心理学报, 2019, 51(4): 497-506 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00497

研究报告

社会支持缓解高互依自我个体的急性心理应激反应

任曦, 王妍, 胡翔, 杨娟,

教育部认知与人格重点实验室, 重庆 400715

Social support buffers acute psychological stress in individuals with high interdependent self-construal

REN Xi, WANG Yan, HU Xiang, YANG Juan,

Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality, Ministry of Education, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China

通讯作者: 杨娟, E-mail: valleyqq@swu.edu.cn

收稿日期: 2018-05-17   网络出版日期: 2019-04-25

基金资助: * 国家自然科学基金.  31671123
重庆市基础与前沿重点课题.  cstc2015jcyjBX0057
中央高校基本业务费专项资金资助.  SWU1709224

Received: 2018-05-17   Online: 2019-04-25

摘要

高互依自我构念个体以社会角色来定义自己, 更看重自己的社会关系; 社会评价威胁是诱发个体社会心理应激反应的重要情境因素, 然而高互依自我构念个体在心理性应激情境中是否会表现出更高的应激反应, 以及社会支持是否会缓解高互依自我构念个体的急性心理应激反应还不可知。本研究以特里尔社会应激测试为范式, 以主观应激报告、心率和唾液皮质醇作为应激指标, 使用自我构念问卷测量个体互依自我构念水平, 将健康大学生被试随机分配到自我支持启动组和社会支持启动组。结果发现, 互依自我构念水平正向预测个体在应激情境中的皮质醇水平增加量; 同时, 相比于自我支持启动, 高互依自我构念的个体在经历社会支持后有更低的唾液皮质醇变化量。研究结果提示, 社会支持对高互依自我构念个体的急性心理应激反应起到了良好的缓解作用。

关键词: 急性心理应激 ; 互依自我构念 ; 社会支持 ; TSST

Abstract

Individuals with high interdependent self-construal generally define themselves as a social role, and assign great values to their social relationships. Social evaluation threat is an important situational factor that induces psychosocial stress. However, it is not known whether individuals with high interdependent self-construal will exhibit more intense stress responses under situations of psychological stress. In addition, social support represents an important factor for the individual’s acceptance by the social group. However, it remains unknown whether social support is effective in coping with the stress responses induced by psychological stress in the high interdependent self-construal individuals. Therefore, the present study sought to investigate: (1) the psychosocial stress response of the high interdependent self-construal individuals; (2) the roles of social support in coping with the psychological stress for high interdependent self-construal individuals. We hypothesized that: (1) the high interdependent self-construal individuals would have greater stress response under psychological stress situations; (2) in the context of social support, individuals with high interdependent self-construal will exhibit lower stress levels.

We selected 60 college students in a University (Chongqing, China) through advertisements. The 60 participants were randomly divided into two groups: the self support-priming group and social support-priming group. The experiences of self support or social support were induced by different primings. A version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) adapted for Chinese was used to induce the acute psychosocial stress. We used salivary cortisol, heart rate and subjective reported stress as indicators of stress. Throughout the course of the experiment, we performed 7 separate measurements of these indices, and evaluated the interdependent self-construal using the self-construal scale.

Using two-way ANOVA with priming as a between-subject variable and time points as a within-subject variable, we discovered a significant effect of the time points: salivary cortisol, F(6, 258) = 15.83, p < 0.001, ηp 2 = 0.269; heart rate, F(7, 301) = 69.15, p < 0.001, ηp 2 = 0.617; subjective reported stress, F(6, 258) = 67.58, p < 0.001, ηp 2 = 0.611. We used the area under the curve with respect to the increase (AUCi) of time points of the three stress indices as the changes in stress levels across the experiment. The independent-sample t-test revealed that the AUCi of the salivary cortisol of the group with social support was significantly lower than that of the self support group: t(43) = 1.95, p = 0.058, d’ = 0.594, 95% CI [-0.022, 1.314]. The AUCg of the heart rate and subjective reported stress showed no significant differences between the two priming groups. Furthermore, we used the AUCi of cortisol to assess changes in stress levels. We conducted linear regression analysis with the AUCi of cortisol as the dependent variable, and priming and interdependent self-construal as the independent variables. The interaction effect of priming and interdependent self-construal was significant: β = -0.27, p = 0.038, ΔR 2 = 0.073, 95% CI [-0.528, -0.016]. We adopted a simple slope test for further analysis. The results indicated that the stress level of high interdependent self-construal individuals who accepted social support were significantly lower than those under self support: β = -0.75, t = -3.59, p < 0.001. In contrast, these differences were not identified in individuals with low interdependent self-construal.

Taken together, consistent with previous reports, the present study found that the individuals with high interdependent self-construal exhibit more intense stress response under the psychosocial stress. Furthermore, we discovered that for individuals with high interdependent self-construal, social support could effectively alleviate their stress response. These results provide an effective stress coping strategy for individuals with high interdependent self-construal.

Keywords: acute psychological stress ; interdependent self-construal ; social support ; TSST

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本文引用格式

任曦, 王妍, 胡翔, 杨娟. (2019). 社会支持缓解高互依自我个体的急性心理应激反应 . 心理学报, 51(4), 497-506

REN Xi, WANG Yan, HU Xiang, YANG Juan. (2019). Social support buffers acute psychological stress in individuals with high interdependent self-construal. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 51(4), 497-506

1 前言

应激是个体内部稳态受到威胁时的一种状态, 表现为个体产生一系列适应性补偿反应来维持内部稳态(Pacák & Palkovits, 2001)。心理应激反应是当个体面对新异的、不可预测的、不可控制的刺激时, 或者当前情景超出个体承受能力, 可能会对个体产生潜在伤害时所产生的一种特异性反应(Blascovich & Tomaka, 1996; Cohen, Kessler, & Gordon, 1995; Dickerson & Kemeny, 2004; Dienstbier, 1988; Mason, 1968; Rose, 1980; Sapolsky, 1993), 这些特异性反应主要包括个体主观应激、负性情绪和状态焦虑水平等心理指标的增加, 以及心率(Heart rate, HR)、血压和唾液皮质醇水平等生理指标的升高(Al'Absi, Wittmers, Erickson, Hatsukami, & Crouse, 2003; Kirschbaum, Kudielka, Gaab, Schommer, & Hellhammer, 1999; Rimmele et al., 2007; Schoofs, Preuß, & Wolf, 2008)。在众多诱发个体应激反应的任务中, 特里尔社会应激测试(Trier Social Stress Test, TSST)是一个常用的范式, 该范式通过“公众演讲和数学计算”来诱发个体社会评价威胁和不可控制的感受, 从而诱发个体应激(Kirschbaum, Pirke, & Hellhammer, 1993)。大量研究结果表明, TSST能提高个体主观应激、负性情绪、心率水平, 同时使下丘脑-脑垂体-肾上腺轴(hypothalamic-pituitary- adrenal axis, HPA axis)活动水平发生改变, 从而使唾液中的皮质醇水平上升(Bohringer, Schwabe, Richter, & Schachinger, 2008; Kirschbaum, Pirke, & Hellhammer, 1993; Kudielka, Schommer, Hellhammer, & Kirschbaum, 2004; 杨娟, 侯燕, 杨瑜, 张庆林, 2011)。

在众多诱发个体心理应激反应的因素中, Dickerson和Kemeny (2004)在对208个应激相关的实验室研究进行元分析后发现, 不可控制感和社会评价威胁是诱发个体社会心理应激反应的重要情境因素。不可控制感是指个体竭尽全力也无法改变事件的结果时所产生的一种负面感受(Averill, 1973; Thompson, 1981), 会导致个体皮质醇应激反应的升高(Lovallo, Pincomb, Brackett, & Wilson, 1990; Peters et al., 1999)。社会评价威胁则是指个体在个性、能力和社会技能等重要方面受到或者将会受到负性反馈, 从而威胁到个体自我认识的负面感受(Dickerson & Kemeny, 2004; Hughes & Beer, 2013; Vandellen, Campbell, Hoyle, & Bradfield, 2011), 社会评价威胁源自于个体的重要特性受到他人的负面评价, 这会增加个体失去社会尊重的潜在可能, 从而增加个体失败的可能性(Seta & Seta, 1995)。研究也证实, 对于社会评价威胁更加敏感的个体更容易产生皮质醇应激反应(Pruessner, Hellhammer, & Kirschbaum, 1999; Schmidt et al., 1999; Stroud, Tanofsky-Kraff, Wilfley, & Salovey, 2000)。

