ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B


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    Special Issue on “Psychological Characteristics and Behaviors of Chinese People in Response to Crisis and Challenges”
    Zhong-yong action self as a contributing factor to COVID-19 crisis management
    YANG Chung Fang
    2023, 55 (3):  355-373.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00355
    Abstract ( 345 )  
    This paper adopts an indigenous approach to explain why China can contain the COVID-19 Crisis swiftly and efficiently. For this purpose, it proposes a new conceptualization for studying the Chinese self—the Zhong- yong action self.
    The action self refers to the self, activated by the situation an individual is facing, based on which the actor thinks about and decides the proper action to take. During the COVID-19 Crisis, beside the individuated self (the small self), many other more inclusive selves (the large selves), such as the family self, the community self, and the country self, are being mobilized at the same time, all of which demand the actor to exercise self-control and to help others to achieve the common goal—defeating the virus. This concerted effort thereby creates strength and flexibility in managing the crisis.
    In every-day life situation, the many selves activated may demand conflicting actions from the actor. An adoption of the Zhong-yong deliberation process negotiate the most appropriate action, to help maintain inner peace and outer harmony with others and the flux environment. The author hopes that this new formulation will lead to new directions to the study of “the Chinese self.”
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    Dialectical leadership behavior and its impact on firm innovation capability and performance: An exploration based on the Chinese culture
    WANG Hui, WANG Ying, JI Xiaode, JI Ming
    2023, 55 (3):  374-389.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00374
    Abstract ( 369 )   HTML ( 34 )  
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    Under the framework of exploring the psychological and behavioral characteristics of Chinese people in coping with crises, this paper explores the conceptualization, structure, measurement, and uniqueness of dialectical leadership behavior, as well as discuss its influence on firm innovation capability and performance. This study found that dialectical leadership behavior, which stemmed from the traditional Chinese and Eastern Asia culture, has six dimensions: 1) timely adjusting, 2) individualized mentoring, 3) balancing between kindness and strictness, 4) weighing contradictions, 5) promoting coordination, and 6) holistically managing. Results from multiple studies show that: 1) dialectical leadership behavior is different from other existing leadership behavior concepts; 2) the mean level of Chinese top managers' dialectical leadership behavior is higher than the United States top managers' dialectical leadership behavior; 3) dialectical leadership behavior is positively related to firm innovation capability and performance. Moreover, we also identified firm strategic flexibility as the underlining mechanism in the above relationships. Finally, we discuss the theoretical and practical implications and future research direction.

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    Round outside and square inside: The latent profile structure and adaptability of Chinese interpersonal relatedness
    ZHOU Mingjie, LI Fugui, MU Weiqi, FAN Weiqiao, ZHANG Jianxin, ZHANG Miaoqing
    2023, 55 (3):  390-405.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00390
    Abstract ( 225 )   HTML ( 6 )  
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    What is Chinese personality? This question has long attracted the interest of researchers. Joint factor analyses of the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory (CPAI), which was generated using a combined emic-etic approach, and the NEO-FFI, which measures western-derived Big Five personality factors, produced six factors. These correspond to the five factors from the Big Five Model plus an Interpersonal Relatedness factor (IR). These six factors constitute the “Big Six” personality structure that describes and explains Chinese personality or behavior. IR is a culturally specific personality dimension that is closely related to traditional Chinese culture. The existence of IR has been confirmed by a large number of studies, but its connotations need to be further explored and refined. This paper discussed the subtypes of the Chinese IR personality trait from a quantitative perspective and further explored which subtype of IR was more adaptive.

    The study adopted a “person-centered approach” to reveal the overall nature of IR in Chinese people. In Study 1, 1911 participants of the CPAI-2 normative sample were analyzed with latent profile analysis (LPA) in terms of six dimensions of IR - Ren Qing (relatedness Orientation), Harmony, Interpersonal Sensitivity, Discipline, Thrift vs. Extravagance, and Traditionalism vs. Modernity - to explore the latent subtypes of IR. In Study 2, 200 white people were investigated to explore the latent profile structure of Interpersonal Relatedness in non-Chinese people. In Study 3, 2580 juniors from a comprehensive university were investigated to verify the latent structure of IR obtained in Study 1. The LPA method with outcome variables (BCH method) was used to investigate the social adaptability of different subtypes of college students in the latent structure of IR in terms of academic performance, knowledge sharing behavior, and mental health.

