ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B


    25 January 2014, Volume 46 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Cortical Remapping Features of Numerosity Adaptation Aftereffects
    ZHANG Zhijun, LIU Wei, ZHAO Yajun, ZHANG Jingshu, WU Binxing
    2014, 46 (1):  5-16 .  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00005
    Abstract ( 639 )   PDF (798KB) ( 66 )  

    A key question in numerosity cognition is whether numerosity processing is based on quantity of items, rather than other low-level descriptions such as contrast or density. We can shed light on this question by investigating the cortical remapping features of numerosity adaptation across saccades, compared with those of low-level properties. As can be seen from previous studies, when the observer was sweeping across a stimulus, there was a spatiotopic representation of the stimulus, forming an isomorphic map in the visual cortex anchored in stable real-world coordinates. The remapping was based on transformation of retinotopic mapping of the neurons that occurred in the primary visual cortex. This transformation, however, was proposed to exist in high-level descriptions selectively by means of integrating visual properties with eye-movement information across saccades. Therefore, distinct mechanisms can be revealed if the remappings show different characteristics between numerosity and low-level properties such as contrast or density, which is helpful in supporting the statement that numerosity processing is relatively independent of primary visual cues. Object-based remapping was thought to be possible when stimuli moved without saccades. The mechanism underlying this kind of mapping is not yet clearly demonstrated. Specifically, if this remapping is due to object-file updating, then all visual properties could be remapped when objects move without saccades, despite the different processing levels of them. By contrast, if the object-based remapping is based on a similar mechanism to that with saccades, then a distinction would appear in remapping features of descriptions in different levels: only higher-level descriptions’ aftereffects could be remapped to final positions when objects moved. Therefore, exploring remapping features when objects are moving without saccades is an effective way to study the mechanism of object-based remapping without saccades. In our study, remapping characteristics of numerosity adaptation aftereffects were investigated systematically when relative motion occurred between the target and the observing eyes, compared with those of contrast adaptation aftereffects. Two experiments were included. In Experiment 1, subjects were asked to shift their fixations to a new position after adapting to the stimulus. The adaptation effects in the same and different retinae/screen positions were compared. The numerosity and contrast adaptation were tested respectively. As a result, numerosity adaptation effects showed spatiotopic remapping features to some extent, whereas the remapping of contrast adaptation aftereffects appeared to be purely retinotopic. According to the result, we proposed that numerosity was a higher-level description of stimuli, which can be integrated with eye-moving information and built up across saccades. In Experiment 2, with a stable fixation and moving adapting targets, we determined the numerosity and contrast adaptation aftereffects in the original and final positions of targets, respectively. The results suggested that numerical adaptation aftereffects can be remapped to the final position of targets. On the contrary, contrast adaptation aftereffects could not be remapped to the final position of moved targets, showing a completely retinotopic remapping feature. The distinct results in Experiment 2 underlined further differences in numerosity and contrast processing, as well as an identical mechanism in remapping features of relatively moving objects with and without saccades. In conclusion, cortical remapping of numerosity adaptation aftereffects was shown to be not constrained to the retinotopic level in our study. With saccades, it was shown to be spatiotopic; without saccades, the numerical aftereffects could also be remapped in the final position of moving objects. On the contrary, contrast showed completely retinotopic remapping features. These results provide new evidence to support the view that numerosity is processed at higher-level rather than being completely dependent on inferring of low-level visual cues. Moreover, we propose that the information of relative motion can be integrated with higher-level properties of stimuli no matter there are saccades or not.

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    The Priority of Color in Working-Memory-Driven Ocular Capture
    ZHANG Bao, Huang Sai, HOU Qiuxia
    2014, 46 (1):  17-26.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00017
    Abstract ( 1046 )   PDF (562KB) ( 80 )  

