ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B


    30 March 2009, Volume 41 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    The Effects of Cover Stories, Framing, and Probability on Risk Preference in Investment Decision-Making
    SUN Yan,XU Jie-Hong,CHEN Xiang-Yang
    2009, 41 (03):  189-195. 
    Abstract ( 1195 )  
    When making choices, people are sensitive to the way in which the problem is presented. This sensitivity was well exemplified by the framing effect, initially described by Tversky and Kahneman (1981). In the well-known “Asian disease problem”, they found that the majority were risk-averse when the options of the problem were framed positively, yet turned to be risk-seeking when the options were framed negatively. Though several studies of framing effects amply demonstrated that changes in the presentation of information would elicit potent effects on decision behavior, they were not as apt to demonstrate that these effects were due exclusively to changes from risk-averse preferences in the positive frame of options to risk-seeking preferences in the negative frame of options. In fact, researchers had found that people’s risk preferences vacillated not only in response to changes in frame but also to changes in other variables such as the perceived desirability of particular social groups, the surface structure of a problem, and the individual differences (Schneider, 1992).
    Most of framing studies tended to use scenarios that were similar to the Asian disease problem. However, there were two limitations within this kind of materials. First, the focal problem always began with a threatening cover story, setting the whole problem in a bad situation, and then followed by a pair of options either positively framed or negatively framed. Second, the risky outcomes in these studies were all with a median probability. In order to examine whether the character of the cover story (e.g., good vs bad) and the probability of outcomes would affect people’s risk preferences, the stock market scenarios used in the present research were designed to begin with either a good cover story or a bad one, and to be followed by outcomes with three levels of probabilities (high, median, low) respectively. Therefore, it was a 2(the cover story: good vs. bad)*3(probabilities: high vs. median vs. low)*2(outcome framing: positive vs. negative) mixed design with probabilities as the within-participants variable and the other two as between-participants variables.327 shareholders were recruited from three stock exchanges, and 465 college students were recruited from a university.
    Chi-square and logistic regression were performed to analyze the data. The results were as follows: (1) shareholder participants’ risk preference pattern differed from college participants in that shareholder participants remained risk aversion through all the experimental treatments; (2) college participants revealed different risk preferences under different cover stories; (3) under the traditional bad cover story, framing effects were found across the three probability levels, which indicated that risk preference was affected only by the framing of options, but not by the probability; (4) under the good cover story, framing effect was found only on high probability level, but reversed when probability was low, which indicated that risk preference was affected by the framing of options, the levels of probability, and their interaction.
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    The Magnitude of Outcome Effect in a Wider Range of Value and Its Equate-to-Differentiate’s Explanation-Disscusions about the Applied Model Included also
    LI Xiao-Ping,GE Ming-Gui,CUI Li-Zhong,SANG Qing-Song,XUAN Bin
    2009, 41 (03):  196-207. 
    Abstract ( 1880 )  
    The Department of psychology, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000, China
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    Linguistic Association Model for Tibetan-Mandarin-English Trilingual
    CUI Zhan-ling,ZHANG Ji-jia
    2009, 41 (03):  208-219. 
    Abstract ( 1074 )  
    Bilinguals’ languages are influenced both by language proficiency and linguistic similarity. Three models generated from the Reversed Hierarchical Model have been proposed to explain this phenomenon: Word-Association Model, Concept Mediation Model, and Multiple Access Model. Importantly, previous studies were conducted with bilinguals and only their alphabetic language ability was tested. We aimed to investigate whether the same findings could be applied to multilinguals on their ideography language ability. Moreover, most previous studies applied explicit memory paradigm, which could suffer undesired strategy-use problem. Using implicit memory paradigm, the present study examined a group of Tibetan-Mandarin-English trilinguals to explore their multi-language association with a specific aim to test the linguistic association models.
    A 2×2 mixed design was adopted, with test-word types (learned and un-learned test-word / test-word translation equivalents) as the within-subject variable and linguistic relation between learning and test (the same or different language) as the between-subject variable. Linguistic relations were counterbalanced within subjects. All the materials were rated by homogeneous participants before the test. The subjects were native speakers of Tibetan, had been exposed to Mandarin since early childhood (all subjects had lived in the mainland for 5 years or more), and had studied English in school for 5 years. They were asked to self-rate their proficiency in three languages on a 7-point scale, which showed significant proficiency differences between Tibetan and English, and between Mandarin and English. There was no difference between Tibetan and Mandarin ability for these subjects.