    The results of study 1 showed that the fourfold classification model of IR had the best fitting index. The fourfold classification model was specifically composed of high and low scores of “round outside” (including three latent personality constructs of Ren Qing, Harmony, and Interpersonal Sensitivity) and “square inside” (including three latent personality constructs of Discipline, Thrift vs. Extravagance, and Traditionalism vs. Modernity). The four subtypes were “gentlemen” who were round outside and square inside, pedantic persons who were non-round outside and square inside, two-faced persons who were non-round outside and non-square inside, and hypocrites who were round outside and non-square inside. The fourfold classification model showed that the latent profile structure of the Chinese IR personality trait involved the dialectical unity of “round outside” and “square inside.” The results of study 2 showed that the latent profile structure of the four categories of "round outside and square inside" did not appear in the Western samples, which reflected the Chinese cultural specificity of the "round outside and square inside" latent profile of Interpersonal Relatedness. The results of study 3 verified the fourfold classification model of study 1. The results of BCH in study 3 found that among the four subgroups, the subgroup of “round outside and square inside” had better academic performance, higher levels of mental health, and more knowledge sharing behaviors, which indicated that this subgroup was the most adaptable in modern society.

    The results are discussed in relation to traditional Chinese culture, especially regarding the characteristics of the Confucian “gentleman personality.” The research provides a rich historical context and insight into the applicability to the contemporary life of the dialectical and unified “round outside and square inside” behavior mode of contemporary Chinese people.

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    Equalitarianism and wealth in China: Changes in perceptions of fairness
    WANG Junxiu, LIU Yangyang
    2023, 55 (3):  406-420.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00406
    Abstract ( 128 )   HTML ( 18 )  
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    The eradication of absolute poverty is an important measure of progress in achieving social equality in China, where common prosperity is the main social goal. However, since the founding of modern-day China, it has not only changed from poverty to wealth, but also from addressing imbalances between the rich and poor to an uneven distribution of wealth. The great changes seen over the past century in China have impacted people who have adhered to the idea of equality between the rich and the poor for thousands of years, resulting in a psychological crisis of fairness. A sense of fairness is a subjective response to social equality, which is bound to fluctuate with changes in the distribution of wealth. Therefore, combined with dramatic social changes in recent decades, this paper discusses changes in residents’ sense of fairness and explores the path to resolving this equity crisis.

    Based on the data of the Comprehensive Survey of Chinese Society (CGSS) conducted by Renmin University in China and the survey of social conditions conducted by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CSS) from 2006 to 2017, this study examines cross-sectional data spanning ten years. The hierarchical age-period-cohort model (HAPC) is used to analyze trends in changes in Chinese people’s sense of fairness in three-time dimensions: age, period, and birth cohort.

    The study found that sense of fairness has a significant time effect in China. (1) The sense of fairness among middle-aged adults was lower than among younger and older adults (Figure 1). (2) The sense of fairness was high in 2008, trended lower from 2010 to 2013, and started to rise again after 2015 (Figure 2). (3) Before the founding of the People’s Republic of China, the sense of fairness of the birth cohort was low. The sense of fairness of the birth cohort was high in the early days of the founding of the People’s Republic of China, but it has been lower since the birth cohort of 1953. In the early 1960s, the sense of fairness in the birth cohort rebounded, but after that, it continued to decline. The sense of fairness was the lowest after 1980, but there has been a sharp upward trend since 1990 (Figure 3). (4) There are significant differences in perceptions of fairness between urban and rural areas and level of education.