    The target template maintaining in working memory can guide attention bias to target-like items in the visual scene facilitating the visual search. In addition to the target template, representations in worming memory that are irrelevant to the search target have also been shown to guide attention in a top-down way. During visual search, the distractor sharing attributes with the online working memory representations capture more attention than other distractors, displaying a robust memory-driven attentional capture effect. However, not all stimulus attributes of the working memory representations are equal effective in capturing attention, previous studies showed that the color attribute of a memory-matched distractor was more effective in capturing the first fixation than the shape attribute. According to the opinion of Wolfe and Horowitz (2004), the color attribute was one of the “undoubted guiding attributes” that had greater efficiency for attention guidance than the shape attribute. So it is unclear yet whether color still has such priority when directly competing against the orientation attribute that is also one of the “undoubted guiding attributes”. Three experiments using the classic dual task paradigm were reported here to address this issue. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to search for a specific target accompanied with a distractor which was always located in the opposite visual field of the target. The target and the distractor were respectively embedded in the bar with color and/or orientation attributes same to or different from the objects held in the working memory. The results suggested that the bar would capture more first fixations (i.e. ocular capture effect) only when it shared color attribute with the memory items than when it did not, most importantly, the color-matched bar still captured more first fixations than the orientation-matched bar while they simultaneously appeared and directly competed for attention. In Experiment 2 and 3, participants were required to search either color or orientation of the remembered object. The results showed that in the color search task, ocular capture occurred when the color attributes of the target matched the remembered object regardless of the orientation attribute. However, in the orientation search task, ocular capture still occurred when the distractor was of the same color as the remembered object and slowed down search. These asymmetric results again demonstrated the priority of color attribute in the working memory representation. In conclusion, these results indicate that attentional priority could modulate attentional guidance from working memory, and the color attribute is of greater attentional priority for ocular capture than orientation.

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    The Preservation of Readers’ Reality-predictive and Preference-predictive Inferences in Narrative Comprehension
    LU Chao, MO Lei, WU Limei, CHEN Lin, LUO Xueying
    2014, 46 (1):  27-35.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00027
    Abstract ( 654 )   PDF (394KB) ( 36 )  

    Predictive inferences (PI) in text reading can have been defined as estimation and expectation to the upcoming matters in the text based on the current reading information. Research on PI in text reading has been one of the hotspots in the field of narrative reading. Numerous researchers have studied on the issues of activation, factors, and representation of contextual PI, coming up with various achievements. Reality factor and preference factor are two main factors influencing the process of readers’ PI, hence PI in text reading can be categorized into two different types: reality-PI and preference-PI. Reality-PI are PI to the results based on the objective situation of contextual information, combined with common experience. The readers will predict and infer based on their own emotion and preference, i.e., preference-PI. Previous studies on PI mainly focused on the processing mechanism of reality-PI, few focus on preference-PI. The aim of the present study was to investigate the difference of preservation of these two types of PI in long term memory. Three experiments were designed, using self-paced reading procedure. Experiment 1 and 2 have investigated the preservation of reality-PI and preference-PI in long term memory. Experiment 3 investigated whether preference-PI will vanish by negating the reality condition in the sentence which may trigger preference. Participants were asked to read short narratives firstly and answer a related question after reading each passage. All materials were presented on a computer-controlled monitor. Participants read the passages in a self-paced manner, advancing the text one line at a time by pressing the space bar. Participants were instructed to read carefully. The reaction time of the prime was recorded and analyzed. The results of the present study have suggested that there is obvious difference between the preservation of reality-PI and that of preference-PI in the long term memory. Preference-PI can be preserved in the long-term memory while reality-PI can not. However, readers can no longer preserve the original preference-PI if it is restricted by real-world condition, which has suggested that preference-PI can not solely exist and is restricted by real-world condition. It will vanish if negated by the reality and will no longer affect readers’ further reading.

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    Landing Position Effects of Coordinate and Attributive Structure Compound Words
    MENG Hongxia;BAI Xuejun;ZANG Chuanli;YAN Guoli
    2014, 46 (1):  36-49.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00036
    Abstract ( 635 )  