个体如何定义自我, 决定了个体如何思考、看待和应对生活中的事件。自我构念就是一种站在社会文化角度来定义自我的方法, 分为独立自我构念和互依自我构念两种(Markus & Kitayama, 1991)。高独立自我构念的个体将自己视为一个区别于他人和环境的整体, 更看重个体自身的独特性。高互依自我构念的个体将自己视为团体中的一员、一个社会角色或者是与他人关系中的一部分, 更加看重个体的社会关系(Cousins, 1989; Hofstede, 2001; Markus & Kitayama, 1991)。高互依自我构念的个体, 在面临重要抉择时会更多的考虑他人的需要, 更希望获得他人认可(Cross, Bacon, & Morris, 2000)。

既然高互依自我构念个体重视社会认可的作用, 而社会评价威胁又是诱发急性心理性应激反应的关键因素之一, 那么高互依自我构念个体是否会在急性心理性应激情境中表现出更高的应激反应?虽然已有的问卷调查研究发现, 互依自我构念高的个体会主观报告出更高水平的日常应激(胡翔, 王妍, 杨娟, 2017), 然而他们在具体应激情境中的客观应激指标是否会有相同的表现, 目前还不得而知; 其次, 社会支持是那些让个体坚信他们是被爱的、被关注的、被尊重的、被群体接纳的那些重要信息(Cobb, 1976)。社会支持作为个体与个体、个体与团体的重要依存关系的体现, 影响着个体面对挑战、应激事件的能力(Caplan, 1981), 那些拥有良好社会支持的个体也表现出更低的应激水平(Cohen & Wills, 1985; Heinrichs, Baumgartner, Kirschbaum, & Ehlert, 2003; Kirschbaum, Klauer, Filipp, & Hellhammer, 1995)。那么, 社会支持作为社会关系的重要来源, 以及应对社会心理应激的重要方式, 是否会对高互依自我构念个体心理应激反应产生影响还尚不可知。因此, 本研究试图通过在急性心理应激情境下, 给予高互依自我构念个体社会支持, 来探究社会支持是否会对高互依自我构念个体在社会心理应激情景下的应激反应起到缓解作用。本研究假设, 在给予社会支持的情景下, 高互依自我构念个体将会表现出更低的应激水平。

2 方法

2.1 被试

通过张贴广告的方式选取在校大学生60名(平均年龄为20.2 ± 0.8岁, 男性27名)。通过被试口头报告的方式确定所有被试无心理失调、严重生理疾病、头部损伤, 无酗酒和吸毒的情况。所有女性被试均处于黄体期(月经期前10天左右), 且实验近期未服用避孕药物。所有被试被要求在实验前1个小时之内不能吃东西、做剧烈运动、饮酒、喝咖啡以及刷牙。实验结束后给予被试一定报酬。经过启动有效性检验剔除被试13名, 启动有效性检验方法见“2.5启动的有效性检验”。另外有2名被试因为某个时间点上的唾液皮质醇水平大于平均数三个标准差而被剔除, 故有45名被试参与最后的数据分析(男性21名), 其中自我支持组18人(男9人), 社会支持组27人(男12人)。

2.2 实验材料

(1) 启动材料

60名被试被随机分为两组, 分别进行自我支持启动和社会支持启动。自我支持启动强调个体在面对困难或重大事件时, 自我的抉择所起到的重要作用, 突出个体自身的重要性; 社会支持启动强调个体在面对困难或重大事件时, 亲人和同伴的支持所起到的重要作用, 突出他人支持的重要性。两种启动分别通过向被试呈现一段写有启动内容、对应图片并且伴有舒缓音乐的视频来呈现, 启动的具体内容如下:

(1)自我支持:在人生这条漫长的旅程中, 你会经历很多人很多事, 但是只有你自己才能锻造自己的人生。在学校, 你希望获得自己理想的成绩, 不愧对自己的努力。毕业了, 你希望得到符合自己兴趣的工作, 发挥自己的价值, 实现自己的理想。在面临重大选择的时候, 你要倾听自己内心的声音, 才不会觉得遗憾后悔。你的生命, 你的生活, 你的一切, 都由你自己决定。很多时候, 正是你的态度, 影响着自己的生活, 你对自己的肯定和认可, 又成了成功、快乐生活的重要动力。现在请尽可能详细的写下最近三个月你做的最有成就感的一件事以及具体经过。并写下你的感受。

(2)社会支持:在人生这条漫长的旅程中, 你会经历很多人很多事, 这些人和事锻造了你的人生。在学校, 你希望取得一个好成绩, 不辜负父母和老师的期望。毕业了, 你希望得到一份体面的工作, 并受到上司的认可, 同事的接纳。在面临重大选择的时候, 也需要倾听其他人的意见, 才不会觉得遗憾后悔。你的生命, 你的生活, 你的一切, 都与周围的人和事息息相关。很多时候, 正是别人的态度, 影响着你的生活, 而正是大家的肯定和认可, 又成了成功、快乐生活的重要动力。现在请尽可能详细的写下最近三个月自己做的最受他人赞赏的一件事以及具体经过。并写下自己的感受。

(2) 问卷

(1)自我构念问卷(Self-construal scale, SCS), 问卷由Singelis于1994年编制, 共有24个条目, 其中独立自我构念和互依自我构念维度各12个条目, 分别用于测量被试自我构念中独立自我和互依自我的程度。该问卷的两个分问卷(互依自我构念和独立自我构念)在中国大学生之间的内部一致性系数分别为0.77和0.73, 一个月后的重测信度分别为0.79和0.83 (Huang, Liu, & Yao, 2009)。

(2)主观应激报告(Subjective Stress), 7点评分量表, 让被试评价在当前情境中所感受到的压力程度。

(3) 生理数据采集

(1)心电数据, 使用美国BIOPAC公司MP150多导生理记录仪ECG模块进行采集, 并通过连接安装有AcqKnowledge 4.2软件的电脑设备对生理数据进行存储。被试到达实验室后, 使用非侵入式电极片分别贴在被试的左侧腋下(正极)、胸口(负极)和右侧腹部(地级)。心电数据将用于心率指标分析。

(2)唾液皮质醇数据, 使用Salivette唾液收集器(SARSTEDT)进行收集。收集过程中, 在保证手不触碰棉条的前提下, 将棉条倒入口中咀嚼1 min, 然后用嘴将棉条送回收集管中, 经过离心得到1 ml左右的唾液样本, 并放置在-20oC的冰箱里进行保存。唾液皮质醇浓度采用酶联免疫测定法(ELISA, IBL-Hamburg, 德国)进行分析。皮质醇测定的敏感度为0.005 μg/dl, 皮质醇测定的内部、外部变异系数为3.1%和6.4%。

2.3 应激任务:特里尔社会应激任务(Trier Social Stress Test, TSST)

