ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B


    30 October 2009, Volume 41 Issue 10 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Hemispheric Specialization Effects in Visual Image Generation

    YOU Xu-Qun,SONG Xiao-Lei

    2009, 41 (10):  911-921. 
    Abstract ( 1574 )  
    Visual mental image generation had been defined as the process by which long-term memory knowledge of the visual appearance of objects or scenes is used to create a short-term percept-like image. It was a complex and multi-componential cognitive process, and a most basic process in visual mental image process. That researched systematically on it would not only favor us deeply understanding the law of human visual mental image process, but examining and evaluating visual spatial cognition functional level most effectively in practice. The localiza-tion of mental image generation had been a controversial topic, whether hemispheric specialization really ex-isted in visual mental image generation process? What roles that both hemispheres played in image generation process? All these questions needed to be explored again.
    Using two tasks dissociated paradigm developed by Kosslyn, three behavior experiments were conducted to reveal the Hemispheric Specialization during visual image generation process. Seventy two right – handed un-dergraduates (aged between 19 and 21) took part in the experiments. In three experiments, a classical image generation task was adopted to investigate the cognitive processing mechanism of simple letters image genera-tion. Subjects were cued to form images within a grid or within a set of four corner brackets; a single X mark was enclosed within each stimulus, and the subjects were to determine whether the X mark would have fallen on an imaged pattern. Reaction time (measured from the end of the question to the onset of the participants’ re-sponse) and error rates were recorded and analyzed. The aim of these experiments was to clarify the different roles of two hemispheres in generating the mental images.
    Some evidence was obtained by having subjects memorize letters in grids(which are easily encoded using descriptions of the positions of segments) or within a space delineated by four brackets(which require memo-rizing the precise positions of the segments). In Experiment 1, we found evidence that the right hemisphere was better at generating images in brackets, whereas there was no such hemispheric difference for the grids. In Ex-periment 2, we found no evidence that size per se affected image generation differently in the two hemispheres, indeed, this experiment only replicated earlier results, with a right hemisphere advantage for brackets stimuli. In experiment 3, the subjects required less time when the stimuli were presented initially to the left hemisphere, which was as expected if categorical spatial relations were used to arrange segments into an image. Through these experiments, Subjects were relatively more accurate when cued in the left visual field with bracket stimuli, but tended to be relatively more accurate when cued in the right visual field with grids stimuli. These results were predicted by the theory that images are built up by arranging parts, and that two different processes can be used to arrange them. One process used stored descriptions to arrange parts, and was more effective in the left cerebral hemisphere; The other process used stored memories of metric positions to arrange parts, and was more effective in the right cerebral hemisphere.
    The present results suggested that visual mental images could be generated by either the left or right cere-bral hemisphere, but in different ways. The left hemisphere more effectively generated images by arranging parts according to descriptions (using categorical spatial relations), whereas the right hemisphere more effec-tively generated images by positioning parts in precise locations in space(using coordinate spatial relations).
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    Mechanism of Different Moving Pattern on Nontarget Inhibition in Multiple Object Tracking
    ZHANG Xue-Min,LIU Bing,LU Xue-Ming
    2009, 41 (10):  922-931. 
    Abstract ( 1112 )  
    Previous research on stimulus inhibition has found that there are two types of inhibition in terms of what is inhibited. One is the feature-based inhibition, which holds that it is the unattended objects which share the same property with the attended ones that are inhibited by the cognitive system (s) (see the research of visual marking by Juang, Chun, & Marks, 2002; Olivers & Humphreys, 2003; Watson & Humphreys, 2002). The other is the object-based inhibition which states that the individual tokens of nontargets are inhibited, and that the inhibition of the tokens remains even when those nontargets are moving around. The inhibition theory was used to account for the results of probe-dot detection with the Multiple Object Tracking (MOT) task. That is, the difference in performance of dot detection is caused by the inhibition of the nontargets. However, no evidence has shown whether the nontarget inhibition in the MOT task is feature-based or object-based. The present research aimed to answer this question by employing the same task (dot detection in the MOT task).
