ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B


    25 December 2015, Volume 47 Issue 12 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Interaction between Native and Second Language Processing: Evidence From A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Chinese-English Bilingual Children
    GAO Yue, WEI Na, WANG Zhengke, JIAN Jie, DING Guosheng, MENG Xiangzhi, LIU Li
    2015, 47 (12):  1419-1432.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01419
    Abstract ( 1925 )   PDF (1226KB) ( 82 )  
    More than half of the world’s population are actively learning or speaking a second language. Research in this field thus far has focused primarily on the second language processing alone, but neglect the interaction of the two languages. In addition, majority of the previous studies investigated this issue using bilingual adults. Do bilingual children recruit both native and second language neural networks in second language reading as adults do? Does second language and native tongue affect one another in bilingual children’s brain?
    To answer these questions, we tested 28 early Chinese-English bilingual children, assigning participants phonological and orthographical processing tasks in both languages while performing brain scans using fMRI. Phonological tasks required participants to determine whether or not displayed Chinese characters were homonyms, while orthographical tasks required these children to judge whether or not the given stimuli were visually similar. In addition to these tasks, participants also undertook four behavioral tests to assess their proficiency in both languages. These tests comprised of a Chinese character recognition test, a Chinese reading fluency test, and an English dictation test.
    From whole-brain analysis, we found that the two tasks recruited largely similar brain networks across both languages despite of some language differences. Based on an meta-analysis on cross-language comparison, we defined our regions of interest (ROI). ROI analysis revealed that some Chinese-specific regions (bilateral inferior occipital gyrus, cingulate gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus) were significantly activated in English tasks. Similarly, some English-specific regions (left fusiform gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, and medial frontal gyrus) were significantly activated in Chinese tasks. Among these regions, Increased activation of the Chinese-specific cingulate gyrus was negatively correlated with English dictation test scores, suggesting that the higher the second language proficiency was, the less the native language network was involved. However, while increased activation in the English-specific left superior temporal gyrus was negatively correlated with Chinese reading fluency and character recognition test scores, activation in the English-specific left inferior frontal gyrus was positively associated with greater Chinese reading fluency scores - suggesting that second language processing may be affected by native language proficiency.

    Summarily, these results suggest that while bilingual children do develop a distinct neural network to process their second language, it is also partly supported by the brain’s native language network. Additionally, this study further indicates that the neural networks supporting native and second language in bilinguals' brain interact with one another, and this interaction is affected by language proficiency.