特里尔社会应激任务(TSST)常被用于诱发被试的急性应激反应(Kirschbaum et al., 1993), 在中国被试群体上有良好的诱发效果(杨娟 等, 2011)。TSST持续20分钟, 前10分钟是实验准备阶段, 后10分钟是正式实验阶段。实验准备阶段在休息室中进行, 主试介绍实验任务及流程“你的任务是参加一场工作面试, 你有5分钟的时间陈述你胜任这份工作的理由, 你的口头陈述以及肢体表现比如你的站姿、手势等都将由两个资深的专家当面评判, 如果需要, 他们还会对你提问, 同时你的整个面试过程都将摄像和录音, 你将有10分钟的时间准备面试, 在准备过程中你可以做笔记, 但在正式面试过程中不允许把笔记带进面试房间。有什么问题的话现在可以问我。我先带你熟悉一下环境。(进入正式实验房间), 这是面试房间, 这两位是专家老师, 你的表现将由他们给你评分。面试的时候你要站在这条线之后, 这样你的语言和行为表现才能被摄像机和麦克风清楚的记录下来。好, 现在跟我来。(回到休息室)你现在开始准备, 10分钟后面试开始。”

10分钟后, 开始正式实验。正式实验分为面试和口算作业两部分, 时间分别持续5分钟。在面试部分, 需要被试进行一个工作面试的口头陈述, 由专家组对其表现进行评价, 同时用摄像机记录整个面试过程, 如果陈述时间少于5分钟, 专家首先表现平淡, 然后说:“你还有一些时间, 请继续”; 如果5分钟陈述时间到, 被试还在继续陈述, 专家要求被试停止。面试结束后, 专家告诉被试进行一个口算任务, 从1022开始依次减去13, 并保证又快又准的作答, 一旦被试报告的结果出错, 专家立即停止被试的运算任务, 从1022重新开始。5分钟后任务结束。

2.4 实验流程

为了控制人体唾液皮质醇分泌节律对数据结果产生的影响, 实验统一在下午3点至下午5点进行。被试到达实验室后休息5分钟, 熟悉实验环境, 填写自我构念量表和基线主观应激报告, 采集基线生理数据。然后被试被随机分配到自我支持启动组或社会支持启动组, 观看启动视频材料。启动完成后, 被试分别进行TSST的准备阶段和正式实验阶段。TSST结束后, 被试在实验室休息30分钟, 每隔10分钟采集一次唾液样本。实验流程以及实验过程中主观报告、生理数据采集时间点见表1

表1   实验流程和数据收集

任务名称 时间(min) 实验流程和数据收集
基线 0 佩戴心电仪器, 讲解指导语, 填写自我构念量表, 休息。唾液样本(1)、主观应激报告(1)、心电(1)
启动任务 10 启动任务, 10分钟。唾液样本(2)、主观应激报告(2)、心电(2)
TSST前 20 TSST准备阶段, 10分钟。唾液样本(3)、主观应激报告(3)、心电(3)
TSST 30 TSST10分钟。唾液样本(4)、主观应激报告(4)、心电(4)
休息1 40 休息10分钟, 唾液样本(5)、主观应激报告(5)、心电(5)
休息2 50 休息10分钟, 唾液样本(6)、主观应激报告(6)、心电(6)
休息3 60 唾液样本(7)、主观应激报告(7)、心电(7)

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2.5 启动的有效性检验

对所有被试在启动后所写下的文字材料进行启动操作性检验, 邀请4名与本实验无关的人员对被试写作的文章按照“最受他人赞赏的事情”和“最具有自我价值感的事情”进行分类, 根据“最受他人赞赏的事情”对应社会支持启动, “最具有自我价值感的事情”对应自我支持启动的标准, 将无法正确分类的文章删除。结果发现, 在自我支持启动组中, 9名被试的文章被错误分类; 在社会支持启动组中, 4名被试的文章被错误分类。

同时, 我们对两个启动组的互依自我构念得分进行独立样本t检验发现两组得分不存在显著差异(社会支持组:M ± SD = 62.68 ± 4.76, 自我支持组:M ± SD = 60.33 ± 6.31, t(43) = 1.41, p = 0.17, d’ = 0.43, 95% CI [-0.99, 5.66]), 结果表明启动组分组效果良好。

2.6 数据分析

采用SPSS 20.0对数据进行统计分析。分别使用两因素重复测量方差分析(Repeated measure ANOVA)对不同时间点的量表、心电指标与皮质醇浓度进行统计, 其中时间点(7)为被试内变量, 启动方式(2)为被试间变量。计算不同时间点主观应激报告、心率水平和皮质醇水平的曲线下面积增量(the area under the curve with respect to increase, AUCi)作为实验过程中应激指标水平变化量。曲线下面积增量(AUCi)是一种以基线水平作为参照的曲线下水平计算方法, 是不同时间点皮质醇浓度连线后和基线值所在横线之间的总面积, 这种计算方法忽视了所有测量值到0之间的距离, 而更强调随着时间的变化量(Fekedulegn et al., 2007; Pruessner, Kirschbaum, Meinlschmid, & Hellhammer, 2003)。采用线性回归分析(Linear Regression)来检验启动调节互依自我构念对心理性应激的影响。

3 结果

3.1 启动的主效应以及心理应激的有效性检验

(1)主观应激报告

使用Two-way ANOVAs, 以启动方式作为被试间变量、不同时间点主观应激报告得分作为被试内变量进行分析, 结果显示时间点的主效应显著, F(6, 258) = 67.58, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.61; 启动的主效应不显著, F(1, 43) = 0.59, p = 0.44, ηp2 = 0.01; 时间点和启动的交互作用不显著, F(6, 258) = 0.28, p = 0.89, ηp2 = 0.01。结果表明, 在主观应激报告上TSST实验范式成功诱发个体应激体验, 但两种启动范式的效果无明显差异(图1)。

图1

图1   主观应激报告随时间变化趋势

注:误差线为均值标准误


(2)心率

使用Two-way ANOVAs, 以启动方式作为被试间变量、不同时间点心率水平作为被试内变量进行分析, 结果显示时间点的主效应显著, F(7, 301) = 69.15, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.62; 启动的主效应不显著, F(1, 43) = 1.33, p = 0.26, ηp2 = 0.03; 时间点和启动的交互作用不显著, F(7, 301) = 0.96, p = 0.42, ηp2 = 0.02。结果表明, 在心率上TSST实验范式成功诱发个体应激体验, 但两种启动范式的效果无明显差异(图2)。

图2

图2   心率随时间变化趋势

注:误差线为均值标准误。bpm为每分钟跳动次数


(3)唾液皮质醇

使用Two-way ANOVAs, 以启动方式作为被试间变量、不同时间点唾液皮质醇水平作为被试内变量进行分析, 结果显示时间点的主效应显著, F(6, 258) = 15.83, p < 0.001, ηp2 = 0.27; 启动的主效应显著, F(1, 43) = 9.95, p < 0.005, ηp2 = 0.19; 时间点和启动的交互作用不显著, F(6, 258) = 1.88, p = 0.16, ηp2 = 0.04。结果表明, 在唾液皮质醇上TSST实验范式成功诱发个体应激体验, 且自我支持组被试的整体应激水平显著高于社会支持组(图3)。

图3

图3   唾液皮质醇随时间变化趋势

注:误差线为均值标准误


表2   启动的主效应(AUCi指标)检验

指标 启动 M SD t p
AUCi主观报告 自我支持 1.64 4.10 -0.19 0.85
社会支持 1.94 6.00
AUCi心率 自我支持 10.71 34.66 -1.23 0.23
社会支持 24.68 39.03
AUCi皮质醇 自我支持 1.25 1.50 1.95 0.06
社会支持 0.61 0.70

注:AUCi为曲线下面积增量

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3.2 启动的主效应检验:应激水平变化量

计算各个时间点下主观应激报告、心率和唾液皮质醇的曲线下面积增量(AUCi)作为实验过程中被试应激水平变化量。分别对不同启动下的两组被试在主观应激报告、心率和唾液皮质醇的曲线下面积增量进行独立样本t检验(见表2), 结果发现两种启动条件下被试的主观应激报告曲线下面积增量差异不显著, t(43) = -0.19, p = 0.85, d’ = -0.06, 95% CI [-3.57, 2.96]; 心率的曲线下面积增量差异不显著, t(43) = -1.23, p = 0.23, d’ = -0.37, 95% CI [-36.89, 8.95]; 唾液皮质醇曲线下面积增量差异边缘显著, t(43) = 1.95, p = 0.058, d’ = 0.59, 95% CI [-0.02, 1.31], 表明自我支持启动组的个体皮质醇水平增加量显著高于社会支持启动组。