    Participants in two experiments performed either the tracking or no-tracking task first, and then they de-tected the presence of a dot at a location occupied by the randomly-moving target, by the randomly-moving nontarget, by the static (or regularly-moving) nontarget, or by nothing. The correct percentage of tracking and probe detection were measured. As a major concern, the difference in accuracy of dot detection in each location condition between the tracking and no-tracking tasks was computed as an index of inhibition, because all the stimuli in the no-tracking task were processed in the same way, and it is assumed that there is the same amount of inhibition or no inhibition to all the stimuli. The only difference between the first and the second experiment was the feature similarity (in terms of moving pattern) of nontargets to targets. Experiment 1 included ran-domly-moving targets, randomly-moving and static nontargets, whereas Experiment 2 included randomly- moving targets, randomly-moving and regularly-moving nontargets.
    The results of Experiment 1 showed more inhibition to the randomly-moving and static nontargets, relative to the targets and the space. There was no significant difference in inhibition between the randomly-moving and static nontargets. However, in Experiment 2, more inhibition was obtained to the randomly-moving targets than to the regularly-moving targets. Still, the inhibition to nontargets was larger than to the targets and the space. The t-tests for both experiments showed the only significant difference in inhibition to randomly-moving non-targets between the first and the second experiment. More inhibition to the ramdomly-moving targets was ob-served in the second experiment than in the first one. In general, the findings of the present study suggested that both the feature-based and the object-based inhibition can occur in the MOT task. When the target and the non-target are easy to distinguish from each other (e.g., the moving target and the static nontarget), the token of nontargets is inhibited (as shown in Experiment 1). Whereas, when it becomes more difficult to distinguish the target from the nontarget (e.g., the moving target and nontarget share more same features), feature-based inhibi-tion begins to play an important role (i.e., more inhibition to the nontargets that are more similar to the targets).
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    Time Dependence of Enhancement Effects in Emotional Memory
    WANG Hai-Bao,ZHANG Da-Ren,YU Yong-Qiang
    2009, 41 (10):  932-938. 
    Abstract ( 1556 )  
    Extensive evidence from human and animal studies indicates that emotionally arousing events are more likely to be remembered than neutral events. This phenomenon is known as the emotional enhancement of memory (EEM) and is attributed to emotional modulation either of different memory stages, including encoding and consolidation, or memory phases, including short- and long-term memory. Current theories on emotional memory suggest that EEM effects occur via modulation of the amygdala and other related cerebral regions, in-cluding the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. In light of the time dependence of consolidation observed in animal studies, it is necessary to conduct an integrative investigation of both the time-dependent effects of emo-tional memory and the effects of emotional arousal and valence on human memory.
    A multifactorial experimental design of 2´4 (times´picture categories) was used. Experiments comprised encoding and recognition sessions. Each subject (n=20) completed one encoding phase and two recognition phases, one after 20 min to measure short-term recognition (R1) and one after 24 h for long-term recognition (R2). During encoding, subjects were required to rate the picture on a three-point emotional intensity scale (1=low, 2=medium, 3=high) and to remember the picture. During R1 and R2, 320 pictures were presented, half of which had been presented during encoding and the other half had never seen by the subject. Subjects were instructed to indicate whether each picture was “old” or “new” by pressing a key. Behavioral data were analyzed using SPSS 10.0 software.
    The arousal level was highest for fear, moderate for happiness and sadness, and lowest for neutral feelings. EEM effects were correlated with the highest arousal for short-term memory (Pr: F(3,76)=7.50, P<0.001; d’: F(3,76)=7.76, P<0.001) and with arousal levels, but not valence, for long-term memory (Pr: F(3,76)=32.76, P<0.001, d’: F(3,76)=29.86, P<0.001). Moreover, dissociation of EEM effects was observed between different arousal levels and time courses. Interactions between times (R1 and R2) and groups (fear, happiness, sadness and neutral) were significant (Pr: F(3,152)=6.89, p<0.001).