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    Scenes Differing in Spatial Frequencies Affect Facial Expression Processing: Evidence from ERP
    YANG Yaping, XU Qiang, ZHANG Lin, DENG Peizhuang, LIANG Ningjian
    2015, 47 (12):  1433-1444.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01433
    Abstract ( 1305 )   PDF (757KB) ( 90 )  
    Facial expressions are fundamental emotional stimuli as they convey important information in social interaction. Most empirical research on facial expression processing has focused on isolated faces. But in everyday life, faces are embedded in surrounding context. For example, fearful faces always accompany with tight bodies, and happy faces appear in birthday parties more often than in sickrooms. Scenes which faces are embedded in provide typical visual context. Recently some studies attempted to investigate the influence of emotional scenes on facial expression processing. Although a few previous studies in this field demonstrated the scene effects of facial expression processing existed, the studies did not further explore the specific processing mechanism of the scene effects. Because of its excellent temporal resolution, the present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the effects of scenes that contain different spatial frequencies on facial expression processing. Our hypothesis was that the different spatial frequencies of scenes affected facial expression processing in different ways.
    Eighteen right-handed college students (11 females; age range 17~24 years; mean age_20.67±1.91 years) were paid to participate in the experiment. Thirty-two face pictures (16 females and 16 males) with fearful and neutral expressions and thirty-two scene pictures (16 negative scenes and 16 neutral scenes) were presented. Spatial frequency content in the original scene stimuli (broad-band, BSF) was filtered using a high-pass cut-off that was > 16cpi for the higher spatial frequencycpi for the lower spatial frequency (LSF) scene stimuli. In the present study, we used a paradigm in which the scene and the facial expression were presented together, i.e., simultaneous processing of the scene and the facial expression. In simultaneous processing of the scene and the facial expression, the early mental representation of the scene has to be constructed in parallel to the construction of the facial expression. In the paradigm, after 500 ms into the presentation of the fixation, the face-scene compound stimuli appeared centrally on the scene for 800 ms. The scene and face emotions were either congruent or incongruent. Participants were instructed to perform a gender categorization task (task-irrelevant). (HSF) scene stimuli, and a low-pass cut-off of < 8
    Because the task-irrelevant task was used, our behavioral data was only used to evaluate the degree of attention. Accuracy of target stimuli did not show significant differences between conditions (above 90% for all conditions, ps > 0.1). Our ERP results showed that for scenes with broad-band spatial frequency, fearful faces which appeared in neutral scenes elicited larger N170 amplitudes than these faces which appeared in negative scenes in both right and left hemispheres. But the effects were not found for scenes with high and low spatial frequencies. In addition, neutral faces which appeared in neutral scenes elicited larger N170 amplitudes than the faces which appeared in negative scenes. The effects that were found for scenes with different spatial frequencies were distributed in different hemispheres. For scenes with broad-band and low spatial frequencies, the effects were distributed in the right hemisphere. But for scenes with high spatial frequency, the effects were distributed in the left hemisphere.

    In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that the visual processing characteristic of the scene effects was different for different facial expressions. The scenes had an influence on fearful face processing. The scene effects which happened in early structural perceptual encoding of faces depended on broad-band spatial frequency information of scenes. And the scene effects could happen in the task-irrelevant condition. However, the scenes had a different influence on neutral facial expression. Neutral facial expressions are less salient than fearful facial expressions. So it was easy for negative scenes to disturb the early perceptual encoding of neutral facial expressions. Additionally, this disturbance could happen in the condition in which scenes only retained coarse global information or detailed edge information.

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    Information Amount and Obviousness Influence Hypothesis Generation
    LIU Zhiya, ZHENG Chen
    2015, 47 (12):  1445-1453.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01445
    Abstract ( 1235 )   PDF (770KB) ( 35 )  

     This study focuses on the availability of rule learning. Cherubini, Castelvecchio & Cherubini (2005); Cherubini, Rusconi, Russo, Di Bari, & Sacchi (2010) confirmed that the availability of rule learning was influenced by the information amount of the rule. Information amount was explained by how many examples could be covered by a rule. For a rule, the more number of examples could be converted, the less information amount would have. For example, in 2-4-6 task, the information amount in the rule of “even number increase” is 1/n and in the rule of “the third number is the sum of other two” is 1/n2. The information amount theory suggests that a rule with higher information amount is generated more easily than a lower one. However, Some researches (Barsalou,1982; Rips,1989; Medin, Lynch, Coley, & Atran,1997; Shafto, Coley, & Baldwin,2007; Guhe, Pease, & Smail,2011) showed that rule learning would be impacted by the information background of participants.

    In this paper, information background was defined as the obviousness of the rule. Inspired by dual process model of deductive reasoning (Evans, 2003, 2010; Sloman, 1996; Barrouillet, 2011), This study assumed that the cognitive process of rule learning might be impacted by the information amount and obviousness both. Dual process model suggested that there were two independent cognitive systems, system 1 was usually described as unconscious and automatic; the system 2 was inherently conscious and controlled. This paper assumed that there might be two independent cognitive systems that manipulating rule learning process. This hypothesis was tested by experiment 1. Additionally, Ashby (1998) also suggested that there were two kinds of category learning. One was the rule-base category learning, the other was information integration. In the case of rule-based learning, participants could abstract a linguistic and explicit rule from materials, while they cannot discover an explicit rule but still can classify materials when doing information integration tasks, which seems to be implicit. This article assume that rule learning process may also conducted by both explicit and implicit systems and which system would be adopted may related to the information amount and obviousness of rules. Experiment 2 was designed to test this hypothesis. With 70 college students' participated, a revised 2-4-6 task was used to examine our hypothesis. Both experiments were presented by Psychtoolbox 3.0 on MATLAB.