    This study found that although economic growth has been significant, wealth distribution has not been equitable, and that economic growth alone cannot improve social equity. These two variables jointly affect people’s sense of fairness. Under certain conditions, people do not suffer from scarcity but suffer from inequality. Addressing scarcity is the basis for improving the sense of social fairness. If the distribution system is unjust, people’s sense of fairness will be even lower. After eradicating poverty, a wealth distribution system would have obvious benefits for improving the sense of fairness. This conclusion is instructive for the implementation of China’s common prosperity policy.

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    The breath of temporal information focus among Chinese people
    JI Li-Jun, WU Ying, YANG Yiyin
    2023, 55 (3):  421-434.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00421
    Abstract ( 171 )  
    This paper reviews past research on temporal information focus and lay theories of change among Chinese people and discusses their theoretical and practical implications. Temporal information focus refers to the breadth of focus people direct to temporal information, pertaining to the past, present and future. People with a broader temporal information focus attend to a more extensive range of information along the temporal dimension. Past research has shown that, compared to North Americans, Chinese people attend more to the past, as well as the future, demonstrating a broader temporal information focus. Relative to North Americans, they judge the past as more relevant to the present, perceive the past and future to be closer to the present, and hold information pertaining to the distant past and future in a more accessible state within their minds.
    Such broader temporal focus among Chinese people has important impacts on other psychological processes. For example, it contributes to Chinese individual’s greater sense of self-continuity over time. Self-continuity refers to the sense of perceiving oneself as a unity that transcends the present and extends to the past and future. With various approaches, research has demonstrated that Chinese participants have a greater sense of self-continuity across time, from the past to the present, and then to the future. In addition, Chinese participants also show a greater sense of self-continuity across generations, in that they tend to think they are the extension of their grandparents and parents, which will continue into their children and grandchildren.
    Broader temporal focus among Chinese people may also contribute to their lay theories (or beliefs) of change - that is, their beliefs about how events develop over time. Attending to a broader range of temporal information may make it easy to identify changes over time. Relative to North Americans, Chinese people hold a more cyclical belief about change, as they expect events to change in a continuous manner, and such change can take place from one extreme to the other and vice versa (e.g., from good to bad, and then from bad to good). Such lay theories of change start to emerge in school-age children and increase with age. Such beliefs apply to predictions of other people’s behaviors, as well as predictions of one’s own experience (such as happiness throughout life). These predictions have impacts in real life (e.g., stock market predictions and decisions). They may also influence how people perceive and respond to adversity in real life. For example, Chinese participants tend to conceptualize suffering in both negative and positive terms. Thus, compared to North Americans, Chinese participants are more likely to see the positive aspects within negative experiences, and will consequently respond more positively to adverse life situations such as a pandemic. This paper considers potential factors contributing to the broader temporal information focus among Chinese people, proposes a cultural psychological model for temporal focus, and discusses fruitful directions for future research.
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    Changes in the intertemporal choices of people in or close to Chinese culture can predict their self-rated survival achievement in the fight against COVID-19: A cross-national study in 18 Asian, African, European, American, and Oceanian countries
    SHEN Si-Chu, Khishignyam BAZARVAANI, DING Yang, MA Jia-Tao, YANG Shu-Wen, KUANG Yi, XU Ming-Xing, John E. TAPLIN, LI Shu
    2023, 55 (3):  435-454.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00435
    Abstract ( 173 )   HTML ( 14 )  
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    Humans are facing an unprecedented historical crisis. In determining how to cope with historical crisis and challenge, two well-studied strategies should be investigated: slow (“invest in the future”) and fast (“live fast, die young”). According to Aesop’s “The Ant and the Grasshopper,” which examines the intertemporal choices of social insects, the “slow” strategy is recommended for those who want to survive an environmental crisis. Intertemporal choice requires tradeoffs among outcomes whose effects occur at different times. In the commonly accepted language of intertemporal choice, the Ant, whose choice is the slow “larger but later” (LL) option, is more likely to survive the harsh winter than the Grasshopper, whose choice is the fast “smaller but sooner” (SS) option.
    To determine the optimal intertemporal choice strategy that can help humanity cope with the COVID-19 pandemic, we recruited 26,355 participants from 18 Asian, African, European, American, and Oceanian countries in the present study. We investigated the participants’ intertemporal choice preferences with double-dated mixed gain and loss outcomes, and evaluated the degree of change in their intertemporal choices by differentiating the common currencies in peacetime and pandemic time (i.e., two kinds of change indicators used for differentiating currencies and stages). We then asked them to assess their self-rated survival achievement in the fight against COVID-19. Considering that individuals’ survival achievements were affected by individual- and religious-level factors, we analyzed all data by using multilevel linear analysis to reflect their hierarchical structure. After considering individual differences in personal and religious factors, we constructed two-level models to explore the effects of the change in intertemporal choice on self-rated survival achievement, and measured the moderating role of cultural orientation in terms of Hofstede’s six culture dimensions.
    The findings of the cross-national survey revealed that Change Indicator 1 (∆ currency) and Change Indicator 2 (∆ stage) of Chinese and Singaporeans could jointly predict their self-rated survival achievement. Meanwhile, only Change Indicator 2 (∆ stage) alone could predict the self-rated survival achievement of people in the cultural circle that included India, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Nigeria. Neither Change Indicator 1 (∆ currency) nor Change Indicator 2 (∆ stage) could significantly predict the self-rated survival achievement of the people in other cultures.
    Using The Book of Changes and our findings, we suggest that how one differentially (flexibly) makes an intertemporal choice in peacetime and pandemic time reflects the extent to which one is likely to survive the war against COVID-19. In addition, the mindset of change might shape the competitive advantage of a nation, such as China, in response to the historical crisis. The closer the cultural distance of a country or nation to China, the greater the possibility of benefitting from a similar competitive advantage. It is our hope that our findings help to answer the question of what the psychological characteristics and behaviors of Chinese people in response to historical crises are.