    The results confirm that emotional modulation of different stages of memory is time-dependent and that time-dependent EEM effects are predominantly associated with arousal levels, but not emotional valence. Moreover, dissociation of EEM effects between different arousal levels and time courses was observed.
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    Developmental Pattern of Preschoolers’ Naive Theory of Emotion
    LIU Guo-Xiong,FANG Fu-Xi
    2009, 41 (10):  939-946. 
    Abstract ( 1405 )  
    Understanding the mentalistic aspects of emotion is relatively late developed ability in preschoolers’ theory of mind. How do they infer peoples’ emotion according to their mental status, such as desire and belief? How do their inferring strategies change as they grow? Vinden (1999), de Rosnay et al. (2004) claimed that preschoolers strategies of emotion cognition changed from situation-desire to belief-desire; however, considering the func-tionalism theory of emotion, we proposed children’s understanding of emotion were associated necessarily with their understanding of both desire and belief, and questioned their idea of situation-desire strategy. To examine this proposal, we combined individual’s different desire status (gratified or not) with their belief in the classical “content false belief” tasks to explore preschoolers’ induction of emotion.
    Ninety preschoolers aged 3 to 5 from one common kindergarten in Beijing were recruited and divided into three gender-matched groups: 3-year-olds, Mean age = 3.51; 4-year-olds, Mean age = 4.50; 5-year-olds, Mean age = 5.47. The experiment was conducted individually in which each child was asked to make emotion infer-ences after listening to illustrated stories.
    The results demonstrated that preschoolers’, especially 3-year-olds’, understanding of happiness emotion was markedly influenced by their knowledge of whether protagonists’ desire could be gratified by current situa-tion or not, known as the “positive emotion effect”. Preschoolers’ emotion cognition evolved from no use of belief-desire strategy to false use of belief-desire strategy, and finally to correct use of belief-desire strategy. Their understanding of belief-based emotion significantly lagged behind the understanding of false beliefs. Moreover, preschoolers’ judgment of surprises was determined by their understanding of belief and desire as well.
    This study highlighted the pivotal role of mental status in children’s understanding of emotions. More im-portantly, current findings provided an overarching developmental schema of preschoolers’ naive theory of emotion.
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    The Development of Trait Inference at Behavioral and Psychological Levels
    WANG Mei-Fang,CHEN Hui-Chang
    2009, 41 (10):  947-957. 
    Abstract ( 1280 )  
    Personality traits are stable, internal characteristics that enable people to summarize, explain, and predict behavior. People often make inference about behavior based on personality traits. It is suggested that trait infer-ence may be made at two different levels: behavioral and psychological. During the past three decades, re-searchers have been interested in children’s understanding of traits, and a large amount of research has been conducted to investigate the development of trait inference. Before the 1990s, the majority of studies focused on children’s trait inference at the behavioral level by using behavior predictions. After the 1990s, researchers studied the psychological cause of behavioral regularity by examining children’s theory of mind and internal state predictions. However, less attention has been paid to direct comparisons of the two levels of children’s trait inference and the rules they use to make behavioral and psychological predictions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the development of trait inference at the two levels and the use of different rules that children used in trait inference.
    The participants in the study included 160 children at 4 to 12 years and 32 undergraduate students. Trait inference was measured through behavioral and emotional predictions, and the information was collected about the rules children used to make trait inference.
    The major results are as follows. First, children at least from age 4 were capable of making trait inference at the behavioral level, and from age 5 capable of making trait inference at the psychological level. Children’s trait inferences at both levels matured at 10 years. Second, trait inference at the psychological level fell behind trait inference at the behavioral level at ages 4 and 5, and there were no significant differences between the two types of inferences at age 7. Third, children used a conceptual similarity rule rather than a simple situation-matching rule to predict behavior. Finally, children at 4 years did not employ a simple valence rule to make cross-trait category behavioral predictions, whereas children at 5, 7, 10 and 12-years and adults showed evidences of using this rule in a clearly discriminating way.