    For alphabetic language scripts, the decision about where to move the eyes next during reading is strongly influenced by low-level visual variables such as word length, which is provided by spacing information. In contrast, high-level linguistic variables, such as word frequency and word predictability do not influence where readers move their eyes (Rayner, 2009). Similar to the alphabetic writing systems, there has been evidence that word frequency and word predictability do not influence initial landing positions during Chinese reading (Wu et al., 2011; Guo, 2012). However, written Chinese is a kind of ideographic writing system, which differs from alphabetic writing systems in many dimensions. There are different constructions of two-character compound words according to the semantic relationship between the two constituent characters of a compound word, such as coordinate and attributive structure. Some researchers found that the structure of compound words influenced vocabulary recognition processing (Feng, 2003; Gan, 2009; Zhang, 1993). In this study, two experiments were conducted to explore whether the high-level lexical properties (the semantic relationship between the two constituent characters of a compound word) influenced landing positions. In Experiment 1, we manipulated the constructions of 2-character compound words (coordinate and attributive structure). In Experiment 2, compound words pairs shared the same first constituent character but different constructions (coordinate or attributive) were used as target words to further investigate the influence on landing positions of compound words’ constructions. 32 undergraduates were asked to read the experimental sentences which included target words in Experiment 1, and another 28 undergraduates took part in Experiment 2. Their eye movements were recorded by an SR Research EyeLink II eyetracker (sampling rate = 500 Hz) that monitored the position of the right eye every two milliseconds. The results showed that there were different eye movement patterns in different fixation cases. When there was only one fixation on a target word, the first fixation mostly landed on the centre of the word. When there were multiple fixations, readers first fixated at the beginning of the target word. There was a preferred viewing location in single-fixation cases during Chinese reading. In multiple fixation cases, if the first fixation landed at the beginning of a target word, the probability of refixating this word was highest, and refixations tended to land at the end of the word. There were similar fixation patterns when readers fixated the target words with different construction of compound words. We argue that Chinese children use the “strategy-tactics” approach during reading.

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    Effects of Perceptual Clues on the Subconscious Neuromuscular Feed-forward and Feedback Control
    ZHANG Zhi, WANG Jian
    2014, 46 (1):  50-57.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00050
    Abstract ( 688 )   PDF (865KB) ( 84 )  

    During self-induced and externally triggered posture perturbations the central nervous system (CNS) subconsciously activates two different neural control strategies named feed-forward mechanisms (FFM) which is presented as anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) and feedback mechanisms (FBM) which is presented as compensatory postural adjustments (CPAs). Because of these two neural control strategies the postural muscles can respond rapidly in 50 to 120ms and the center of body gravity can be stable. It is a classic experiment paradigm that observing FFM by APAs changes of postural muscles triggered by optic clues. However, sudden loading and unloading triggered by temporal clues is a new way to examine neuromuscular rapid response control. Its impact on APAs and CPAs of postural and focal muscles during sudden posture perturbation is still unclear and the interaction between optic and temporal clues has not been reported yet. This experiment aimed to examine the effects of the optic and temporal clues on APAs and CPAs by which CNS acts on postural and focal muscles during externally triggered posture perturbation. Sixteen healthy young adults were subjected to the classic ball hitting test (BHT) in six conditions combined by optic clues (eyes open and eyes closed) and temporal clues (no counting backwards for release, counting backwards of release by the experimenter and counting backwards by subjects themselves). EMG activity on right side musculus biceps brachii as focal muscle and right side lumbar erector spinae and lumbar multifidus as postural muscles was collected. The incidence of APAs, the latency of pre-activation and the response intensity of CPAs of the muscles mentioned above were calculated in order to reflect the effects of perceptual clues on APAs and CPAs of postural and focal muscles. Our results showed that the incidence of APAs of postural and focal muscles was significantly increased and the pre-activation of postural and focal muscles was significantly earlier with optic clues than without. Besides, optic clues significantly decreased the response intensity of CPAs of the focal muscle. Nevertheless, temporal clues primarily induced earlier pre-activation of the focal muscle without significant effects on APAs or CPAs of postural muscles. We conclude that the effects of optic and temporal clues on CNS motor control of postural and focal muscles during externally triggered posture perturbation are different. Optic clues have significant effects on APAs of postural and focal muscles and CPAs of the focal muscle, which suggests a pre-activation superiority for optic clues. Temporal clues only have significant effect on APAs of focal muscles.