    Experiment 1 found that there were two independent factors, the information amount and the obviousness of the rule, significantly influence availability of rule learning. Experiment 2 is the same as experiment 1 except a rule description between every block of learning. The result of experiment 2 indicated that rules with high information amount and obviousness are more easier to be learned and expressed, while rules of low information amount combine with less obvious could be learned either but hardly be expressed clearly. These results consist with the dual process model in deductive reasoning and reveal that the rules with high amount information and obviousness are processing by an explicit rule system, and with lower amount information and less obviousness are processing by an implicit rule system.

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    Effects of Administration of Morphine on Sign-tracking/Goal-tracking under Different Distances
    CHANG Fengjin; LI Xinwang; CUI Ruisi
    2015, 47 (12):  1454-1464.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01454
    Abstract ( 840 )  
    Pairings of a conditioned (CS) and unconditioned (US) stimulus can result in approach to either the CS (sign tracking) or the US (goal tracking). The distance between the conditioned stimulus and the site of US delivery affects the sign / goal tracking response and impairs the associative learning; the addictive drugs can enhance the incentive effects of a reward and thus increase individual reward seeking behavior. There are no reports on the relationship between impairments of associative learning by the distance and the incentive amplifying effects of addictive drugs. Therefore, this experiment attempted to investigate the effects of administration of morphine on sign-tracking and goal-tracking when the spatial separation between the CS and a US food was 8、30 and 60 cm.
    Fifty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats participated in the approach conditioning experiment of different distances consisted of habituation, food receptacle training, acquisition, administration of morphine which was given daily injection of morphine (5mg/kg) or saline for 7 days, extinction phases and reversal learning. Two different material objects served as CS+ and CS−, and a 10-sec food as US while approach duration of the CS (sign-tracking) and US (goal-tracking) was measured. Each CS+ was always followed by food delivery any of the experiment phases except the extinction phases, whereas the CS− was not.
    The results were as following: (1) Sign tracking of rats developed when the CS was 60 cm from the US. Increasing the spatial separation between the CS and US resulted in a decline in sign tracking and had no effect on goal tracking under non-drug conditions. (2) Acute administration of morphine (5.0 mg/kg) decreased measures of sign-tracking, from 8 to 60cm, while simultaneously increasing measures of goal-tracking when the CS was 8 and 60 cm from the source of the US. Repeated administration of morphine decreased measures of sign-tracking while simultaneously increasing measures of goal-tracking when the CS was 8 and 30 cm from the source of the US. In the extinction test, prior morphine exposure decreased sign-tracking when the CS was 8 and 60cm from the source of the US, and increased goal-tracking when the spatial separation between the CS and US was 60 cm. (3) In the discrimination reversal learning, rats pre-exposed to morphine showed less contact to new CS+ compared to saline controls from 8 to 60cm, showed worse discrimination and biased to old CS+ when the spatial separation was 30 and 60 cm.
    The results of this study suggested that distance had little effect on suppression of sign-tracking but had enhancing effects on goal-tracking by morphine. Morphine pre-exposure impairing discrimination reversal learning was facilitated by distance. Research shows the distance is an important factor, which facilitates impairments of associative learning and has no effect on the incentive amplifying effects of following administration of addictive drug.
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    Influence of Female Menstrual Cycle on the Acquisition and Extinction of Conditioned Fear
    JIN Yan, ZHENG Xifu
    2015, 47 (12):  1465-1471.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01465
    Abstract ( 4219 )   PDF (432KB) ( 235 )  

     Animal studies have shown that estrogens exert important influence on the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear, however, the gonadal hormone regulation of fear in human is not known. The purpose of the present study is to examine effects of female menstrual phases on the conditioned fear acquisition and extinction.