3.3 互依自我构念对心理性应激的影响:启动的调节作用

使用唾液皮质醇水平增量(AUCi_皮质醇)作为皮质醇水平变化量。通过线性回归对启动任务对于互依自我构念得分与应激反应水平的调节效应进行检验, 将皮质醇水平增量(AUCi_皮质醇)作为结果变量, 将进行编码后的启动类型(自我支持启动 = -1, 社会支持启动 = 1)和互依自我构念得分作为预测变量进行分层回归(结果见表3), 结果发现启动主效应显著, β = -0.39, p < 0.005, 95% CI [-0.65,-0.13], 启动类型负向预测个体皮质醇水平增加量, 自我支持启动后被试皮质醇水平增加量显著高于社会支持启动; 互依自我构念的主效应显著, β = 0.43, p < 0.005, 95% CI [0.17, 0.69], 互依自我构念正向预测个体皮质醇水平增加量; 互依自我构念与启动的交互作用显著, β = -0.27, p < 0.05, ΔR2 = 0.07, 95% CI [-0.53, -0.02]。交互作用简单斜率分析结果显示(见图5), 在高互依自我构念的个体中, 个体在进行自我支持启动后的应激水平变化量显著高于在社会支持启动后的个体, β = -0.75, t = -3.57, p < 0.001, 而低互依自我构念个体中不存在此差异。

表3   互依自我构念水平与启动对唾液皮质醇(AUCi_皮质醇)的回归分析结果

步骤 B SE β t p ΔR2
步骤1
启动 -0.29 0.15 -0.29 -1.95 0.06 0.08
步骤2
启动 -0.38 0.14 -0.38 -2.82 0.007 0.19
互依自我 0.45 0.13 0.45 3.34 0.002
步骤3
启动 -0.39 0.13 -0.39 -2.99 0.005 0.07
互依自我 0.43 0.13 0.43 3.32 0.002
启动×互依自我 -0.27 0.13 -0.27 -2.14 0.038

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4 讨论

本研究以健康大学生为被试, 以主观报告、心率和唾液皮质醇为指标, 探究社会支持对于高互依自我构念个体心理应激反应的影响。结果发现, 在经过TSST之后, 所有被试的主观报告应激水平、心率和唾液皮质醇水平均有显著提升。相较于自我支持启动, 在进行社会支持启动后的个体表现出更低的唾液皮质醇增加量。互依自我构念水平正向预测个体在应激情境中的皮质醇水平增加量, 进一步的调节效应分析我们发现, 在经过社会支持启动之后, 高互依自我构念个体的唾液皮质醇增加量更低。

根据前人研究结果, 个体在经历TSST之后个体会表现出更高的主观应激和唾液皮质醇水平(Kirschbaum et al., 1993; Kudielka et al., 2004; 杨娟 等, 2011), 本研究结果与前人研究结果保持一致, 表明TSST成功的诱发个体心理应激反应。其次, 社会支持作为个体爱、关注、尊重和接纳等社会依存信息的重要来源(Caplan, 1981; Cobb, 1976), 往往使个体更可能在心理应激情景下感受到更少的威胁和不可控感。研究指出, 拥有良好社会支持的个体生活应激水平更低(Cobb, 1976), 且在急性心理应激情景下, 给予个体社会支持后, 个体的皮质醇应激反应将会更低(Heinrichs et al., 2003; Kirschbaum et al., 1995)。在本研究中, 相较于自我支持启动, 经过社会支持启动的个体在心理应激情景下在更大程度上可能表现出更低的唾液皮质醇增加量, 这与前人研究结果一致, 表明社会支持有效的缓解了心理应激。在本研究中, 启动的主效应仅反映在唾液皮质醇指标上, 而在主观报告和心率上并未得到此结果。我们认为主观报告、心率和唾液皮质醇分属心理应激反应的主观体验、心血管系统反应和HPA轴反应三个层面(Buske-Kirschbaum et al., 2002), 所以不排除自我支持和社会支持对于个体应激反应在应激相关的中心加工系统上存在差异的潜在可能性。

图4

图4   启动调节互依自我构念与皮质醇的简单斜率分析结果

注:AUCi为曲线下面积增量。M为平均数, SD为标准差


互依自我构念是个体与他人联系的体现, 表现为个体随着情境改变自身行为以适应集体、调节情绪以维持集体的和谐(邹璐, 姜莉, 张西超, 胡婧, 张红川, 2014), 由于高互依自我构念的个体更加重视情景中与社会关系相关的信息, 所以他们对情景中的社会评价威胁信息就会更加敏感, 而社会评价威胁正是心理应激的重要情景因素(Dickerson & Kemeny, 2004), 因此高互依自我构念的个体在急性心理应激情景下会表现出更加强烈的应激反应。研究也发现, 高互依自我构念与较高的焦虑、抑郁等负性情绪相关, 而这些负面情绪与应激都有着密切的联系(Allen, Kennedy, Cryan, Dinan, & Clarke, 2014; Hardin, Varghese, Tran, & Carlson, 2006; Okazaki, 1997; Sato & Mccann, 1998); 同时, 个体互依自我构念水平越高, 日常应激水平和急性心理应激水平都越高(胡翔 等, 2017)。在本研究中, 互依自我构念水平正向预测个体在应激情境中的皮质醇水平增加量, 这与前人研究结果一致, 表明互依自我构念越高的个体在急性心理应激情景下会感受到更高的应激水平。

本研究还发现, 经历了社会支持启动的高互依自我构念个体, 在急性心理应激情景下表现出更低的唾液皮质醇水平增加量。正如前文所述, 高互依自我构念个体通常将自己视为群体中的一员, 用群体关系来定义自我(Markus & Kitayama, 1991), 他们对社会评价威胁信息会更加的敏感, 从而导致在心理应激情景下具有较高的应激水平。而社会支持作为个体社会关系的重要体现, 能够在个体经历社会评价威胁时, 给予个体爱、关注、尊重和接纳等重要信息(Cobb, 1976), 这些信息为个体提供了应对应激源的重要心理资源, 对心理应激起到良好的缓冲效果, 这也印证了本研究的结果, 表明社会支持对高互依自我构念个体的心理应激反应具有良好的缓解效果。

本研究存在以下几处不足。首先, 在唾液皮质醇应激反应上, 两启动组的基线水平存在显著差异, 所以在后续分析中我们使用曲线下面积增量(AUCi)来反应皮质醇水平变化量作为指标参与分析, 尽管这样的方法有效的避免了基线水平不同对数据结果产生的影响, 但在以后的研究中, 应当通过延长被试到达实验室后的休息时间等方法来使被试的各项指标基线水平保持一致。第二, 在本研究中共有13名被试因为启动的操作性检验不符合要求而被删除, 虽然研究结果有力的证实了社会支持对高互依自我构念个体的心理应激反应起到了良好的缓冲作用, 但是在未来的研究中应对启动范式进行改良, 以提高对被试的启动效率。同时, 应该使用更加标准化的社会支持和自我支持问卷对启动效果进行检验, 以保证启动效果的有效性。第三, 本研究探究社会支持对于高互依自我构念个体在急性心理应激情景下应激反应的缓解作用, 但是并未考虑个体在日常生活中的社会支持水平对于实验结果可能造成的潜在影响, 未来的研究应当使用相应的量表排除这些日常生活中的因素对于实验结果可能产生的影响。最后, 由于后期数据处理的原因, 本研究中两组被试人数差异较大, 在未来的研究中应注意平衡组间人数差异, 以保证研究结论的严谨性。

5 结论

总的来说, 我们的研究发现相较于自我支持, 给予高互依自我构念个体社会支持能够有效的缓解个体的急性心理应激反应。

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Mastery of stress: Psychosocial aspects

American Journal of Psychiatry, 138( 4), 413-420.