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    Reports of Empirical Studies
    The effects of attachment figure’s response pattern on the support-giving expectation revision of young children with different attachment styles
    JIA Chenglong, WU Ting, SUN Li, QIN Jinliang
    2023, 55 (3):  455-468.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00455
    Abstract ( 312 )   HTML ( 22 )  
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    The sensitivity of caregivers plays a crucial role in developing secure attachment relationships. According to the attachment theory, children internalize their interactions with attachment figures as the Internal Working Models (IWMs), which guide their information processing and behavioral performance later in intimate relationships. As a basic structure of IWMs, the attachment script is conceptualized as a set of attachment expectations. However, little has been known about how young children represent those attachment interactions. Studies have found that attachment figures’ response patterns are related to young children’s support-giving expectations. However, few studies have directly explored how attachment figures’ responses influence young children’s attachment expectations. The present study used a real-time interaction task to examine how attachment figures’ response patterns affected children’s expectations of attachment figures’ support-giving behavior and willingness.
    In both experiments, the Attachment Expectation Task (AET) was used to manipulate attachment figures’ response patterns, and the Attachment Story Completion Test (ASCT) was used to measure children’s attachment styles. Experiment 1 adopted a 2 (response pattern: response/non-response) × 2 (attachment style: secure/insecure) mixed design to investigate how attachment figures’ response pattern influenced children’s expectations of support-giving behavior and willingness under deterministic conditions. A total of 161 children 5~6 years of age were recruited (82 boys, Mage = 5.66 ± 0.29 years). Experiment 2 adopt a 3 (response pattern: 20% / 50% / 80%) × 2 (attachment style: secure/insecure) mixed design to investigate the effects of response pattern on children’s support-giving expectations under probabilistic response conditions. A total of 95 children 5~6 years of age participated (45 boys, Mage= 5.46 ± 0.29 years). Participants in both experiments were asked to finish the AET and the ASCT in two sessions.
    The results of Experiment 1 showed that in new intimate relationships, secure children were more likely to expect attachment figures would [t (149) = 2.45, p = 0.015, Cohen’s d = 0.495] and were more willing [t (149) = 2.68, p = 0.008, Cohen’s d = 0.304] to provide support than insecure children. Meanwhile, children’s expectations of support-giving behavior and willingness increased under response condition [behavior expectation: t (149) = 6.79, p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = 0.444; willingness expectation: t (149) = 5.57, p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = 0.338] but decreased under non-response condition [behavior expectation: t (149) = -20.53, p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = -1.837; willingness expectation: t (149) = -14.65, p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = -1.307] (see Table 1 and Figure 1 & 2). Further, non-response condition had a higher effect on children’s expectation revision of behavior and willingness than response condition [change of behavior expectation, C-BE: Mnon-response = 0.68, Mresponse= 0.39, V = 5121.5, p < 0.001; change of willingness expectation, W-BE: Mnon-response = 1.27, Mresponse= 1.06, V = 6206.0, p < 0.001].
    The results of Experiment 2 showed that children’s expectation of support-giving behavior and willingness significantly decreased under 20% [behavior expectation: t (88) = -9.52, p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = -1.016; willingness expectation: t (88) = -8.49, p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = -0.880] and 50% [behavior expectation: t (88) = -5.56, p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = -0.518; willingness expectation: t (88) = -4.50, p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = -0.427] response condition, however, under 80% response condition, only expectation of support-giving behavior decreased significantly [t (88) = -2.71, p = 0.049, Cohen’s d = -0.296] (see Table 2 and Figure 3 & 4). Meanwhile, the 20% response condition [C-BE: M20%-response = -0.30, W-BE: M20%-response = -0.67] had a higher effect on children’s expectation revision of behavior and willingness than 80% [C-BE: M80%-response= 0.064, V = 2047.5, p < 0.001; W-BE: M80%-response= 0.24, V = 2445, p = 0.003] and 50% condition [C-BE: M50%-response = -0.06, V = 2215.0, p < 0.001; W-BE: M50%-response = -0.11, V = 2218, p < 0.001].
    The results indicate that attachment styles influence 5-and 6-year-olds’ initial support-giving expectations for new attachment figures, and they can revise these expectations based on attachment figures’ response patterns. The current study enriches the empirical evidence on how attachment figures’ response influences children’s attachment expectation revision in interpersonal interactions and extends our understanding of the organization and development of attachment representation. These findings also have important implications for the mechanism underlying secure attachment development in children.

