boxes (one above and one below the character), and were asked to place moral and immoral words into the top or the bottom box of their own will. A matching effect appeared both between the moral terms and the above/up space, and between the immoral terms and the below/down space. Study 2 was a computerized categorization task carried out in E-prime. Participants were instructed to categorize words according to whether they were positive or negative in meaning as quickly and accurately as possible. Response times were shorter when moral words appeared at the top of the screen, and when immoral words appeared at the bottom. Study 3 employed a implicit priming task in which participants first memorized moral or immoral concepts and then estimated the height of objects. Moral concepts led to height overestimation while immoral ones led to underestimation. All together, the results suggest that, for Chinese language, there is psychological reality of “Moral is up, immoral is down”. Such a spatial representation of Chinese moral concepts exists at both the conscious and the subconscious level. Other cognitive activities can be influenced by the spatial metaphor of moral concepts subtly. And this new effect is called the Cognitive Deviation Effect of Chinese Moral Concepts’ Metaphorical Representation.
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    The Effect of Low versus High Approach-Motivated Positive Affect on Cognitive Control
    WANG Zhenhong;LIU Ya;JIANG Changhao
    2013, 45 (5):  546-555.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00546
    Abstract ( 1701 )  
    The motivational dimensional model of affect, proposed by Gable and Harmon-Jones (2010), posits that approach motivational intensity of positive affect modulates the influence of positive affect on cognition. In line with this model, accumulating evidences have supported this hypothesis. Studies have found that low approach-motivated positive affect (e.g., serenity) broadens, whereas high approach-motivated positive affect (e.g., desire) narrows cognitive breadth, such as the breadth of attention, memory, and cognitive categorization. However, little is known about whether the influence of positive affect on cognitive control, which partly reflects the temporality of cognitive processes, is modulated by the approach motivational intensity of positive affect. Therefore, two experiments in this study were conducted to investigate this issue. In experiment 1, a modified stop-signal task was used to explore the influence of approach motivational intensity of positive affect on inhibition control. The stop signal task involved two concurrent tasks, a primary go task and a secondary stop task. The go task was a two-choice reaction time task that required participants to discriminate the location of black squares (2.4 cm × 2.4 cm) positing on the center of the left or right part of the screen. The stop task, which occurred pseudo-randomly and infrequently (25% of the total trials), involved presentation of a red circle (stop signal) that countermanded the go signal by instructing participants to inhibit their planned response to the go task on that trial. Ninety-one undergraduates were randomly assigned to the three conditions: low approach-motivated positive affect (31, 17 females), high approach-motivated positive affect (30, 16 females), and neutral (30, 16 females) conditions. One-way ANOVAs demonstrated that the effects of emotional pictures on response execution and inhibition were significant. Scheffe tests revealed that, relative to the neutral condition, response inhibition was faster in low approach-motivated positive affect condition, while response execution was faster in high approach-motivated positive affect condition. In experiment 2, we used typical numerical classification tasks to examine the influence of approach motivational intensity of positive affect on task switching. Eighty-four new undergraduates (48 females) were randomly assigned to three experimental conditions. Participants had to judge whether a digit (1~9, excluding 5) was smaller or larger than five (smaller–larger task) or whether it was odd or even (odd–even task). We used either a square or diamond frame with sides that were 4.8 cm in length as task cues to indicate the smaller–larger task or odd–even task, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVAs on reaction time and error rate showed that low approach-motivated positive affect facilitated switched task, while high approach-motivated positive affect facilitated repeated task. Results also indicated that low approach-motivated positive affect reduced reaction time and error switch costs, whereas high approach-motivated positive affect increased reaction time switch costs. In summary, this research suggests that low approach-motivated positive affect enhances cognitive flexibility, whereas high approach-motivated positive affect enhances cognitive stability. The current research extends previous work on cognitive breadth to cognitive control which partly reflects the temporality of cognitive processes. Taken together, this line of research suggests that the effects of positive affect on cognitive processes are modulated by its approach motivational intensity.