    These findings indicate the developmental trend of trait inference at the behavioral and psychological levels in Chinese children. The study also provides some new information about the strategies that children might use to make behavioral predictions.
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    Influence of Developmental Level of Desire Taking on Affective Decision Making in Young Children
    Chen Jing,Sun Xin-Yi,Li Hong,Li Xiu-Li
    2009, 41 (10):  958-966. 
    Abstract ( 1379 )  
    It is known that perspective taking abilities play a significant role in the development of affective decision making in young children. However, till now no research did make an explicit explanation for the mechanism that how perspective taking effect on affective decision making. So the purpose of this study was to examine the influence of developmental level of desire taking on affective decision taking of Chinese young children. Ac-cording to the analysis of the delay gratification task in our research, desire taking was the principal premise in making an advantaged decision for others in delay gratification task. Two hypotheses were made in this study, that is, (1) others’ desire cues should improve young children’s performance of making decision for others in delay gratification task, but not for themselves; (2) how young children use others’ desire-cuing information depended on their developmental level of desire taking ability.
    The sample in this study comprised 148 4-year-old children. Participants were recruited from families with different SES in Sichuan and Zhejiang, China. In experiment 1, two adapted desire taking tasks were used, one was single desire taking task, another was conflicting desire task. According to performances in experiment 1, participants were divided into two groups with different developmental level of desire taking (high level and low level). In experiment 2, each level group was divided into three subgroups, in which three types of other’s desire cues were manipulated. These desire-cuing conditions were called as single desire, conflicting desire and no desire cuing respectively. No other’s desire cues were given to the participants in the no desire condition. A sin-gle desire cue of other was given in the single desire condition, and a conflicting desire cue of other was given in the conflicting desire condition. In each delay gratification task, the participants were asked to make a decision for others and for themselves. Once making a delay gratification decision one score was given.
    It was shown from the results of experiment 1 that almost all participants passed the single desire taking task, but the participants passing the conflicting desire taking task fall to short of half. It was indicated that children aged 4 could take others’ single desire very well, but not others’ conflicted desire. In experiment 2, results indicated that young children’s performance of making the delay gratification decision for other in the single and conflicting desire-cuing conditions was significantly better than that in the no desire-cuing condition. And in the conflicting desire-cuing condition, high level group’s performance of making the delay gratification decision for other was significantly better than performance of children of low level group. However, there was no significant difference between children’s performance of making the delay gratification decision for other and for self in the no desire-cuing condition. These findings indicate that the developmental level of desire taking make a significant impact on affective decision making of young children. Existing adequate others desire in-formation in certain instance, children would select others’ desire as a clue to make a decision for them; and how young children use others’ desire information depended on their developmental level of desire taking ability.
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    The Effect Mechanism of Stigma Perception on Mental Health Among Migrant Children in Beijing
    LIN Xiu-Yun,FANG Xiao-Yi,LIU Yang,LAN Jing
    2009, 41 (10):  967-979. 
    Abstract ( 2165 )  
    Currently, there are more than 140 million rural-to-urban migrants in China and the number keeps growing. An estimate of 19.8 million children under 18 years migrated with their parents from rural areas to the cities Migrant children face a great deal of issues in living and schooling in city and possess a number of mental health problems.