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    Effects of Menstrual Cycle and Neuroticism on Emotional Responses of Healthy Women
    WU Mengying, ZHOU Renlai, HUANG Yamei, WANG Qingguo, ZHAO Yan, LIU Yanfeng
    2014, 46 (1):  58-68.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00058
    Abstract ( 1682 )   PDF (901KB) ( 143 )  

    Women experience dramatic fluctuations in progesterone and estradiol during menstrual cycles, which will likely influence their mood. The subjective experience and neural responses towards emotional stimuli of women who suffer from premenstrual syndrome (PMS) seemed to differ across menstrual cycles. However, it remains unknown that if women without PMS will have mood swings during a menstrual cycle. Additionally, some studies argued that neuroticism was closely associated with PMS. But it is still unclear whether neurotic women without PMS would have different responses towards emotional stimuli in different phases of menstrual cycle like women with PMS. The current study was designed to investigate the influence of neuroticism on the subjective experience and physiological responses towards emotional stimuli in the non-PMS sample across a menstrual cycle. We hypothesized that neurotic women would have more intense subjective experience and physiological responses towards emotional stimuli, especially in the premenstrual phase. Forty-one right-handed female with regular menstrual cycle took part voluntarily in this within-subject study. The results of Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) divided this sample into the high neuroticism group (HN group, n = 16) and the low neuroticism group (LN group, n = 25). Each participant performed a film watching and evaluating task three times during mid-late luteal, menstrual and late ovulation phases respectively. 12 film clips were selected. Among them, nine 3-minute film clips were supposed to evoke amusement, sadness, and anger (3 clips for each emotion) and 3 film clips were neutral. For each visit, the participant would watch 4 film clips randomly selected from 12 film clips, one for each emotion and a neutral one, and the order of clips was counter-balanced. Each time the participant came to the lab and relaxed for 3 minutes (baseline), then she watched a film clip and completed the emotion inventory to evaluate how they felt about the clip. She was then asked to relax for another 3 minutes to recover from the emotional arousal. The physiological responses including heart rate, galvanic skin response (GSR) and respiratory rate were recorded at this time. This procedure was repeated until all 4 film clips (one for each emotion and a neural film) were viewed. The results showed that there was a significant interaction between menstrual cycle and group membership for self-reported anger and disgust in response to angry films. The HN group scored lower in self-reported anger and disgust than the LN group only in the mid-late luteal phase, and there was a significant effect of menstrual cycle in HN group but not in LN group for self-reported anger. We calculated rate of change for the analysis of heart rate and found a significant effect of menstrual cycle for the HN group but not for the LN group when they were watching neutral and sad films. The rate of change in the LN group was significantly greater than that in the HN group in the mid-late luteal phase, but not in the other two phases. We also calculated rate of change for the analysis of respiration rate and found that the change of rate is significantly greater for the HN group than that for the LN group, but only in the menstrual phase. Taken together, the subjective experience and physiological responses towards negative emotion during menstrual cycles seem to be more influential for neurotic women than for those who are low in neuroticism. Furthermore, neurotic women seemed to be less vulnerable to negative emotion during their mid-late luteal phase than during other phases. Sensitive response of neurotic women to the fluctuation of progesterone during menstrual cycles may be one of the reasons that account for their mood change.

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    Orbital Frontal Cortex D1 Dopamine Receptor Modulate Glutamate and NMDA Receptor in Depression Induced by Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress
    WU Shuai, AN Shucheng, CHEN Huibin, LI Fei
    2014, 46 (1):  69-78.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00069
    Abstract ( 603 )   PDF (565KB) ( 82 )  

    Stressors play a pivotal role in the occurrence of depressive illnesses. Disorders of monoamine neurotransmitters and their receptors may be the fundamental causes of depression. Additionally, abnormal expression of glutamic acid (Glu) and its receptor may be a major reason for depression. Consequently, the study of the relationship between monoamine and glutamic acid neurotransmitter in stress-induced depression has significances to reveal the profound mechanism of depression. NR2B subunits which are highly expressed in the cortex, hippocampus and olfactory bulb, are one of the key subunits of NMDA receptors. Orbital frontal cortex (orbital frontal cortex, OFC), which plays a significant role in higher brain function, such as emotional and complex behavior, is one of the major sub-regions of prefrontal. This study was to investigate the effect of orbital frontal cortex D1 dopamine receptor on Glu and its receptors, especially on NR2B subunits of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors in depression induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). CUMS-induced depression model was established in Sprague-Dawley rats, and intra-orbital frontal cortex microinjections of D1 dopamine receptor agonist SKF38393 and its antagonist SCH23390 were respectively adopted by rat brain stereotaxic coordinates. The behavioral observations were conducted by measurement of sucrose preference test, open-field test and tail suspension test. The concentration of Glu and the expression of NR2B subunits in orbital frontal cortex were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Western blot (WB) respectively. In comparison to control groups, depression-like behavioral changes were observed in CUMS rats, the concentration of dopamine and its D1 receptor were decreased; conversely, the increase of Glu and NR2B subunits of its NMDA receptors were observed in orbital frontal cortex. Depression-like behavioral of CUMS rats was obviously improved after pretreatment with injection of SKF38393, the expression of Glu and NR2B subunits of its NMDA receptors were also decreased. Normal rats showed depression-like behavioral which similar to the CUMS rats after pretreatment with injection of D1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390, meanwhile, in orbital frontal cortex the expression of Glu and NR2B subunits of its NMDA receptors were significantly increased. These results suggest that the lowered dopamine release may be caused by chronic unpredictable mild stress, as the result of insufficient dopamine, orbital frontal cortex releases extra amounts of glutamic acid and its NMDA receptors are over activated. All those above then may lead to depression. Antidepressant effect of dopamine may be functioned by inhibiting the expression of Glu and NR2B subunits of its NMDA receptors.