    In experiment 1, the main effect of test-word types and the interaction between two variables were significant while the main effect of linguistic relation was non-significant, indicating that the Tibetan translation equivalent words were not activated in Mandarin semantic access. In experiment 2, both two main effects and their interaction were significant, suggesting the representations of English words and Mandarin translation equivalent words were activated, whereas the representation of Tibetan translation equivalent words was not activated in the English semantic access. In experiment 3, the two main effects and the interaction were significant, indicating no activation of English translation equivalent words in the Mandarin semantic access.
    Based on above findings, we discussed the similarity and difference between the linguistic association models for trilingual and bilinguals and reached the following conclusions: (1) The association models between the two directly-associated languages for Tibetan-Mandarin-English trilinguals are similar to those for bilinguals, while a learning medium is required for building association between the two indirectly-associated languages; (2) The linguistic association models for trilinguals are affected by language proficiency, linguistic similarity and learning medium.
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    Semantic Codes are Obtained before Word Fixation in Chinese Sentence Reading: Evidence from Eye-movements
    WANG Sui-Ping,TONG Xiu-Hong,YANG Jin-Mian,LENG Ying
    2009, 41 (03):  220-232. 
    Abstract ( 2080 )  
    One of the important findings in reading research is the preview benefit: in addition to the currently fixated character information from the character to the right of the fixation located in the perceptual span was extracted and used in reading. Fixation durations were shorter when the appropriate visual information about the currently fixated character was available on the previous fixation than when it was inappropriate, suggesting that some preprocessing of the current character (referred as character n) occurred when the eyes were fixating the previous character (referred as character n-1).
    In research on alphabetic scripts, it was generally agreed that the preview benefit can result from orthographic and phonological processes. But it was unclear whether semantic information can be extracted from the preview word and produces a preview effect. Albeit some positive evidence, most of the western studies did not support a semantic preview effect. Further, as most studies on this topic have been conducted in alphabetic languages, it is unclear whether the same conclusion applies to non-alphabetic languages such as Chinese which differ from alphabetic languages in many important aspects.
    The present study examined whether semantic preview effect can occur in Chinese sentence reading.
    In Experiment 1, to examine the immediacy effect of Chinese sentence reading, Chinese participants were instructed to read 44 sentences each containing a target character located in the middle of a sentence, either semantically consistent or inconsistent with the sentence context while their eye movements were recorded.
    Results of experiment 1 showed that first-pass processing time was significantly longer at the target character position for the inconsistent target than for the consistent target. This consistency effect indicated that Chinese readers were able to detect the inconsistency right at the target position.
    In Experiment 2, an eye-monitoring procedure with the boundary paradigm was adopted to determine whether the semantically violated information located at the preview position (character n) could be detected when the eyes were fixating character n - 1. The stimulus and design were similar to that in Experiment 1, except that the target, either a consistent or inconsistent character, was presented in the preview position when character n-1 was fixated and it turned into another character which was always consistent with the sentence context when character n was fixated.
    Results of experiment 2 showed that first-pass fixation was significantly longer at the critical regions for the semantic inconsistent condition relative to the consistent condition, indicating that the semantic information of character n was extracted when character n-1 was fixated.
    To sum up, the present results indicate that semantic processing in Chinese sentence reading can occur immediately. Even for characters located in the preview position, their semantic information can be extracted and used.
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    The Mechanism of Repetition Priming Effect on Temporal Order Perception
    ZHANG Feng,HUANG Xi-Ting,GUO Xiu-Yan
    2009, 41 (03):  233-241. 
    Abstract ( 1799 )  
    In our previous study it was found that there was a reversal of the repetition priming effect when the primed stimulus appeared first in judging the temporal order of a primed and an unprimed stimulus —an effect that has not been observed in other studies. Because the models proposed previously were not adequate in explaining such reversal, it is hypothesized that dual process and representation matching modulating can explain the results. Two experiments were conducted in the present study to test this hypothesis.
    Targets in the experiments were composed of a pair of figure stimuli: a square and a diamond. The target pair was presented either above or below the center of the screen. If primed, one of the targets was preceded by a repetition prime. The temporal intervals between the two targets were -112 to +112 ms in steps of 28 ms (Positive numbers indicated that the primed figure preceded the unprimed figure, whereas negative numbers indicated that the unprimed figure appeared first and 0 ms meant the primed figure and unprimed figure appeared simultaneously) and participants were instructed to make temporal order judgments by responding which of two targets appeared first in Experiments 1 and 2. The prime appeared either in the center of the screen or in the same position as the primed target in Experiment 1, and the prime appearing in the center of the screen was either masked by a circle including 16 diametral line segments or not masked in Experiment 2.