    Literature suggests that it is common that migrant children are stigmatized by urban residents. A majority of migrant children in Beijing claimed that they were disdained by Beijing citizens and their schoolmates (Beijing natives) kept away from them. Stigma could be a life stressor, theory of Cognitive Phenomenological Transac-tional pointed out that stress could affect individual’s mental health through mediators, such as, coping, cogni-tive appraisal, and self-esteem. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between stigma perception and mental health among migrant children in Beijing. We tested three hypotheses: (1) Migrant chil-dren perceive great stigma, and those with high mobility perceive greater stigma than those who with low fluid-ity; (2) Migrant children demonstrate poor mental health, and those with high mobility have significantly worse mental health than those with low fluidity; (3) there is a significant relationship between stigma perception and mental health; coping and self-esteem act as mediators in the relationship between stigma perception and mental health.
    We recruited 1164 migrant children in Beijing, we also recruited 525 Beijing children and 568 rural chil-dren as comparison. Data of demographic information, migration history, stigma perception, coping, self-esteem, and mental health problems (including social anxiety, loneliness, depression etc.) were collected through a self-administrated questionnaire. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOWA), Pearson Corre-lations and Structure Equation Model (SEM).
    Data revealed that migrant children perceived great stigma from urban people around them, and the levels of stigma perception were significantly differ by types of schools as well as levels of mobility. Migrant children in private migrant schools reported remarkably higher level of stigma perception than those their counterparts in public schools. Migrant children with high mobility reported higher level of stigma perception than their coun-terparts with low mobility. There was significant relationship between stigma perception and mental health con-ditions, between stigma perception and coping, and between stigma and self-esteem, as well as between self-esteem and mental health in Structure Equation Model, we found stigma perception affected mental health directly and indirectly through coping and self-esteem, which suggest that coping and self-esteem could be the mediator between stigma perception and mental health.
    In conclusion, among migrant children, stigma perception affects mental health significantly and induces problems like social anxiety, loneliness and depression. However, the effect can be mediated by coping and self-esteem. The results of this study suggested that the Theory of Cognitive Phenomenological transactional could be used in migrant children’s stigma perception intervention, to reduce their stigma perception, change their coping and enhance their self-esteem, and may improve migrant children’s mental health status.
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    Person-Environment Fit and Creativity: The Moderating Role of Collectivism
    DU Jing,WANG Dan-Ni
    2009, 41 (10):  980-988. 
    Abstract ( 1526 )  
    Prior studies have demonstrated the positive effects of congruent personal and environmental characteris-tics on creativity. None of them, however, has explicitly and systematically tested the formal theory of per-son–environment fit for predicting creativity in the context of collectivism. This study examined the effects of two versions of person–environment fit (supplies–values and demands–abilities fit) on creativity in China, tak-ing into account the moderating role of collectivism.
    Data were collected from 305 undergraduate students among 25 classes in a university of China. With the supports of their supervisors, students completed the questionnaire regarding desired climate for creativity, cur-rent climate for creativity, required creativity abilities, actual creative abilities, collectivism, and individual creativity. All questionnaires were returned back to authors directly. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was employed to analyze data.
    The results showed that creativity was significantly influenced only by current climate for creativity (sup-plies) and actual creative abilities (abilities). Collectivism moderated the effects of person-environment fit on creativity: creativity by individuals with high collectivism was almost exclusively predicted by environmental characteristics (current creative climate and required creative abilities), whereas creativity by individuals with low collectivism was influenced by optimal two versions fit between person and environment.
    Most western scholars think that collectivism is an impediment for creativity because collectivists tend to maintain conformity in group and then hinder the generation of unique and novel ideas. However, the present study clearly indicates that collectivism may have a positive effect on creativity under certain situations, that is, individuals with high collectivism will show higher creative performance when organizational supports and de-mands for creativity are presented. This implicates that managers should pay more attention to environmental characteristics for collectivistic employees in order to enhance their creativity.
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    The Role of Relationship Norms in Consumers’ Complaint Intention
    HUANG Min-Xue,CAI Feng-Yan,ZHOU Yuan-Yuan,ZHU Hua-Wei
    2009, 41 (10):  989-999. 