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    Parent-child attachment and children’s depressive symptoms: The role of children’s biological sensitivity and parental gender differences
    XU Jianjie, ZHANG Yiyi, LAM Tak Kwan, CHE Liying, SONG Manman, HAN Zhuo
    2023, 55 (3):  469-480.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00469
    Abstract ( 285 )   HTML ( 25 )  
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    Secure and stable parent-child attachment is beneficial for children’s mental health, whereas maladaptive parent-child attachment may lead to children’s maladjustment such as depressive symptoms. Due to rapid sociocultural development in China, traditional patriarchal parenting patterns with fathers as breadwinners and mothers as homemakers have gradually diminished. Instead, Chinese fathers today spend an increasing amount of involvement in their children’s development. However, little to no research has examined the unique effects of father-child and mother-child attachment on children’s developmental outcomes in contemporary China. More importantly, the Biological Sensitivity to Context Theory (BSCT) suggests that the association between parent-child attachment and child developmental outcomes may vary among children with different levels of biological sensitivity. According to this theory, children who are biologically sensitive are more susceptible to adaptive or maladaptive parent-child relationships. Taken together, the present study aimed to examine how children’s depressive symptoms were affected by mother-child and father-child attachments and whether these effects were moderated by the children’s biological sensitivity. The potential father vs. mother difference was also examined.
    150 school-aged children (63 girls and 87 boys, Mage = 8.64±1.67 years) participated in the current study. Children reported their depressive symptoms as well as their perceived parent-child attachment with mothers and fathers, respectively. Children’s biological sensitivity (i.e., vagal suppression) was assessed by the decrease of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) between the resting phase and the task phases (i.e., a social stress task and a negative emotion provoking task) through the Biopac MP150 systems. Descriptive statistics and bivariate correlations were analyzed via SPSS 25.0, and moderation models were conducted via Mplus 8.3.
    Our results are highlighted by five major points (see Figure 1): (1) The level of mother-child attachment was higher than that of father-child attachment (ΔM = 3.55, t(146) = 4.28, p < 0.001, Cohen’s d = 0.35). (2) Both mother-child attachment (B = -0.28, SE = 0.07, β = -0.34, p < 0.001) and father-child attachment (B = -0.12, SE = 0.07, β = -0.17, p = 0.058) were uniquely and negatively associated with children's depressive symptoms, and the strengths of the aforementioned paths were equivalent (Δχ2 = 1.66, Δdf = 1, p = 0.198). (3) Children’s biological sensitivity (vagal suppression) measured in the social stress task and the negative emotion provoking task had similar moderating effects on the relation between parent-child attachment and children’s depressive symptoms, indicating the cross-context consistency of the roles of biological sensitivity. (4) Children’s cross-context biological sensitivity moderated the relation between mother-child attachment and children’s depressive symptoms (B = -0.27, SE = 0.07, β = -0.34, p < 0.001). Specifically, highly sensitive children (vs. non-sensitive children) were more likely to benefit from secure mother-child attachment but were also more likely to be harmed by insecure mother-child attachment (see Figure 2). (5) Children’s cross-context biological sensitivity did not moderate the relation between father-child attachment and children’s depressive symptoms (B = 0.04, SE = 0.05, β = 0.06, p = 0.441), such that higher father-child attachment was consistently associated with lower children’s depressive symptoms, regardless of children’s levels of biological sensitivity.
    Based on attachment theory and the BSCT, the present study indicates that children’s attachment with their mothers or fathers are uniquely associated with children's depressive symptoms, and that mother-child attachment jointly interacted with children’s biological sensitivity to influence children’s depressive symptoms. As a theoretical application, our study innovatively suggests that future studies should consider the context in which an indicator of biological sensitivity is assessed as well as parental roles (father vs. mother) when testing the BSCT in family studies. As a practical application, our findings indicate the potential different roles of father-child attachment and mother-child attachment in protecting children from suffering depressive symptoms, providing empirical evidence to support the development of family-based prevention and intervention projects aimed at alleviating children’s psychopathological problems.