    The results were as follows: (1) the reversal of the repetition priming effect disappeared when the prime was presented in the same position as the primed target in Experiment 1; (2) the reversal of the repetition priming effect almost disappeared when the prime was presented in the center of the screen and was then masked in Experiment 2.
    It can be concluded that the present study provides evidence in support of the hypothesis about dual processes and representation matching modulation that can better explain the mechanism of the repetition priming effect on temporal order perception.
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    The Time Course and Strategies used in the Sampling of Figure Perception and Recognition
    CAO Xiao-Hua,CAO Li-Ren
    2009, 41 (03):  242-248. 
    Abstract ( 1254 )  
    The time course and strategies of figure recognition is an important issue addressed by this study. Previous studies to date have focused on eye movement strategies in figure recognition. However, there are few studies that have examined how feedback effects figure perception and recognition strategies. The main goal of this research was to investigate the feedback effect on the sampling of figure recognition.
    Twenty-four collage students participated this study, All participants were right handed and had normal vision. A 2 x2 mixed measures design was used in this investigation. The within-subject independent variable was the display type, with two levels (rotated and upright). The between-subject independent variable was the feedback condition with two levels (feedback and no feedback). The task was to judge whether the figures displayed in a sequence were same or not.
    The results revealed that the display type and feedback condition significantly influenced participants’ figure recognition time. Additionally, the first-sampling-parts of the two irregular geometric figures displayed in sequence were significantly correlated. With feedback, the strategies of figure recognition changed on sampling number, scanning path, and sampling time.
    To summarize, the feedback condition influenced the time course and strategies of figure recognition.
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    The Roles of Thematic Relations in 4-5 Years Children’s Inductive Reasoning of Different Properties
    MA Xiao-Qing,FENG Ting-Yong,LI Hong,LONG Chang-Quan
    2009, 41 (03):  249-258. 
    Abstract ( 1558 )  
    lthough even very young children were indicated capable of simple inductive reasoning, the basis underlying the early induction remains hotly debated. Thematic relations play an important role in children’s cognitive development. Because thematic association was a salient response during categorization and analogical reasoning tasks in young children, we hypothesized that thematic relations, which were external relations among objects co-occurred in space and time, can support children’s inductive reasoning when the inferred property was situational.
    Using classical picture-triad induction tasks, this study explored the roles of thematic relations in children’s inductive reasoning when thematic relations were pitted against perceptual similarity (experiment 1) or taxonomic relations (experiment 2). The inductive tasks included two kinds of property inferences: internal property inferences and situational property inferences. The participants were 4-5 years olds. Each child completed either internal property inferences or situational property inferences.
    The result of experiment 1 demonstrated: when thematic relations competed with perceptual similarity, children from 4.5 years made thematic relation-based induction in situational property inference, whereas there was no significant difference between similarity-based induction and thematic relation-based induction in 4-5 years olds’ internal property inference. The result of experiment 2 showed: when thematic relations competed with taxonomic relations, children from 4.5 years made situational property inference based on thematic relations, whereas those from 5 years made internal property inference based on taxonomic relations. Both experiments showed that children from 5 years olds can selectively use different relations to make inductive inferences of different properties.
    The major finding of the study was that thematic relations can support children’s inductive reasoning. Thematic relations play a primary role in young children’s inductive inference of situational property. In contrast, , thematic relations, like perceptual similarity, are less important while taxonomic relations served the chief basis during inductive inferences of internal property.
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    Short-Term Desensitizing Effects of Violent Video Games: Comparison Between Two Exposure Ways
    GUO Xiao-Li1,JIANG Guang-Rong,ZHU Xu
    2009, 41 (03):  259-266. 
    Abstract ( 2287 )  
    This study examined the desensitizing effect of active or passive exposures to violent video games on male college students’ physiological arousal when viewing a violent film. The study employed a 2 (active or passive exposure) x 2 (violent or nonviolent video game) factorial design.
    Half of the forty-four participants were randomly assigned to either playing a violent video game or watching the records of someone else playing the violent game for 15 minutes, and the other half assigned to playing or watching a nonviolent video game. Then all the participants were presented with a 10-minute long violent film segment while their heart rate (HR) and galvanic skin response (GSR) were being recorded. The result showed that participants who previously played or viewed a violent video game had lower GSR while viewing the violent film than those who previously played or watched a nonviolent video game. This result demonstrated a physiological desensitization effect of exposure to violent video games on physiological arousal toward violence. However, the way of exposure, active or passive, to violent video games failed to show any influence on the degree of desensitization, although actively-playing group reported more enjoyment and less frustration than did passively-viewing group. Results were interpreted and discussed using the General Aggression model.