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    Children’s Resource Acquisition Behaviors in the Situation of Potential Conflict: A Cross-cultural Study of Chinese and Canadian 7 Years Old Children
    CAO Ruixin, CHEN Huichang, CHEN Xinyin
    2014, 46 (1):  79-89.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00079
    Abstract ( 815 )   PDF (819KB) ( 36 )  

    Resources are usually limited, how can children acquire resources successfully and avoid conflict with their peer in peer interaction is an interesting and important topic in developmental psychology. It’s a pity that there is little research on children’s resource acquisition in either China or other countries. Cross-cultural research is even less. In the present study, we attempted to investigate resource acquisition behaviors of 7-year-old children, and compare the differences between Chinese and Canadian children on these behaviors. One hundred and sixty Chinese children and one hundred and thirty three Canadian children took part in this study. At 7 years old, 4 children who were not familiar with each other were invited to the laboratory, and the child’s resource acquisition behaviors were observed as they played with a single novel toy. Statistical analyses revealed the following results: (1) Chinese children exhibited more adult seeking and spontaneous giving behaviors than Canadian children. The percentages of unsuccessful resource acquisition behaviors and resource acquisition for self of Canadian children were significantly higher than Chinese children. (2) Boys exhibited more assertive behaviors and turn taking rule behaviors than girls, and girls exhibited more spontaneous giving, leadership/organization and resource acquisition for others than boys. (3) Turn taking rule was an important non-strategy resource acquisition method. (4) Chinese children exhibited more leadership/ organization than Canadian children in group level. (5) Assertive behavior and turn taking rule were all effective resource acquisition method but not for polite verbal request. (7) Adult seeking was an effective method for Chinese boys, but not for girls and Canadian children.

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    Parental Conflict Affects Adolescents' Depression and Social Anxiety: Based on Cognitive-contextual and Emotional Security Theories
    WANG Mingzhong, FAN Cuiying, ZHOU Zongkui, CHEN Wu
    2014, 46 (1):  90-100.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00090
    Abstract ( 3632 )   PDF (912KB) ( 662 )  