    Twenty female college students in luteal phase and 20 female college students in menses phase participated in the experiment. They were exposed to three conditions: 1) predictable aversive stimuli were signaled by a cue; 2) aversive stimuli were administered unpredictably; 3) no aversive stimuli were anticipated. Aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) expectancy was used to assess anxious responses to the threat cue and to contexts associated with each condition.
    The results showed that, at the acquisition stage, females in luteal phase (FL) showed higher US expectance for the conditioned context fear in N and P context than females in menses phase (FM); at the extinction stage, FL had a significantly higher US expectancy in N and P context compared to FM. In other words, the females of luteal phase acquired the conditioned context fear response more effectively and extinguished more slowly than females of menses phase.
    These data suggest that menstrual cycle can possibly influence the conditioned context fear responses in females. This phenomenon suggests that the gonadal hormone level of luteal phase may affect fear regulation.
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    Can Self-Sacrificial Leadership Promote Employee Proactive Behavior? The Mediating Effect of Felt Obligation and Its Boundary Conditions
    TIAN Xiaoming; LI Rui
    2015, 47 (12):  1472-1485.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01472
    Abstract ( 1606 )  
    The existing literature on the relationship between self-sacrificial leadership and employee work-related behaviors has primarily focused on the influence of this leadership on “good soldier” behaviors. Empirical investigations of the effect and the impact mechanism of self-sacrificial leadership on “good change agent” behaviors remain blank. Using proactive behavior as an example, this study aimed to expand the behavioral outcomes of self-sacrificial leadership to employees’ “good change agent” behaviors to fill the gap mentioned above. Specifically, we examined the influence of self-sacrificial leadership on employee proactive behavior, and investigated the mediating role of felt obligation as well as the moderating roles of proactive behavior efficacy and ambiguity tolerance playing in the relationship between self-sacrificial leadership and employee proactive behavior.
    A structured questionnaire was employed as the research instrument for this study. It consisted of five scales designed to measure the variables of interest, namely self-sacrificial leadership, proactive behavior, felt obligation, proactive behavior efficacy, and ambiguity tolerance. To avoid the Chinese people’s tendency of choosing the mid-point of the scale regardless of their true feelings or attitudes, all of the items on the survey were responded to on 6-point Likert scales which did not include a mid-point. Data were collected in two waves from 309 dyads of employees and their immediate supervisors from five high technology companies located in southern Jiangsu. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the above measures were from 0.79 to 0.92, demonstrating good measurement reliabilities. Results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated the discriminant validity of the measurement was also satisfactory. Hierarchical regression modeling and PROCESS were used to test the hypotheses proposed.
    Results revealed that: (1) Self-sacrificial leadership had a significant positive influence on employee proactive behavior. (2) In the process of self-sacrificial leadership impacting on employee proactive behavior, the simple mediating effect of felt obligation was insignificant, while both proactive behavior efficacy and ambiguity tolerance moderated the relationship between felt obligation and proactive behavior, as well as the mediated relationship self-sacrificial leadership and employee proactive behavior via felt obligation. The relationships were stronger for employees high rather than low in proactive behavior efficacy or ambiguity tolerance.
    The present study, with dyadic and time-lag design, offered robust evidence for the role of supervisors’ self-sacrificial leadership in facilitating employee proactive behavior. Moreover, our study confirmed the mediating role of felt obligation and its boundary conditions. As to the practical implications, this study suggested that more efforts should be made to encourage managers’ self-sacrificial leadership. Meanwhile, organizations should strengthen employees’ felt obligation in order to promote proactive behavior. Another important managerial implication of our findings is that higher proactive behavior efficacy and ambiguity tolerance can enhance the positive effect of self-sacrificial leadership on employee proactive behavior via felt obligation, so managers should take steps to enhance employees’ efficacy beliefs of proactive behavior, and pay attention to the behavioral response of employees high in ambiguity tolerance.
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    The Azhu Relationship under the Sexual Union in Moso Matrilineal Society: Akin to Kinship or Friendship?
    XIAO Erping; ZHANG Jijia; WANG Juan
    2015, 47 (12):  1486-1498.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01486
    Abstract ( 958 )  