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    A Polytomous Extension of Attribute Hierarchy Method
    Based on Graded Response Model
    Zhu Yu-Fang,Ding Shu-Liang
    2009, 41 (03):  267-275. 
    Abstract ( 1601 )  
    The value of diagnostic assessment lies in its ability to reveal each student’s specific cognitive strengths and weaknesses and further helps design effective interventions for individual student. Leighton et al.(2004) proposed a cognitive diagnostic model called Attribute Hierarchy Method (AHM), which is based on the assumption that test items can be described by a hierarchically-ordered set of attributes. Attributes are defined as basis cognitive processes or skills required to solve test items correctly. Examinees’ attribute pattern can be estimated by classifying each observed response pattern into one of the expected response patterns, which can be clearly explained by the presence or absence of the attributes without any errors or “slip”. So far, AHM was has only been introduced based on dichotomous IRT models, where items used in classroom assessments or performance assessments usually involve open-ended or constructed responses., and there is an assumption that an item can be answered correctly if and only if all the attributes involved in the item can be answered correctly. It means that missing one attribute is equivalent to missing all required attributes.
    Since accurate diagnosis requires a rich description of examinee test performance, and polytomous models can give more information for score than the dichotomous model, an extension of AHM for based on a particular polytomous model ¾ graded response model (GRM), is proposed, and a new classification method is introduced in this paper. Four kinds of attribute hierarchies were separately used as the basis for the simulation. For each of the four attribute hierarchies, a sample of 5000 expected item response vectors was generated to approximate a normal distribution, Given that samples only consist of expected response patterns which are free from slips, the observed item response patterns were generated by randomly adding slips to each of the expected response patterns. In this study, the percentage of random errors was manipulated to be 2%, 5%,10% and 15%, respectively, of the total number of item response in order to examine whether the percentage of random errors has an impact on the accuracy of classification methods. In order to generate 5% random errors, for example, a uniform probability of 0.05 was employed to randomly add slips. For each item, if random number less than 0.025, then the score of item subtract 1 provided the original score is not zero; if random number higher than 0.925, then the score of the item adds 1 whenever the original score is not full. Ability parameters and item parameters can be estimated using ANOTE 1.60.
    Simulation results showed that the classification rate for LL is only slightly better than that of Method A, but clearly outperforms that of Method B. In addition, polytomous extension of AHM is better than the polytomous extension of the Fusion Model proposed by Bolt et al.(2004)in terms of the classification accuracy and simplicity.
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    Comparison of Two MCMC Approaches to Missing Response Data in 2PL Model
    ZENG Li,XIN Tao,ZHANG Shu-Mei
    2009, 41 (03):  276-282. 
    Abstract ( 1995 )  
    Missing response data is common in educational assessment surveys. MCMC (Markov chain Monte Carlo) is a method of simulating random samples from any theoretical multivariate distribution-in particular, from the multivariate posterior distribution that is the focus of Bayesian inference. So it can obtain Bayes parameter estimation using the simulated sample, such as the mean of the simulated sample of posterior distribution can be used to estimate the EAP (expected a posteriori) of parameters. This algorithm is easy to implement when the IRT model is complex and the most important is that it can deal with missing data easily. In the past studies involving MCMC algorithm in IRT, researchers just compared MCMC method with other algorithms, no one compared different MCMC approaches. But in fact, there are vary MCMC algorithms, and some of them have been implemented in IRT. So, if the different MCMC approaches in IRT perform same is needed to be explored.
    This paper explored the relative performance of two different MCMC approaches: MH within Gibbs and DA-T Gibbs Sampler in the estimation of the two-parameter logistic (2PL) item parameters. Simulation studies and real data examples were used in the comparison. Within the simulation, the factor effects of sample size, test length and missing rate were investigated. We considered three different sample size (100, 500, 1000), two different test length (15, 40) and three different missing rate (0.05, 0.1, 0.25). So there are 18 combinatorial situations. In each situations, we generated 20 subject response matrix, used the two methods to estimate the item parameters and then used the index RMSE (root mean square error) to compare the two approaches.
    The simulation study results showed that the two MCMC approaches were indeed different in item parameter estimation. The parameter estimations of the two methods were both affected by sample size significantly, while the effect of the missing rate was relatively small. When the sample size is large and the missing rate is small, the RMSE of parameter estimation in MH within Gibbs is relatively small, and as the decreasing of sample size or the increasing of missing rate, DA-T Gibbs Sampler became better than MH within Gibbs. The results of real data example are consistent with the simulation results.
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