URL     PMID:7212098      [本文引用: 2]

Psychological stress may increase an individual's vulnerability to mental and physical illness. This may be prevented if the individual receives social support in mastering the stressful situation in the form of cognitive guidance that compensates for the inevitable reduction in his problem-solving capacity caused by stress-induced emotional arousal. This guidance should also help the individual or compensate for this arousal and enable him to come to terms with inescapable changes in his life produced by the experience. Empirical researches confirm that exposure to high stress by individuals receiving adequate support does not increase the risk of mental and physical illness.

Cobb,S. ( 1976).

Social support as a moderator of life stress

Psychosomatic Medicine, 38( 5), 300-314.

URL     [本文引用: 4]

Social support is defined as information leading the subject to believe that he is cared for and loved, esteemed, and a member of a network of mutual obligations. The evidence that supportive interactions among people are protective against the health consequences of life stress is reviewed. It appears that social support can protect people in crisis from a wide variety of pathological states: from low birth weight to death, from arthritis through tuberculosis to depression, alcoholism, and the social breakdown syndrome. Furthermore, social support may reduce the amount of medication required, accelerate recovery, and facilitate compliance with prescribed medical regimens.

Cohen S., Kessler R. C.& Gordon, L. U. (Eds.). , ( 1995) . Measuring stress: A guide for health and social scientists New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press A guide for health and social scientists. New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press.

[本文引用: 1]

Cohen, S., & Wills T. A . ( 1985).

Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis

Psychological Bulletin, 98( 2), 310-357.

URL     PMID:3901065      [本文引用: 1]

Examines whether the positive association between social support and well-being is attributable more to an overall beneficial effect of support (main- or direct-effect model) or to a process of support protecting persons from potentially adverse effects of stressful events (buffering model). The review of studies is organized according to (1) whether a measure assesses support structure (the existence of relationships) or function (the extent to which one's interpersonal relationships provide particular resources) and (2) the degree of specificity (vs globality) of the scale. Special attention is given to methodological characteristics that are requisite for a fair comparison of the models. It is concluded that there is evidence consistent with both models. Evidence for the buffering model is found when the social support measure assesses the perceived availability of interpersonal resources that are responsive to the needs elicited by stressful events. Evidence for a main effect model is found when the support measure assesses a person's degree of integration in a large social network. Both conceptualizations of social support are correct in some respects, but each represents a different process through which social support may affect well-being. Implications for theories of social support processes and for the design of preventive interventions are discussed.

Cousins, S. D . ( 1989).

Culture and self-perception in Japan and the United States

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56( 1), 124-131.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

I examined the influence of cultural meaning systems on the perception of self among Japanese and American (United States) college students. Given the importance of social context to the Japanese self as compared with the U.S. self, I used two types of free-response format: the noncontextualized Twenty Statements Test (TST), and a contextualized questionnaire asking subjects to describe themselves in various situations. Consistent with prior research, on the TST, Japanese subjects listed fewer abstract, psychological attributes than did American subjects, referring more to social role and behavioral context. On the contextualized format, however, this trend was reversed. Japanese scored higher on abstract, psychological attributes than did Americans, who tended to qualify their self-descriptions. In addition, on the TST, Japanese surpassed Americans in the number of highly abstract, global self-references. Results point to the impact of divergent cultural conceptions of the person rather than differences in cognitive ability on the perception of self in these two cultures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Cross S. E., Bacon P. L., & Morris M. L . ( 2000).

The relational- interdependent self-construal and relationships

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(4), 791-808.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Dickerson S. S., & Kemeny M. E, . ( 2004).

Acute stressors and cortisol responses: A theoretical integration and synthesis of laboratory research

Psychological Bulletin, 130( 3), 355-391.

URL     PMID:15122924      [本文引用: 3]

Psychol Bull. 2004 May;130(3):355-91. Meta-Analysis; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Dienstbier R. A . ( 1988).

Arousal and physiological toughness: Implications for mental and physical health

Psychological Review, 96( 1), 84-100.

[本文引用: 1]

Fekedulegn D. B., Andrew M. E., Burchfiel C. M., Violanti J. M., Hartley T. A., Charles L. E., & Miller D. B . ( 2007).

Area under the curve and other summary indicators of repeated waking cortisol measurements

Psychosomatic Medicine, 69( 7), 651-659.

URL     PMID:17766693      [本文引用: 1]

To derive the area under the curve and related summary measures of stress from saliva samples collected over time and to provide insight into the interpretation of the derived parameters. In research designed to assess the health consequences of stress these samples are often used as a physiologic indicator of the responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. To make these repeated measurements of salivary cortisol more useful in defining the relationships between stress and health there is a need to derive two forms of area under the curve that summarize the measurements: area under the curve with respect to ground (AUC(G)) and area under the curve with respect to increase (AUC(I)). The latter parameters, AUC(I), however, is seldom used by research scientists. In this study, interpretation and generic definition of the area under the curve was provided through graphical analyses and examination of its association with other summary measures using data from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress (BCOPS) Pilot Study. In generic form, AUC(I) is derived as the area under the curve above the baseline value minus the area above the curve below the baseline value. The sign and magnitude of AUC(I) are related to the profile and the rate of change of the measurements over time. The parameter showed significant associations with other summary indicators that measure pattern or rate of change of the measurements over time. Principal components analyses revealed that summary parameters derived from repeated cortisol measurements can be grouped into two meaningful general categories: measures of the magnitude of response and measures of the pattern of response over time.

Hardin E. E., Varghese F. P., Tran U. V., & Carlson A. Z . ( 2006).

Anxiety and career exploration: Gender differences in the role of self-construal

Journal of Vocational Behavior, 69( 2), 346-358.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Given the social nature of many tasks involved in exploring and committing to a career, we hypothesized that social anxiety would correlate to exploration and commitment, even after controlling for general anxiety. We also hypothesized that self-construal and gender would interact with social anxiety in relation to exploration and commitment. In a sample of predominantly European American undergraduates ( n = 161), higher social anxiety associated with lower vocational commitment for both women and men, after accounting for general anxiety. For women, interdependence was also associated significantly with vocational commitment. Social anxiety correlated to environmental exploration only for men low in independence. Neither social anxiety nor self-construal associated with environmental exploration for women or foreclosure for either group.

Heinrichs M., Baumgartner T., Kirschbaum C., & Ehlert U . ( 2003).

Social support and oxytocin interact to suppress cortisol and subjective responses to psychosocial stress

Biological Psychiatry, 54( 12), 1389-1398.

[本文引用: 2]

Hofstede,G. ( 2001).

Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Paper presented at the Edn, Sage Publications, Inc

Thousand Oaks.

[本文引用: 1]

Hu X., Wang Y., & Yang J . ( 2017).

Individual differences of self-construal in shaping the psychosocial stress response

Journal of Southwest University (Natural Science), 39( 12), 161-169.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

心理性应激是个体内稳态受到社会心理威胁时候的状态,其反应水平可能会受到自我构念个体差异的影响.实验1通过问卷测量,结果发现个体的互依自我构念水平与日常应激水平呈显著正相关,而独立自我构念水平与日常应激水平相关不显著;实验2采用特里尔社会应激任务诱发心理性应激反应,使用文化启动范式作为缓冲策略,考察文化启动在自我构念水平与急性心理性应激反应之间的调节作用.结果发现在个人主义文化突显条件下,个体独立型自我得分越高,心理性应激水平越低.研究结果表明,高互依自我的个体会产生更高水平的应激反应;与自我构念相适应的策略可以有效缓解应激反应.

[ 胡翔, 王妍, 杨娟 . ( 2017).