    Abstract ( 1245 )  
    For a service provider, there are many “nice” customers who never complain and never come back. How-ever, if a dissatisfied customer does not complain, the service provider may miss the opportunity to identify the source of an operational problem and to make amends to consumers for a service failure. As a result, service provider may lose that customer along with that customer’s future profit. From this perspective, customers should be encouraged to complain about service quality, especially process quality which is more difficult to control and more likely to fail. Although many factors influencing consumers’ complaint intention have been proved by researchers, relationship between consumers and service provider is rarely considered. Thus, this pa-per tries to explore the role of relationship norm in consumers’ complaint behavior.
    Although relationship with non-social subjects is different from social relationship, recent research in mar-keting notes that consumers often form relationships with brands that mirror interpersonal relationship in social context and use norms of these relationships as a lens to evaluate the brand and its actions. Extant literature has classified interpersonal relationship into two kinds according to their behavioral norms. One is exchange rela-tionship norm in which people are motivated for interacting with others to get something from them and con-cerned with what they receive for what they give. The other one is communal relationship norm in which the motivation for interacting with others is to satisfy their needs because of a genuine concern for their well being. Based on these arguments, this study proposes that consumers also form these two different relationships with the service provider and use norms of these relationships to guide their complaint behavior when there is a ser-vice failure. We propose an interaction effect of relationship norm and magnitude of service failure on con-sumer’s complaint intention. Specifically, when the magnitude of service failure is high, consumers in different relationship have no significant different complaint intention. However, when the magnitude of service failure is low, consumers in communal relationship are more likely to complain than consumers in exchange relationship. Results of two experiments supported this proposition.
    A 2 (magnitude of service failure: high, low) * 2(type of relationship: communal, exchange) experiment was designed to test the interaction effect of relationship norm and magnitude of service failure on consumers’ complaint intention. 135 college students participated Experiment 1. The manipulations were scenario-based, in the context of restaurant. Results of Experiment 1 showed that the expected interaction effect of the two ma-nipulated variables on consumers’ compliant intention was significant, providing support for our propositions.
    Experiment 2 was designed to explore the underlying mechanism and also to provide further support for the re-sults found in Experiment 1. Experiment 2 used the same design and procedure as Experiment 1 except that we measured consumers’ complaint motivation. The results we found in Experiment 1 were replicated in Experiment 2. More importantly, Experiment 2 showed that compared with consumers in exchange relationship, consumers in communal relationship complained to service provider in order to help the service provider find out potential problems especially when the magnitude of service failure was low.
    This paper may contribute to extant literature in several ways. Firstly, it provides an empirical evidence for the debate whether loyal customer is more likely to complain. Our results demonstrated that whether behavioral loyalty results in more complaints depends on the relationship norm guiding the customers. Secondly, it offers a practical implication in service quality management—letting customers found out potential problems for managers.
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    The Structure and Characteristics of Contemporary Chinese Values
    JIN Sheng-Hua,ZHENG Jian-Jun,XIN Zhi-Yong
    2009, 41 (10):  1000-1014. 
    Abstract ( 1952 )  
    Although many studies have concerned the values of the Chinese, only a few of these studies have been empirically based, and most of these either borrowed measurements from abroad or used participants who were students or young people. Studies on values in China need to have measures developed in China itself and to build an elaborated model of Chinese values based on research employing a variety of Chinese participants.
    Chinese Values Questionnaire (CVQ) was created based on the content analysis of structured interviews of 303 natives of China. The CVQ was then completed by 2296 native Chinese participants including workers, peasants, professionals, college students, and high school students from 12 provinces. An exploratory factor analysis of the responses of 1100 of these participants suggested that there were eight factors, and this structure was confirmed by a confirmatory factor analysis of the remaining 1196 participants. The eight factors were in-tegrity, self-support/respect, public interest, love/happiness, prestige, family/equilibrium, conformity, and mon-ey/power. Reliability coefficients (Cronbach’s a) ranged from 0.74 to 0.86.