    Interparental conflict leads to various internal problems such as social anxiety and depression in adolescents. Two classical theories have been formulated to reveal the mechanisms by which interparental conflict could negatively affect adolescents’ internal problems. According to the cognitive-contextual theory, adolescents’ cognitive appraisal determines the degree to which interparental conflict affects adolescents’ internal problems. The emotional security theory holds that, interparental conflict affects adolescents’ internal problems through the mediating role of emotional insecurity. The cognitive-contextual theory has been validated by much empirical research while the emotional security theory relatively lacks empirical evidence. We intend to test these two theories by two single-mediator models and more importantly, it’s our main work to integrate these two theories to form a more comprehensive model. Based on the two theories, we hypothesize that cognitive appraisal or emotional insecurity could independently mediate the path from interparental conflict to adolescents’ internal problems. By integrating the two theories, we hypothesize that interparetnal conflict affects adolescents’ cognitive appraisal and their emotional insecurity serially, and finally lead to their internal problems. 481 high school students were conveniently chosen as our subjects who were investigated with such instruments as Children's Perception of Interparental Conflict Scale (CPIC), Security in the Interparental Subsystem Scale (SIS scale), Depressive Experience Questionnaire (DEQ) and Social Anxiety Subscale. With every class as a unit and under the supervision of two psychological graduates, these scales were administered to adolescents. Data were collected and analyzed by using SPSS 17.0 and LISREL 8.80. The hypothetical models fit the data satisfactorily, especially for the third model. Results indicated that adolescents’ perceived level of parental conflict positively predicted adolescents’ cognitive appraisal as well as emotional insecurity which then positively predicted adolescents’ depression and their social anxiety; adolescents’ perceived level of parental conflict had no direct effects on adolescents’ internal problems; in the integrating model, cognitive appraisal could positively predict emotional insecurity, interparental conflict affected adolescents’ cognitive appraisal, emotional insecurity and internal problems serially. The following hypotheses were supported: (1) Adolescents' cognitive appraisals could completely mediate the path from their perceived level of parental conflict to their internalized problems such as social anxiety and depression, supporting the cognitive-contextual theory. (2) Emotional insecurity could completely mediate the path from their perceived level of parental conflict to their social anxiety and depression, supporting the emotional security theory. (3) Based on integrating the cognitive contextual theory and the emotional security theory, the third model fits the data more satisfactorily which supports the hypothesis that adolescents’ perceived level of parental conflict serially affects adolescents’ cognitive appraisals and emotional insecurity which then affects their social anxiety and depression.

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    An Investigation of Female College Students’ Body Weight Perception Deviation and Its Reasons
    ZHOU Fan, SHI Yan
    2014, 46 (1):  101-112 .  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00101
    Abstract ( 3015 )   PDF (792KB) ( 40 )  

    References suggested that there are two components of body-image dysfunction: (a) perceptual body-size distortion and (b) cognitive-evaluative dysfunction. Also, reference indicated that an individual’s perception of body weight is an imperative component for understanding a dissatisfied body-image. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate female college students’ perceptions on their own body weight in relation to others. By analyzing college female students’ social perceptions on the deviation of their body weight in relation to a standardized normal female body weight, the study used the male students’ perceptions as a social standard of proper body weight image. Additionally, the reasons of the college students’ perceptions of deviation of body weight were also examined as well. The body image materials of PFRS (the female Photographic Figure Rating Scale) consist of ten photographic real female body images varying in body mass index (BMI) from emaciated to obese. Participants of the study were randomly selected from 6 universities and colleges, which included 1005 female students and 190 male students. The female participants were asked to choose the images in the PFRS representing their body size, ideal body size, and the most attractive body size respectively. To estimate the images of body weight based on the PFRS (assume that the image was as high as her), the participants were asked to report their actual body weight, and their perception on the desired ideal body weight. The male participants were asked to choose the most attractive body image from the PFRS. Based on the obtained research data, the attempt of this study was to reveal the female college students’ perceptions for the ideal body image so that the distance of deviation to ideal body image could be identified as well. In addition, the current study used three research models: (a) mirror model, (b) generalized model and (c) relevant model in order to reveal the reasons of the body weight perceptual deviation. The results of this study showed that the female students overestimated their own BMI (Body Mass Index); specifically, the female students tended to overestimate the BMI of the female students with normal weight or underweight, but underestimate the BMI of those overweight females. The score on the subjective social pressure of their body weight is higher than the real social pressure, which means that these students exaggerated the social pressure of body weight. Moreover, the female students’ perceptions on body image deviated to others were more possible to influence their self-perception deviation. Cognitive evaluation mentioned on the paper is not an important factor of weight perception deviation of the female college students, but the relation between these two factors should be further studied.