    Azhu is a Moso word which describes the sexual life pattern among the Moso people, a matriarchal ethnic group living along the border of Yunnan and Sichuan provinces. Azhu relationship refers to a kind of interpersonal relationship between friendship and kinship. A Moso’s azhu is similar to a Han’s lover, both terms indicating a romantic nature. The aim of the current study was to explore the essence of the azhu relationship under the sexual union from a psychological perspective. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the emotional responses and the behavioral tendencies of four different relationships (kin, azhu/lover, friend, and stranger), addressing distinct domains for which kinship is known (such as incest avoidance and altruistic behavior) by comparing the Moso people with the Han people.

    Fifty-eight Moso people and 61 Han people participated in Experiment 1. A 2 Ethnicity (Moso vs. Han) × 2 Gender (Male vs. Female) × 4 Relationship Type (Kin, Azhu/Lover, Friend, Stranger) mixed design was used. The participants’ emotional responses were rated in a Likert scale after imaging sexual intercourse with the four heterosexual relationship types respectively. Results in Experiment 1 showed that there was a remarkable ethnicity difference in incest avoidance. The Han people expressed a much stronger sense of disgust than the Moso people to sexual behavior with kin, while there were no significant differences in the degree of disgust caused by sexual behavior with non-kin between the Hans and the Mosos. The emotional responses caused by imaging sexual behavior with special objects differed between the two genders. Female participants’ negative emotions (including disgust) were much stronger than those of male participants’, while those of positive emotions (including romantic) were exactly the opposite. However, this kind of gender differences was non-significant regarding kinship.
    Fifty Moso people and 98 Han people participated in Experiment 2. The design was similar to Experiment 1. A Likert scale was used to evaluate the participants’ willingness to perform an altruistic behavior to help a kin, azhu/lover, friend, and stranger respectively. The results indicated that the Moso people were more willing to perform selfless altruistic behaviors than the Han people to a kin, a friend or a stranger. However, the situation was the opposite when the azhu/lover was in danger. The differences were smaller among the Han people when rating the altruistic behaviors between kins versus those between lovers, while the differences were larger among the Moso people when rating the altruistic behaviors between kins versus those between azhus; The differences were smaller among the Moso people when rating the altruistic behaviors between azhus versus those between friends, while the differences were larger among the Han people when rating the altruistic behaviors between lovers and those between friends. There was a significant gender difference between the Hans and the Mosos towards the willingness to help their azhu/lover. Han males had a stronger willingness to perform altruistic behaviors than Han females, whereas Moso females had a stronger willingness to help their azhu than Moso males.
    In general, the results in the current study showed that the Han people treated their lovers as kins while Moso people treated their azhus as friends on the psychological and behavioral level. The nature of the azhu relationship under the sexual union in the Moso society was a kind of non-kin friendship, which was fundamentally different from the couple relationship of mainstream society.
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    Distance Discrimination Method based on Conditional Expectation in Cognitive Diagnosis
    WANG Wenyi; DING Shuliang; SONG Lihong
    2015, 47 (12):  1499-1510. 
    Abstract ( 560 )  

    The primary purpose for cognitive diagnostic assessment is to classify examinees into mutually exclusive categories. The current practice of obtaining classification categories relies on the distance between the ideal and observed response patterns, such as generalized distance discrimination method (Sun et al., 2011, 2013) and nonparametric approach (Chiu and Douglas, 2013). In these methods, an appropriate set of ideal response patterns can be computed from the universal set of knowledge states and a Q matrix (Tatsuoka, 1995; Leighton et al., 2004; Ding et al., 2009, 2010). However, the ideal response pattern is generated for each knowledge state without considering the stochastic nature of item response, which is contrary to real test situations. For example, examinees who have mastered some of attributes required to solve a particular item can have a higher probability of answering it correctly than less able examinees having mastered none of the attributes.