    The eight factors we found are similar in some ways to other models of Chinese values, but they also differ in ways that reflect the uniqueness of Chinese culture. One aspect of this uniqueness is the tendency for the Chinese to think in terms of the “Good-person,” indicated by higher scores on the integrity, self-support/respect, and public interests subscales. The high fit index and reliability of the eight factor model of Chinese Values suggests that the CVQ may be a good measure of Chinese values.
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    Application of Genetic Algorithms-based Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation
    in Psychological Measurement
    YU Jia-Yuan
    2009, 41 (10):  1015-1023. 
    Abstract ( 1184 )  
    The Likert scale has often been used in psychological measurement, with quantitative statistical methods being frequently employed to analyze the data so obtained. In fact, the concepts on the Likert scale are fuzzy and thus, fuzzy mathematics would be useful for the analyses of these data.
    Due to the vague nature of the data, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation can be used to describe the relations among the variables on the Likert scale. Mathematicians often assume that people use the “maximum minimum operator” when they are forming comprehensive evaluation. However, there is no psychological or empirical evidence for this assumption. To address this question, this study explored which operators were employed and whether everybody used the same operators in fuzzy comprehensive evaluation.
    The present study investigated the evaluation made by undergraduates on Master Kong beef instant noodle. The genetic algorithms and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation were used together to analyze the Likert scale data. The consumers’ preference for different attributes of the products and the operators being used were obtained.
    According to different compound operators, there are four fuzzy comprehensive evaluation models: i) main factor determined type; ii) main factor prominent I type; iii) main factor prominent II type; and iv) weighted average type.
    A total of 643 undergraduate response data on the 5-point Likert scale were obtained, while 287 of them were males and 356 females. The participants rated on their taste, flavor, price, soup base, quantity of noodle, appearance, advertisement and intention to purchase for Master Kong beef instant noodle. The evaluation matrix for males and females were prepared respectively from the empirical data.
    For each of the 4 models of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, the fitness function programs were respec-tively constructed with the MATLAB language. The Euclid distance between the model computed scores and the actual comprehensive evaluation scores were used as a measure of fitness index S.
    The results demonstrated that males’ fuzzy comprehensive evaluation complied with model 1, that is, when the “max min” compound operator was used. For the females’ fuzzy comprehensive evaluation complied with model 3, that is, it followed the “limitary sum min” compound operator.
    Males’ decision in purchasing is simple, with greatest attention to the appearance, and quantity of noodles. On the other hand, females’ decision in purchasing was relatively more conscious, with most attention to the flavor and appearance of the instant noodle.
    The research supported the following findings: (i) Genetic algorithms-based fuzzy comprehensive evalua-tion method could be used to analyze psychological measurement data from the Likert scale. It could be used to obtain the compound operators that subjects used as well as the weight vectors for factors being adopted. (ii) Undergraduate of different genders employed different compound operators and weight distribution when they were asked to assessed the instant noodle comprehensively. (iii) It is useful to apply the genetic algo-rithms-based fuzzy comprehensive evaluation on the research of psychological measurement and consume psy-chology. The method also had other less obvious business applications.
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    The technique of objective personality-tests sensu R. B. Cattell nowadays: The Viennese pool of computerized tests aimed at experiment-based assessment of behavior
    Klaus D. Kubinger
    2009, 41 (10):  1024-1036. 
    Abstract ( 1255 )  

    Considering the current scene of personality testing, in particular in China, discloses that it is primarily personality questionnaires that are being applied, but that so-called Objective Personality-tests sensu R. B. Cattell (or, in more modern terminology: tests for experiment-based assessment of behavior), which have lately been experiencing a certain “renaissance” within German speaking countries, are almost not in use. For this rea-son, a review is given of their typical properties and principle advantages over personality questionnaires. They are primarily less fakeable. As an illustration, several such tests stemming from a Viennese research group are presented, and their psychometric qualities and shortcomings discussed. Finally, several applications of these tests already in practice are listed.

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