自我构念的个体差异对心理性应激反应的影响

西南大学学报(自然科学版), 39( 12), 161-169. ]

URL     [本文引用: 2]

心理性应激是个体内稳态受到社会心理威胁时候的状态,其反应水平可能会受到自我构念个体差异的影响.实验1通过问卷测量,结果发现个体的互依自我构念水平与日常应激水平呈显著正相关,而独立自我构念水平与日常应激水平相关不显著;实验2采用特里尔社会应激任务诱发心理性应激反应,使用文化启动范式作为缓冲策略,考察文化启动在自我构念水平与急性心理性应激反应之间的调节作用.结果发现在个人主义文化突显条件下,个体独立型自我得分越高,心理性应激水平越低.研究结果表明,高互依自我的个体会产生更高水平的应激反应;与自我构念相适应的策略可以有效缓解应激反应.

Huang R. Z., Liu M. F., & Yao S. Q . ( 2009).

The Self-construal Scale: An examination of its reliability and validity among Chinese university students

Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Objective: To evaluate the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of Self -construal Scale (SCS). Methods: SCS,Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and General Social and Academic Hassles Scale for Students were conducted to 642 college students as subjects. Results: Factor analyses extracted 2 factors and accumulated variance was 52.1%. The SCS had satisfactory internal consistencies with Cronbach alpha between 0.518 to 0.743 and test-retest reliability was 0.85,0.79 to 0.83 after a month. The coefficients between two subscales and total scores of depression and stressors were -0.32 to 0.53. Conclusion: SCS is of good reliability and validity, but still needs modification of some items for further research.

Hughes, B. L., & Beer, J. S . ( 2013).

Protecting the self: The effect of social-evaluative threat on neural representations of self

Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 25( 4), 613.

URL     PMID:23249346      [本文引用: 1]

One of the most robust ways that people protect themselves from social-evaluative threat is by emphasizing the desirability of their personal characteristics, yet the neural underpinnings of this fundamental process are unknown. The current fMRI study addresses this question by examining self-evaluations of desirability (in comparison with other people) as a response to threat. Participants judged how much personality traits described themselves in comparison with their average peer. These judgments were preceded by threatening or nonthreatening social-evaluative feedback. Self-evaluations made in response to threat significantly increased activation in a number of regions including the OFC, medial pFC, lateral pFC, amygdala, and insula. Individual differences in the extent to which threat increased desirability were significantly correlated with medial OFC activity. This is the first study to examine the neural associations of a fundamental self-protection strategy: responding to threat by emphasizing the self's desirability. Although neural research has separately examined self-evaluation processes from the regulation of social-evaluative threat, little is known about the interplay between the two. The findings build on this previous research by showing that regions, often associated with self-evaluation, are modulated by the degree to which people respond to threat by emphasizing their own desirability.

Kirschbaum C., Klauer T., Filipp S. H., & Hellhammer D. H . ( 1995).

Sex-specific effects of social support on cortisol and subjective responses to acute psychological stress

Psychosomatic Medicine, 57( 1), 23-31.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Kirschbaum C., Kudielka B. M., Gaab J., Schommer N. C., & Hellhammer D. H . ( 1999).

Impact of gender, menstrual cycle phase, and oral contraceptives on the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis

Psychosomatic Medicine, 61( 2), 154-162.

URL     PMID:10204967      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract OBJECTIVE: Results from animal and human studies suggest that disregulations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are involved in several behavioral, circulatory, endocrine, and immune disorders with clear-cut gender differences in disease prevalence. The aim of the present study was to investigate sex-specific HPA response patterns with a focus on the contribution of gonadal steroids as possible mediators. METHODS: A total of 81 healthy adults were investigated in the present study. Twenty men, 19 women in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, 21 women in the luteal phase, and 21 women using oral contraceptives (OC) were exposed to a brief psychosocial stress test (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and injected with 0.25 mg ACTH1-24 on consecutive days. Basal HPA activity was investigated by repeatedly measuring cortisol levels immediately after awakening, as well as in 30-minute intervals from 9:00 AM to 9:00 PM. Additionally, questionnaires were used to assess psychological state and trait parameters. RESULTS: Results show that the TSST induced significant increases in ACTH, salivary-free cortisol, total plasma cortisol, and heart rates, as well as increased wakefulness and reduced calmness in the total group. Significant group differences emerged for ACTH and salivary-free cortisol stress responses: Although men showed higher ACTH responses to the TSST compared with each of the three groups of women, salivary cortisol responses showed the following response pattern: Luteal = Men > Follicular = OC. The salivary cortisol responses to ACTH1-24 showed a similar response pattern: Luteal > Men > Follicular > OC. In contrast, total blood cortisol levels did not reveal any group difference between sexes or follicular versus luteal phase in either test. Although a similar salivary-free cortisol increase after awakening was found in the four groups, the circadian cortisol profile was significantly different throughout the first 4 hours of sampling. Questionnaire-derived psychological variables, as measured in the present study, could not explain the observed results. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that gender, menstrual cycle phase, and OC use exert important effects on HPA responsiveness to psychosocial stress in healthy subjects. Although men seem to have a stronger hypothalamic drive in response to stressful stimulation than women, differences in salivary-free cortisol levels, at least in part, may be explained by estradiol-induced changes in corticosteroid-binding protein levels. ACTH and cortisol secretion is not affected by OC use per se but the amount of bioavailable unbound cortisol ("free") is greatly reduced in this group of women after stimulation. Inasmuch as none of these differences between the study groups emerged in total blood cortisol levels, we strongly advocate for the simultaneous measurement of free and total cortisol levels in future studies on HPA functioning.

Kirschbaum C., Pirke K. M., & Hellhammer D. H . ( 1993).

The "Trier Social Stress Test": A tool for investigating psychobiological stress responses in a laboratory setting

Neuropsychobiology, 28( 1-2), 76-81.

URL     [本文引用: 4]

Kudielka B. M., Schommer N. C., Hellhammer D. H., & Kirschbaum C . ( 2004).

Acute HPA axis responses, heart rate, and mood changes to psychosocial stress (TSST) in humans at different times of day

Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29( 8), 983-992.

URL     PMID:15219648      [本文引用: 2]

There is evidence showing that HPA axis responses to pharmacological provocation depend on time of day with larger cortisol responses in the afternoon and evening compared to the morning hours. However, it is still unknown whether HPA axis responses to psychological stress are affected by time of day and whether they can be assessed with equal reliability in the morning and afternoon, respectively.The present reanalysis is based on five independent studies conducted in the same laboratory by , , and and Schommer et al. (2003). All subjects were confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) either in the morning or in the afternoon. The total sample consisted of 180 adults with 115 younger (49 females, 66 males) and 65 older adults (32 females, 33 males). All ANCOVA results controlled for possible age and gender effects. Stress-related free salivary cortisol, total plasma cortisol and ACTH net increases did not differ according to time of day (all = n.s.). However, as expected pre-stress free salivary and total plasma cortisol levels differed significantly between the morning and afternoon group (both = 0.02). Taken together, these observations suggest that the adrenal glands may be more sensitive to ACTH in the morning. Additionally, higher basal salivary cortisol levels were related to a lower stress-related net increase in salivary cortisol ( = 0.02), total plasma cortisol ( = 0.09). Stress-related heart rate increases did not differ between groups ( = n.s.). The finding that the TSST-induced mood change was differentially affected by time of day requires further exploration.We conclude that comparable HPA axis and heart rate stress responses to psychosocial stress can be measured in the morning and afternoon.

Lovallo W. R., Pincomb G. A., Brackett D. J., & Wilson M. F . ( 1990).

Heart rate reactivity as a predictor of neuroendocrine responses to aversive and appetitive challenges

52( 1), 17-26.