    The purpose of this study is focused on choosing the center for each of the classification categories or clusters that is representative of the data. Since this task probably requires knowledge on the distribution of the data, as a practical matter, it is often reasonable to assume that item response pattern is a random vector with a discrete conditional distribution for each knowledge state. The conditional expected vector is considered to be class-center. Once the center is decided for each knowledge state, observed responses pattern can be assigned to the closest class according to minimum Euclidean distance classifier, well-known for measuring the distance between observed response pattern and the center. This method is called distance discrimination method.
    The conditional distribution can be defined by item response function (IRF) in cognitive diagnostic models. However, many existing item banks are developed under the framework of item response theory. In this case, we propose a method utilizing the information of the item characteristic curve (ICC) or IRF of item response theory model to estimate the IRF for cognitive diagnostic model. It is based on a nonparametric regression approach to transform the IRF of item response theory model into that of cognitive diagnostic model. The resulting IRF is used to classify examinees using minimum Euclidean distance classifier.
    To investigate whether this method can work under certain conditions, simulated data were generated with six attributes. Four important factors were considered: (a) the source of the attribute structure (the linear hierarchy, the convergent hierarchy, the divergent hierarchy, the unstructured hierarchy, the independent hierarchy), (b) the number of examinees (N = 300, 500, 1,000), (c) two cognitive diagnostic models (the deterministic inputs, noisy “and” gate model and the reduced reparametrized unified model);(d) the quality of the items (s, g ~ U (0.05, 0.25) or U (0.05, 0.4), ~U (0.8, 0.98) and r*~U (0.1, 0.6) or ~U (0.75, 0.95) and r*~U (0.2, 0.95)).
    The results show that the estimation method of IRF is promising in terms of precision, and distance discrimination method based on conditional expectation works well in terms of accuracy, especially when the R-RUM fitted the data with low quality of test items. In addition, the fact that the IRF transform method between cognitive diagnostic model and item response model may contribute immensely to test equating of cognitive diagnostic tests. In discussion, we also explain the relationship between nonparametric approach, generalized distance discrimination method and rule space method.
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    Item Selection Using the Multiple-Strategy RRUM Based on CD-CAT
    DAI Buyun; ZHANG Minqiang; JIAO Can; LI Guangming; ZHU Huawei; ZHANG Wenyi
    2015, 47 (12):  1511-1519.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01511
    Abstract ( 547 )  

    Cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT) is an application of cognitive diagnostic testing (CDT) on the computerized adaptive testing (CAT) platform. CD-CAT can provide information on the specific content areas in which a participant needs the most specific help, and it is typically engineered to tailor the test to each participant’s trait level and thus has high efficiency. The search for the best item selection method is currently one of the most pressing issues in the field of CD-CAT research. Besides, studies on CD-CAT have to address the issue on the number of testing strategies to employ: either all participants use the same strategy, or different participants use different strategies. In practice, for some tasks, all participants use the same strategy; whereas for other tasks, different participants use different strategies to solve the problem. Because cognitive strategy aptitudes (or cognitive structures) vary among participants, each strategy requires different attributes. For the latter type of tasks, a participant’s strategy must be identified before his/her knowledge state (KS, i.e., attribute mastery pattern) can be diagnosed. Strategy diagnosis procedures have not been explored in studies on CD-CAT.