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    Social norm modulates the enhancement effect of behavioral visibility on altruistic preference
    HUANG Xinru, LI Jian, NI Yinmei
    2023, 55 (3):  481-495.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00481
    Abstract ( 156 )   HTML ( 15 )  
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    In social economic decisions, people not only care about their own payoffs but also the payoffs of others, a tendency termed altruistic preference. Numerous studies have shown that the sheer sense of being observed is sufficient to augment subjects’ altruistic choices. However, whether subjects’ altruistic behavior can be modulated by revealing their decision processes to other stake-holders (i.e., the receiver) remains unclear. In this study, we provide experimental evidence about the effects of both decision visibility to others and social norms on participants’ altruistic preference in two studies respectively. First, we confirmed that receiver visibility affected deciders’ altruistic preference in Study 1. In Study 2, we further showed that social norms modulated the effect of behavior visibility on deciders’ altruistic preference, suggesting a potential avenue via which social norms influences the relationship between behavioral visibility and altruistic preference.
    Study 1 implemented a 2 (Visibility: Visible vs. Invisible) × 2 (Reaction type: Choice vs. Rating) × 2 (Inequity type: AI vs. DI) within-subject design. We recruited 38 participants and they were required to either choose from two reward allocation options (Choice task) with another partner, or rate how satisfied concerning a particular allocation (Rating task) in a dictator game (DG). Participants’ behavior was either observed by their “partners” (Visible condition) or remained private (Invisible condition) (Figure 1). We provided both model-free and model-based evidence for the effects of visibility on altruistic preference. Specifically, we calculated the mean absolute differences between self- and other-payoffs in the chosen trials in Choice condition, and the mean rating scores in Rating condition, as model-free indicators (indicators were calculated in advantageous domain and disadvantageous domain separately, Table 1). As for model-based measures, we utilized the inequity aversion model $(U={{M}_{s}}-\alpha \cdot \max \{{{M}_{s}}-{{M}_{o}},0\}-$ $\beta \cdot \max \{{{M}_{o}}-{{M}_{s}},0\})$ to quantify social preferences (Table 2). Repeated measures ANOVA on model-free and model-based measures revealed similar patterns: Compared to the Invisible condition, participants exhibited greater altruistic preference when their behavior were visible to the receivers (partners), indicated by increased advantageous inequity aversion (AIA) and decreased disadvantageous inequity aversion (DIA) in the Visible condition. This tendency was significant across both Choice and Rating tasks. In addition, participants cared more about allocation efficiency in the Choice task than in the Rating task, indicated by decreased AIA and increased DIA. Finally, Visibility alleviated the behavioral discrepancies between the Rating and Choice tasks, indicating that social preference and choice strategies tend to converge in the Visible condition (Table 3 & 4).
    Study 2 implemented a 2 (Visibility: Visible vs. Invisible) × 2 (Social norm: Altruistic vs. Non-altruistic) within-subject design. 53 participants took part in the choice task with altruistic or non-altruistic social norms. Different social norms were manipulated by the proportions of unfair options chosen by supposedly previous participants (Altruistic social norm vs. Non-altruistic norm) (Figure 2). Measures remained the same as the choice condition in Study 1, except that we calculated the mean other-payoffs in the chosen trials as an additional measure of altruistic behavior (Table 5 & 6). ANOVA results exhibited an interaction between Visibility and Social norm: In the Altruistic social norm condition, visibility significantly increased participants’ altruistic preference; However, such effect diminished in the Non-altruistic social norm condition (Table 7 & 8).
    Our study revealed that deciders’ behavioral visibility to receivers increased altruistic preference and promoted altruistic behavior. Furthermore, altruistic social norm played a modulatory role on the visibility effect, supporting the signaling hypothesis of altruistic preference.