URL     PMID:2305020      [本文引用: 1]

The present paper examines the neuroendocrine influences of aversive and reward incentives (noise and shock versus monetary bonuses) presented during reaction time tasks administered to 71 healthy men (ages 21 to 35) classified as being high (N = 30) or low (N = 41) in heart rate reactivity. High heart rate reactivity was defined as a peak heart rate increase or greater than 19 bpm to a cold pressor test administered on a different day. Independent groups of subjects worked on one of two visual reaction time tasks: either to avoid exposure to noise (115-dBA bursts) and shock (3.5 mV, 2 sec), or to earn monetary bonuses ($0.50). High heart rate reactors showed significant plasma rises from baseline both to aversive incentives and to reward, although they showed significant responses only during aversive incentives. In contrast, the low heart rate reactors were unresponsive in and during either type of incentive. These results support psychoendocrine models which view the response as being nonspecifically related to expenditure of effort regardless of the emotional connotations of the challenge, while is seen as being secreted primarily during periods of distress. The present data further suggest that cardiovascular reactivity is linked to neuroendocrine reactivity, possibly within the central nervous system.

Markus, H. R.,& Kitayama, S. , ( 1991).

Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation

Psychological Review, 98( 2), 224-253.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

It is suggested that perceptions of the self, of others, and of the relationship between self and others are very powerful and that this influence is clearly reflected in culture. The independent view of the self, represented in Western culture, is contrasted with the interdependent view in many other cultures. (SLD)

Mason J. W . ( 1968).

A review of psychoendocrine research on the pituitary-adrenal cortical system

Psychosomatic Medicine, 30( 5), 576-607.

URL     PMID:4974233      [本文引用: 1]

Massive evidence has now accumulated which indicates that the pituitary-adrenal cortical system responds sensitively to psychological influences. This evidence represents converging and reinforcing findings from diverse studies of many species, including man. It involved the use of many methods of eliciting, isolating, and evaluating emotional disturbances, relatively direct and specific biochemical measurements of endocrine activity, and control measures that permit exclusion of concomitant physical variab

Okazaki,S. ( 1997).

Sources of ethnic differences between Asian American and white American college students on measures of depression and social anxiety

Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106( 1), 52-60.

URL     PMID:9103717      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract This study tested an affect-specific explanation for the Asian and White American differences in depression and social anxiety. Construal of the self as independent or interdependent in relation to others (H. R. Markus & S. Kitayama, 1991) was hypothesized to be 1 possible way in which culture may be expressed in individuals' psychological functioning, which in turn was hypothesized to be linked specifically to social anxiety. College students (N = 348; 183 White Americans and 165 Asian Americans) completed self-report measures of depression, social anxiety, and self-construals. Asian Americans scored significantly higher than White Americans on measures of depression and social anxiety. When the covariance between depression and social anxiety was statistically controlled, ethnicity and self-construal variables were found, as predicted, to be associated with measures of social anxiety but not depression. These findings suggest a more differentiated perspective on the relations between culture, ethnicity, and emotional distress.

Pacák, K., &Palkovits, M. ( 2001).

Stressor specificity of central neuroendocrine responses: Implications for stress-related disorders

Endocrine Reviews, 22( 4), 502-548.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Peters M. L., Godaert G. L. R., Ballieux R. E., Brosschot J. F., Sweep F. C. G. J., Swinkels L. M. J. W., .. Heijnen C. J . ( 1999).

Immune responses to experimental stress: Effects of mental effort and uncontrollability

Psychosomatic Medicine, 61( 4), 513-524.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Pruessner J. C., Hellhammer D. H., & Kirschbaum C . ( 1999).

Low self-esteem, induced failure and the adrenocortical stress response

Personality and Individual Differences, 27( 3), 477-489.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

These results suggest that self-esteem is affecting the endocrine stress response. Furthermore, they indicate that the impact of this personality characteristic on the human cortisol stress response is also situation dependent. Inclusion of success and failure conditions turned out to be a crucial factor for revealing the role of self-esteem in endocrine stress responses. Future study designs should therefore include those variables, or assess subjective perception of success and failure, when investigating the role of personality differences in stress responses.

Pruessner J. C., Kirschbaum C., Meinlschmid G., & Hellhammer D. H . ( 2003).

Two formulas for computation of the area under the curve represent measures of total hormone concentration versus time-dependent change

Psychoneuroendocrinology, 28( 7), 916-931.

URL     PMID:12892658      [本文引用: 1]

Study protocols in endocrinological research and the neurosciences often employ repeated measurements over time to record changes in physiological or endocrinological variables. While it is desirable to acquire repeated measurements for finding individual and group differences with regard to response time and duration, the amount of data gathered often represents a problem for the statistical analysis. When trying to detect possible associations between repeated measures and other variables, the area under the curve ( AUC) is routinely used to incorporate multiple time points. However, formulas for computation of the AUC are not standardized across laboratories, and existing differences are usually not presented when discussing results, thus causing possible variability, or incompatibility of findings between research groups. In this paper, two formulas for calculation of the area under the curve are presented, which are derived from the trapezoid formula. These formulas are termed ‘Area under the curve with respect to increase’ ( AUC I) and ‘Area under the curve with respect to ground’ ( AUC G). The different information that can be derived from repeated measurements with these two formulas is exemplified using artificial and real data from recent studies of the authors. It is shown that depending on which formula is used, different associations with other variables may emerge. Consequently, it is recommended to employ both formulas when analyzing data sets with repeated measures.

Rimmele U., Zellweger B. C., Marti B., Seiler R., Mohiyeddini C., Ehlert U., Heinrichs M . ( 2007).

Trained men show lower cortisol, heart rate and psychological responses to psychosocial stress compared with untrained men

Psychoneuroendocrinology, 32( 6), 627-635.

URL     PMID:17560731      [本文引用: 1]

Physical activity has proven benefits for physical and psychological well-being and is associated with reduced responsiveness to physical stress. However, it is not clear to what extent physical activity also modulates the responsiveness to psychosocial stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the reduced responsiveness to physical stressors that has been observed in trained men can be generalized to the modulation of physiological and psychological responses to a psychosocial stressor. Twenty-two trained men (elite sportsmen) and 22 healthy untrained men were exposed to a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor (Trier Social Stress Test). Adrenocortical (salivary free cortisol levels), autonomic (heart rate), and psychological responses (mood, calmness, anxiety) were repeatedly measured before and after stress exposure. In response to the stressor, cortisol levels and heart rate were significantly increased in both groups, without any baseline differences between groups. However, trained men exhibited significantly lower cortisol and heart rate responses to the stressor compared with untrained men. In addition, trained men showed significantly higher calmness and better mood, and a trend toward lower state anxiety during the stress protocol. On the whole, elite sportsmen showed reduced reactivity to the psychosocial stressor, characterized by lower adrenocortical, autonomic, and psychological stress responses. These results suggest that physical activity may provide a protective effect against stress-related disorders.

Rose, R. M . ( 1980).

Endocrine responses to stressful psychological events

Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 3( 2), 251-276.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Sapolsky, R. M . ( 1993).

Endocrinology alfresco: Psychoendocrine studies of wild baboons

Recent Progress in Hormone Research, 48( 1), 437-468.

URL     PMID:8441854      [本文引用: 1]

The psychoendocrine interpretation of the data stating that cortisol hypersecretion in subordinates occurs because of frequent stressors need not conflict with the neuroendocrine interpretation stating that the hypersecretion occurs because of blunting of feedback sensitivity. Prolonged or repeated stressors will elevate basal glucocorticoid concentrations and cause feedback resistance in rodents, primates, and humans. Such stressors can potentially down-regulate corticosteroid receptor numbers in various neural sites relevant to glucocorticoid feedback inhibition, blunting the efficacy with which those sites work, and producing the subsequent hypersecretion and feedback resistance. With time, the repeated Cortisol excursions cause a down-regulatory blunting of feedback sensitivity, resulting in elevated basal Cortisol concentrations and relative feedback resistance. The elevated basal Cortisol concentrations, the feedback resistance, and the underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms in low-ranking baboons echo some of the findings in biological psychiatry concerning neuroendocrine abnormalities in depression. Although social subordinance and depression bear some interesting similarities, they still represent two distinct routes toward altered adrenocortical function.

Sato, T., &Mccann, D. ( 1998).

