ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

Acta Psychologica Sinica ›› 2024, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (4): 469-481.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2024.00469

• Reports of Empirical Studies • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Prompts affect the learning-by-teaching process and learning outcome in multimedia learning*

WANG Fuxing(), HUANG Yu, ZHANG Yang, ZHU Wanling, LENG Xiaoxue   

  1. Key Laboratory of Adolescent Cyberpsychology and Behavior, School of Psychology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China
  • Received:2023-03-29 Published:2024-04-25 Online:2024-02-02
  • Contact: Fuxing Wang, E-mail:
  • Supported by:
    *National Natural Science Foundation of China(# 62277025)


This study mainly explores the effects of different types of prompts on the learning-by-teaching process and learning outcomes. Experiment 1 replicated learners who used learning-by-teaching strategies performed better than those who restudied. Experiment 2 included four conditions: picture prompts, text prompts, keyword prompts, and no prompts. The results showed that picture prompts and keyword prompts can effectively improve retention performance, while keyword prompts can also improve transfer performance. In experiment 3, the effects of receiving and generating prompts were compared. The results showed that, on retention test, learners performed better in keyword prompts group and generated prompts group than in the control group, while on transfer test, learners in the generated prompts group perform better than those in the control group. In addition, both experiment 2 and experiment 3 found that the number of idea units played a mediating role in the effect of prompts on learning performance. The conclusions are as follows: (1) Providing picture prompts in learning-by-teaching can promote retention while providing keyword prompts can promote both retention and transfer; (2) Compared to receiving prompts, learners who actively generate prompts can promote transfer better; (3) The number of idea units generated by learners plays a mediating role in the effect of prompts on learning. Above all, the study verified the effectiveness of RPT and GLT in the process of learning by teaching in a multimedia learning environment.

Key words: learning by teaching, prompts, retrieval practice, keyword, generative learning