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    How does organizational political environment influence leader justice rule adherence?
    LIU Depeng, LI Juexing, LIANG Pin, PANG Xuhong
    2023, 55 (3):  496-509.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00496
    Abstract ( 217 )   HTML ( 12 )  
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    A high level of justice perception not only promotes employees’ task performance, organizational citizenship behavior, and creativity, but also reduces their potential organizational retaliation and deviance behavior. To enhance employees’ justice perceptions, first and foremost is ensuring that leaders adhere to justice rules. However, a frustrating reality is that leaders often fail to do so, even when they recognize the importance of justice rule adherence. Thus, in recent years scholars have increasingly focused on explaining the above phenomenon. Scholars adopting an “actor-centric” perspective have found that leaders’ low levels of justice-related traits and justice motives are among the key factors that lead them to violate justice rules. However, a growing number of studies reveal that leaders with both high levels of justice-related traits and justice motives will sometimes violate justice rules. Therefore, scholars have called for moving beyond the “actor-centric” perspective to a “situation-centric” perspective by investigating the role of contextual factors in affecting leaders’ justice behavior. Sherf et al. (2019) were among the first to do so by investigating how leaders’ work overload influences their justice rule adherence. However, there is little research on how political environment may influence leaders’ justice behavior. An organization is not only a workplace for assigning and completing tasks, but also a political site infused with political behavior. Understanding how and when an organization’s political environment may impact leaders’ justice rule adherence has important theoretical implications.
    To fill the above gaps, in this paper we investigate how political environments affect leaders’ justice rule adherence. Based on the strength model of self-control, we argue that, at the within-person level, leaders’ perceptions of organizational politics (POP) will be positively related to their ego depletion, and their tenure will weaken this positive relationship between POP and ego depletion. Nevertheless, the relationship between leaders’ ego depletion and justice rule adherence (and thus the relationship between leaders’ POP and justice rule adherence via the mediation of ego depletion) depends on their leader identity. The research model is shown in Figure 1.
    To test our theory, we conducted a survey in a large commercial bank in an eastern province of China, using a time-lagged interval-based experience sampling method. Our final sample included 570 observations from 73 branch managers. Baseline survey included measurement of demographic characteristics (tenure), leader identity, instrumental motive and value-expressive motive of just behavior, and moral identity. Daily survey lasted 10 consecutive work-days. Opening from 16:00 to 19:00, Time 1 questionnaire contained measurements of POP and ego depletion. Opening from 20:00 to 00:00, Time 2 questionnaire involved measurements of justice rule adherence, positive affect and negative affect.
    A multi-level confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using Mplus 8.3 software to examined scale validity of key variables. As Table 1 showed, four-factor models fitted better than three-factor models. Further, the model fitted best when justice rule adherence was treated as a second-order factor, χ2 = 1167.64, df = 537, χ2/df = 2.17 (< 5), RMSEA = 0.05 (< 0.08), CFI = 0.94 (> 0.9), TLI = 0.93 (> 0.9), within-person SRMR = 0.04 (< 0.08), between-person SRMR = 0.05 (< 0.08) (see Table 1).