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    Context-contingent Effect of Zhongyong on Employee Innovation Behavior
    DU Jing, RAN Manman, CAO Ping
    2014, 46 (1):  113-124.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00113
    Abstract ( 871 )   PDF (847KB) ( 131 )  

    Zhongyong (the doctrine of mean), a core value of Confucianism, prescribes the extent to which a person put priority on traditional propriety and interpersonal harmoniousness by following the doctrine of mean based on a holistic perspective. Despite its prevalence and dominant role in explaining behavior of Chinese, Zhongyong has been neglected in organization innovation. This study examines the context-contingent effect of Zhongyong on employee innovation behavior. Specifically, we explore the effect of Zhongyong on employee innovation behavior that take different forms depending on innovation cognition as an individual-level moderator, and team model employee and team colleague negative pressure as two cross-level moderators. Our theoretical propositions are empirically validated by multisource data collected from 413 employees of 49 work teams in China. With the supports of team supervisors, employees completed the questionnaire regarding Zhongyong, innovation cognition, team model employee, and team colleague negative pressure. Supervisors reported subordinate innovation behavior. All questionnaires were returned back to authors directly. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) is employed to analyze data. The results show that Zhongyong is insignificantly related to employee innovation behavior. However, employee innovation cognition and team colleague negative pressure exhibited significantly moderation effect on the relationship between Zhongyong and innovation behavior: Zhongyong is positively related to innovation behavior when innovation cognition is high, and negatively related to innovation behavior when colleagues negative pressure is high. Team model employee fails to exhibit moderation effect. Most scholars think that Zhongyong is an impediment for organization innovation because Zhongyong tends to maintain tradition and harmoniousness rather than change. However, the present study clearly indicates that Zhongyong actually has context-contingent effect on employee innovation behavior: Zhongyong promotes employee involvement in organization innovation when employees realize the importance of organization innovation, whereas Zhongyong hampers employee innovation behavior when other team members exhibit negative responses to organization innovation. Through dialectical thinking and holistic perspective within the given situation, employees tend to choose the proper behavior to match the situation, finally leading to mean and harmoniousness. This implicates that managers should pay more attention to the communication of the innovation as well as building team positive climate.

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    How Life Satisfaction and Income Moderate the Effects of Endowment Insurance Policy Values on the Retirement Life Support Perceived by Employees in Private Firms
    LI Suli;ZHANG Jinlong;LIU Shan
    2014, 46 (1):  125-140 .  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00125
    Abstract ( 823 )  

    With the rapid aging of the population, endowment insurance provided by the government is becoming increasingly important. The effect of endowment insurance on retirement life support has also received significant research attention. This study is the first to combine policy and non-policy factors of endowment insurance. Following the characteristics of execution of the endowment insurance policy in our country, a research model of the moderation of the effects of endowment insurance policy values on the perceived retirement life support by improving the life satisfaction and income of employees in private firms is presented. The model was empirically tested based on a survey of 203 respondents from 15 private firms in China. The hierarchical regression results showed that the economic, social, and political values of the endowment insurance policy have direct positive effects on the retirement life support perceived by employees in private firms. Endowment insurance policy has basic functions in the retirement of employees. All of its economic, social, and political values cannot be neglected. To realize the endowment insurance policy value, the economic, social, and political factors should be balanced. The government should not only focus on the increase in size and numbers of the endowment insurance, but also emphasize the coverage, supervision, and share of endowment insurance. The government should also narrow the gap of pension treatment between employees in private firms and those in government and social institutions, so that the endowment insurance can cover all kinds of employees. Not only should the policy execution be followed with interest, but also the entire process of the policy. To meet the requirements of the employees for their retirement life, the improvement of endowment insurance policy should start with the policy design. The mechanism of traced policy execution, controllable policy environment, and circular policy results should also be established. Additionally, the current life satisfaction and income of employees in private firms suppress the positive effects of endowment insurance policy values on the perceived retirement life support, which suggests that fair endowment insurance policy is a prerequisite, but is still not a sufficient condition for retirement life support. By improving the life satisfaction and income of employees in private firms, their current level of satisfaction can also be improved and the pressure imposed by the government on pension payment can be reduced. The perceived retirement life support is not only dependent on the policy or non-policy factors, but also relies on the balance of these two factors. This finding has important implications for the design of long-term portfolios of governance on endowment insurance. Finally, the effects of moderation of life satisfaction and income also indicate the source of the perceived retirement life support, that is, the security before and after retirement. In previous literature, the perceived retirement life support is limited only after retirement and focused on old people. However, our findings suggest that as the reflection of the status after retirement, the endowment insurance policy values have direct effects on the retirement life support for the employees, whereas life satisfaction and income, which represent the status before retirement, moderate the effects of endowment insurance policy on the perceived life support. Therefore, strengthening the support for the retirement life of employees could result in improvement on the quality of life before and after retirement.

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