    Based on the reduced reparameterized unified model (RRUM) and independence attributes, under different lengths of fixed-length CD-CAT and with various numbers of knowledge attributes, using the maximum a posteriori (MAP), the present study explored the use of the multiple-strategy RRUM (MS-RRUM) and the item selection method in the context of multiple strategies. The MS-RRUM extended the traditional single-strategy RRUM by constructing M different Q-matrices. In the MS-RRUM, each strategy for each item involved a set of parameters, including one baseline parameter and several penalty parameters. The MAP method was then generalized to the multiple-strategy context. An item selection method that fitted the multiple-strategy context, named as the multiple-strategy SHE (MSSHE), was proposed here. When a participant responded to an item, the system estimated the participant’s strategy according to his/her item response vector and then estimated the participant’s KS using the selected strategy. The next item was then selected via the MSSHE method. Using the MS-RRUM along with varying numbers of attributes and test lengths, the strategy and KS recoveries of the MSSHE and the random method were systematically compared.
    Results showed that the MSSHE method exhibited excellent strategy and KS estimations, and it was superior to the random method. Besides, when the test was short, the advantage of the MSSHE was more obvious in both strategy estimation and KS estimation; when the number of attributes was relative large, the advantage of the MSSHE was more obvious in KS estimation. Therefore, (1) the MS-RRUM is feasible and can be used in the CD-CAT context; (2) the MAP method, when extended to the multiple-strategy context, can successfully estimate participants’ strategies and KSs; (3) when CD-CAT is applied to the MS-RRUM, the proposed MSSHE method is feasible and efficient in item selection.
    This study is the first to apply CD-CAT in a multiple-strategy context, providing more sufficient diagnostic information. Furthermore, the proposed method of MAP in the multiple-strategy context makes parameter estimation easier and is time-saving, and the proposed MSSHE method makes item selection efficient and saves item bank. Overall, this study serves to facilitate the implantation of multiple strategies in CD-CAT. Further studies are suggested to examine the performance of these approaches under other conditions (i.e., using other cognitive diagnostic models, attribute hierarchical structures and variable-length CD-CAT settings).
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    A Regression Analysis Model of Ordinal Variable to Psychological Data
    XU Peng; QI Lu; XIONG Jian; YE Haosheng
    2015, 47 (12):  1520-1528.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01520
    Abstract ( 819 )  
    Ordinal variables are the common form of categorical variables in random phenomenon. Ordinal data which is formed from the level of ordinal variables by sequencing scale measurement has been widely used in psychological research. Psychological data is a kind of data from randomized hidden variable, which seems to be noticeable but could not be touched such as degree of satisfaction, preference degree, cognition degree, sentiment perceptibility, behavioral level and so on. The mental impression is hard to be calculated. To be exposed for calculated ordinal data is a kind of judgment standard or decision threshold criteria of an individual psychological activity in implicit psychological data. When a certain degree of psychological feeling happens to be just between two adjacent thresholds, the individual would be given a numerical value like a scale to project this “Mirror mode” of the psychological decision threshold criteria. Meanwhile, people are always concerned about what factors or conditions decide the high-low of threshold value of these ordinal variables based on cognitive instinct. This sort of “Hopper model” which is used to study the factors affecting to the psychological decision threshold criteria is a typical regression model.
    The paper proposes a multiple regression analysis model of ordinal variables based on the three problems involved in typical regression analysis “Hopper model” for ordinal variables. First, the ordinal variable indexes which can explain a psychological phenomenon are initially reduced in dimension by nor-parameter test method. Then, the effect indexes which have significant judgment standard are selected by using Probit ordinal regression. Finally, the probability of a psychological phenomenon happen is predicted and explained enormously by using Logistic regression model.
    Based on the data of quality of work life for the college graduates, the forecasting is suggested and the simulation is done for the “Mirror mode” and the “Hopper model” of ordinal variables regression model. It is hoped that ordinal variables regression analysis models and statistical analysis methods would have wider applied value in study of psychological phenomena included cognition, emotion, behavior, economy, social life etc.
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    Total Contents of Acta Psychologica Sinica, Vol. 47, 2015
    2015, 47 (12):  1529-1538. 
    Abstract ( 952 )  
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