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    A Multilevel Analysis of the Developmental Trajectory of Preschoolers’ Effortful Control and Prediction by Parental Parenting Style
    LIANG Zongbao;ZHANG Guangzhen;DENG Huihua;SONG Yuan;ZHENG Wenming
    2013, 45 (5):  556-567.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00556
    Abstract ( 1639 )  
    Learning to voluntarily suppress impulsivity and activate behavior in accord with social norms and expectations is one of greatest developmental task for preschoolers. Effortful control is the core component of self-regulation and refers to an individual’s ability to inhibit dominant behavior and perform subdominant behavior, as well as modulate physiological, emotional, and behavioral responses during this process. Most of previous research has found that early effortful control plays an important role in human life. It can improve individuals’ physiological and mental health, socio-economic status, and reduce their maladjusted behavior. Although existing research has suggested that preschoolers’ effortful control increases with age, the developmental trajectory of effortful control during preschool years needs further clarification. Whether the developmental trajectory during preschool years is linear or nonlinear, and whether the initial developmental level and change speed are related need to be further studied. Furthermore, the contribution of parenting beliefs and behavior to individual difference in the development of effortful control is very important for educational prevention. This longitudinal study explored the developmental trajectory of preschoolers’ effortful control and the contribution of parental parenting style to it. Four hundred and seventy four preschoolers (264 boys and 210 girls, Mage=50.92 months, SD = 4.21 at the first stage) and their parents participated in this study. Both fathers and mothers reported parenting beliefs and behavior and mother also rated children’s effortful control when children were 4, 5 and 6 years old. Multilevel analysis indicated that: (1) Children’s effortful control increased in a linear fashion during preschool years, and there are significant individual difference in the increasing linear slope and the final development level of effortful control. Children who exhibited higher initial effortful control exhibited a steeper increase in effortful control over time. (2) Children whose parents displayed encouragement and acceptance at T1 exhibited higher effortful control at T3. Children whose parents reported more rejection and punishment at T1 exhibited lower effortful control in at T3. (3) Paternal encouragement and acceptance predicted a steeper increase in the development of children’s effortful control, whereas maternal encouragement and acceptance predicted a slower increase in the development of effortful control. (4) Paternal parenting beliefs and behavior at T1 explained 10% and 2% of the variance in T3 and slope of their children’s effortful control during the preschool years, respectively, while mothers’ beliefs/behavior explained 14% and 3% of the analogous variance. In combination, fathers’ and mothers’ beliefs/behavior explained 19% of the variance in effortful control at age 6 and 10% of the variance in the slope of effortful control.
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    Perceived Discrimination and Subjective Well-being among Urban Migrant Children: The Effect of Mediator and Moderator
    LIU Xia;ZHAO Jingxin;SHEN Jiliang
    2013, 45 (5):  568-584.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00568
    Abstract ( 1357 )  
    According to the recent statistics by Chinese government, there are more than 43 million children who migrated with their parents from rural areas to cities, and the number still keeps growing (Floating population division of national population and family planning commission, 2010). Existing literature suggests that perceived discrimination is a critical factor in the adaptation of migrant children to the city and school life, and that many migrant children had experienced some form of discrimination. For more than half a century, psychologists have examined discrimination primarily from the perspective of the members of dominant social groups. Recently, attention has turned to how potential targets of discrimination construe their predicaments and the effect of perceived discrimination on psychological adaptation. The majority of research has found that perceived discrimination has negative effect on well-being. Other lines of research conducted within a feedback-oriented paradigm have suggested that perceived discrimination has indirect positive effect on well-being. In order to providing a deeper understanding of the complexity of perceived discrimination, the rejection-identification model (RIM) was proposed as a theoretical framework to specify both positive and negative consequences of perceived discrimination. While the RIM has provided new insights and elucidated several key pathways in the formation of subjective well-being, it still needs to be improved with incorporating current theory. Based on the refinement of the RIM, this study aimed to explore the mediating effects of in-group identity and perceived group status on the relationship between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being, and to examine the moderating role of belonging need on the mediating effects. Totally, 1551 migrant children from public schools and migrant children schools in Beijing volunteered to participate in this study. Data of demographic information (i.e., gender, grade, and school type), perceived discrimination, in-group identity (i.e., cognitive identity and emotional identity), perceived in-group status, belonging need, personal and collective subjective well-being were collected through a set of self-administrated