    In order to perform within-person analysis, it was required that variables measured each day had sufficient within-person variance. The results showed that all ratios of within-person variance were more than 30%, which provided enough variance for cross-level path analysis (see Table 2).
    Table 3 reported the descriptive statistics and correlations of cross-level variables. As shown in Table 3, justice rule adherence was positively associated with positive affect (r = 0.26, p < 0.001), instrumental motive (r = 0.23, p < 0.001), value-expressive motive (r = 0.37, p < 0.001) and moral identity (r = 0.21, p < 0.001), which was consistent with previous findings and reflected the necessity of controlling these variables.
    Table 4 reported the results of multilevel path analysis. Leader’s daily POP had a significantly positive effect on daily ego depletion (β = 0.10, SE=0.05, p = 0.049).
    The interaction between daily POP and tenure had a significantly negative effect on daily ego depletion (β = -0.07, SE = 0.02, p < 0.001) (see Table 4). The simple slope analysis showed that the influence of daily POP on daily ego depletion was significantly positive under low tenure (slope = 0.26, p = 0.001), while the influence was not significant under high tenure (slope = -0.07, p = 0.157), and their difference was significant (d = -0.34, p < 0.001) (see Figure 2).
    Daily ego depletion had no significant effect on justice rule adherence (β = -0.001, SE = 0.04, p = 0.984), but the interaction between daily ego depletion and leader identity had a significantly positive effect on daily justice rule adherence (β = 0.19, SE = 0.06, p = 0.002) (see Table 4). Further, simple slope analysis showed that the influence of daily ego depletion on daily justice rule adherence was significantly negative (slope = -0.19, p = 0.006) under low leader identity, while significantly positive (slope = 0.19, p = 0.019) under high leader identity, and their difference was significant (d = 0.38, p = 0.002) (see Figure 3).
    Table 5 reported the results of moderated mediation effects. When tenure was low and leader identity was high, the indirect effect of leader's daily POP on daily justice rule adherence via daily ego depletion was significantly positive (95% CI [0.01, 0.10], see Table 5). When both tenure and leader identity were low, the indirect effect was significantly negative (95% CI [-0.10, -0.01], see Table 5). In the other two cases, the indirect effect was not significant when both tenure and leader identity were high, or when tenure was high and leader identity was low (95% CI [-0.05, 0.01] and [-0.01, 0.05], respectively, see Table 5). These results showed that for new leaders (leaders with short tenure), the indirect effect that leaders' daily POP influences daily justice rule adherence via daily ego depletion was positive under high leader identity, while negative under low leader identity.
    We make important theoretical contributions to the “situation-centric” perspective research on justice rule adherence, POP, and the strength model of self-control. First, instead of highlighting the task assignment environment before, we explore the consequence of leaders' embedded political environment on their justice rule adherence. At the same time, different from the previous discussion of the conscious cognitive mechanism, the unconscious self-control mechanism of ego depletion is taken as the mechanism to explain the influence of situational factors on justice rule adherence. Second, this paper is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to verify within-person changes of POP and link it to proactive justice research. Finally, we extend the boundary conditions for understanding how ego depletion affects leader behavior. In addition, this research offers crucial practical implications for how to shape the organizational political environment and direct it to increase leaders’ justice behavior.

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