questionnaires. The results indicated that the migrant children in public primary schools had higher scores on personal and collective subjective well-being than did those in public middle schools and migrant children schools; compared with girls, boys had higher scores on life satisfaction and lower scores on collective well-being. Perceived discrimination had negative direct effects on the personal and collective subjective well-being of migrant children, and negative indirect effect on the collective subjective well-being via the mediating effects of in-group emotional identity and perceived in-group status. The effects of perceived discrimination on personal and collective subjective well-being differed across the levels of migrant children’s belonging need. For those with higher level of belonging need, perceived discrimination had negative direct effects on the personal subjective well-being, and negative indirect effect via the dual mediating effects of perceived in-group status and collective well-being; it also had negative indirect effects on the collective well-being via the complete mediating effect of perceived in-group status. For those with lower level of belonging need, perceived discrimination had both negative direct effects on the personal subjective well-being and positive indirect effects via the mediating effects of in-group emotional identity and perceived in-group status ; moreover, it had negative indirect effects on the collective subjective well-being via the complete mediating effects of in-group emotional identity and perceived in-group status. Overall, the present study showed that the mediating effects of in-group emotional identity and perceived in-group status on the relationship between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being was moderated by belonging need. And as a result, identifying the conditions of mediating mechanism is very important to fully understand the relationship between perceived discrimination and subjective well-being. We should consider the in-group emotional identity, perceived group status, and the level of belonging need in the prevention and intervention of migrant children’s perceived discrimination.
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    The Influence of Differentiated Transformational Leadership on Knowledge Sharing and Team Creativity: A Social Network Explanation
    CAI Yahua;JIA Liangding;YOU Shuyang;ZHANG Yi;CHEN Yanlu
    2013, 45 (5):  585-598.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2013.00585
    Abstract ( 1069 )  
    Differentiated transformational leadership is an emerging area in leadership studies. The existing studies on this topic are limited to the traditional social-psychological perspectives. Drawing from the social network perspective, this study aimed to address the puzzling issue of how differentiated transformational leadership would affect team knowledge sharing and thus team creativity. Specifically, we theorized that team communication network density as a shared team property that would mediate the relationship between team-focused transformational leadership and subsequent team knowledge sharing, and the communication network density divergence among team members as a configural team property that would mediate the relationship between differentiated individual-focused transformational leadership and subsequent team knowledge sharing. We also hypothesized that team knowledge sharing would positively influence team creativity. We collected data from an eastern province of People’s Republic of China. Our targeted firms were high-technology firms accredited by the Ministry of Science and Technology. We randomly selected 102 firms from the whole population of 2,043 government-accredited high-technology firms in the province (i.e., 5%). With the help of local government, 65 firms participated in the survey. All measurement instruments were adapted from well-established scales. We collected transformational leadership, work-related communication network, team knowledge sharing, and team creativity data from team members and the human resource manager at each participating firm. 225 teams in 65 firms provided matched observations and were included in the data analyses. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) showed acceptable model fit indices. We also obtained sufficient inter-rated agreement (Rwg) and intra-class correlation (ICC) values to justify the aggregation of shared team-level property, such as team-focused transformational leadership, and team knowledge sharing. We used the structural equation modeling (SEM) with the software of Lisrel to test our hypotheses. Findings generally supported our hypotheses. Results showed that team-focused transformational leadership had a significantly positive effect on knowledge sharing and team communication network density mediated this relationship. Meanwhile, differentiated individual-focused transformational leadership had a significantly negative effect on knowledge sharing and the communication network density divergence among team members mediated this relationship. Also, knowledge sharing had a significantly positive effect on team creativity. Our results revealed that in Chinese context team knowledge sharing is a salient predictor of team creativity. Moreover, team-focused transformational leadership positively influenced team knowledge sharing which was mediated through team communication network density; differentiated individual-focused transformational leadership negatively influenced team knowledge sharing which was mediated through team member communication network density divergence. We highlighted the theoretical and managerial implications of the potential dark side of differentiated transformational leadership behaviors in Chinese context.
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