Individual differences in relatedness and individuality: An exploration of two constructs

Personality and Individual Differences, 24( 6), 847-859.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT Sociotropy and autonomy are two personality dimensions that relate to an individual's vulnerability to depression. Independent and interdependent self-construals are two distinctive cognitive formulations of the self derived from cross-cultural research. Both of these sets of constructs reflect self and other orientations. The purpose of the present study was to empirically examine the various factors that emerge when these two constructs are integrated. 652 participants responded to the Personal Style Inventory [Robins, C. J., Ladd, J., Welkowitz, J., Blaney, P. H., Diaz, R. & Kutcher, G. (1991). The Personal Style Inventory: Preliminary validation studies of new measures of sociotropy and autonomy. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 16, 277–300.], the Sociotropy-Autonomy Scale [Clark, D. A. & Beck, A. T. (1991). Personality factors in dysphoria: A psychometric refinement of Beck's Sociotropy-Autonomy Scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 13, 369–388.] and the Self-Construal Scale [Singelis, T. M. (1994). The measurement of independent and interdependent self-construals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20, 580–591.]. Four factors emerged from a factor analysis conducted on the items of the three scales measuring sociotropy-autonomy and independent and interdependent self-construal. These four factors are discussed in the context of vulnerability to depression.

Schmidt L. A., Fox N. A., Sternberg E. M., Gold P. W., Smith C. C., & Schulkin J . ( 1999).

Adrenocortical reactivity and social competence in seven year-olds

Personality and Individual Differences, 26( 6), 977-985.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

We examined temporal changes in salivary cortisol in response to a peer self-presentation task in a group of seven year-olds, some of whom scored high, average, and low on the Harter, 1983 Perceived Social Competence Scale. Salivary cortisol was measured pre-task, and 20 and 35 min post-task. We found a significant relation between individual differences in perceived social competence and salivary cortisol reactivity in response to the task. Children who perceived themselves as socially competent exhibited a significantly greater decrease in salivary cortisol from 20 to 35 min following the task compared with children who self-reported a relatively lower degree of social competence. We speculate on the meaning of salivary cortisol changes in childrens socio-emotional development.

Schoofs D., Preuß D., & Wolf O. T . ( 2008).

Psychosocial stress induces working memory impairments in an n-back paradigm

Psychoneuroendocrinology, 33( 5), 643-653.

URL     PMID:18359168      [本文引用: 1]

In contrast to the substantial number of studies investigating the effects of stress on declarative memory, effects of stress on working memory have received less attention. We compared working memory (numerical -back task with single digits) in 40 men exposed either to psychosocial stress (Trier Social Stress Test (TSST)) or a control condition. Task difficulty was varied using two conditions (2-back vs. 3-back). Salivary cortisol (as a marker of hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) activity) and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA as a marker of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity) were assessed immediately before and three times after the stress or control condition. As expected stress resulted in an increase in cortisol, sAA, and negative affect. Subjects exposed to stress showed significant working memory impairments in both workload conditions. The analysis of variance indicated a main effect of stress for reaction time as well as accuracy. In addition, for reaction time a stress×block interaction occurred. Follow up tests revealed that only during the first block at each level of difficulty performance was significantly impaired by stress. Thus, the effects of stress became smaller the longer the task was performed. Results provide further evidence for impaired working memory after acute stress and illustrate the time course of this phenomenon.

Seta, C. E., & Seta, J. J . ( 1995).

When audience presence is enjoyable: The influence of audience awareness of prior success on performance and task interest

Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 16( 1-2), 95-108.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Subjects received positive feedback on a practice anagram task and then performed a similar task in front of either an audience that was aware of their prior success or an audience that was unaware of their prior success. Two control conditions were included in which subjects performed alone after receiving positive feedback or performed alone without feedback. Results indicated subjects' task interest and performance increased under conditions in which they performed in front of unaware audiences. In addition, subjects' task interest and performance levels decreased in the presence of audiences that were aware of their prior success. These results point to an important role of audience awareness in setting performance standards and expectations. These findings are interpreted from a resource-investment analysis of task value and performance. Implications for surveillance in public settings and in the workplace (e.g., automated computer monitoring) are discussed.

Singelis, T. M . ( 1994).

The measurement of independent and interdependent self-construals

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20( 5), 580-591.

URL    

Stroud L. R., Tanofsky-Kraff M., Wilfley D. E., & Salovey P . ( 2000).

The Yale Interpersonal Stressor (YIPS): Affective, physiological, and behavioral responses to a novel interpersonal rejection paradigm

Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 22( 3), 204-213.

URL     PMID:11126465      [本文引用: 1]

Given links between interpersonal functioning and health as well as the dearth of truly interpersonal laboratory stressors, we present a live rejection paradigm, the Yale Interpersonal Stressor (YIPS), and examine its effects on mood, eating behavior, blood pressure, and cortisol in two experiments. The YIPS involves one or more interaction(s) between the participant and two same-sex confederates in which the participant is made to feel excluded and isolated. In Experiment 1, 50 female undergraduates were randomly assigned to the YIPS or a control condition. Participants in the YIPS condition experienced greater negative affect and less positive affect than did those in the control condition. Further, restrained eaters ate more following the YIPS than did nonrestrained eaters. In Experiment 2, 25 male and female undergraduates completed the YIPS. The YIPS induced significant increases in tension, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) from baseline, while significantly decreasing positive affect. The YIPS appeared particularly relevant for women, resulting in significantly greater increases in cortisol and SBP for women compared to men. The YIPS, then, provides an alternative to traditional, achievement-oriented laboratory stressors and may allow for the identification of individuals most vulnerable to interpersonal stress.

Thompson, S.C ,. ( 1981).

Will it hurt less if I can control it? A complex answer to a simple question

Psychological Bulletin, 90( 1), 89-101.

URL     PMID:7267899      [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT Presents a typology of control and reviews research that relates the 4 types of control (behavioral, cognitive, information, and retrospective) to reactions to aversive stimuli. After a review of theories relevant to this area, a unifying theme is presented. It is proposed that reactions to potentially stressful events depend on their meaning for the individual. Three dimensions of meaning are discussed: endurable vs unendurable, means to desirable outcomes vs no desirable outcomes, and planned vs random events. (68 ref)

VanDellen M. R., Campbell W. K., Hoyle R. H., & Bradfield E. K . ( 2011).

Compensating, resisting, and breaking: A meta-analytic examination of reactions to self-esteem threat

Personality & Social Psychology Review, 15( 1), 51-74.

URL     PMID:20631397      [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT Much research has identified how people react to receiving threatening information about the self. The purpose of this article is to discuss such experiences in the context of a model of state self-esteem regulation. The authors propose that people engage in one of three regulatory responses to threat: compensation, resistance, and breaking. They conduct a meta-analysis aimed to examine when people engage in each of these three responses to threat and how trait self-esteem affects the selection and success of selecting each regulatory response. Furthermore, the authors test six theoretical models that might explain why responses to ego threat vary across level of trait self-esteem. The models for differences between people with low and high trait self-esteem that fit the data best suggest that (a) self-esteem serves as a resource and (b) there is a self-verification motivation.

Yang J., Hou Y., Yang Y., & Zhang Q L. ., ( 2011).

Impct of Trier Social stress Test (TSST) on salivary cortisol secretion

Acta Psychologica Sinica, 43( 4), 403-409.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

特里尔社会应激测试(Trier Social Stress Test:TSST)是国外应用广泛的社会心理应激测试手段,然而还没有研究对其在中国的适用性进行报告。本研究以健康大学生为被试,分别采用主观应激报告(简明心境量表和5点量表)和客观应激参数(心率和唾液皮质醇)为指标,探讨TSST在中国的适用情况以及性别因素对个体在TSST应激情境中的影响。结果发现,TSST诱发了中国被试显著的应激反应,在经历了TSST情境后,被试主观报告紧张水平增加,同时心跳加速,唾液皮质醇水平增加。即使女性被试主观报告紧张与不安的程度显著高于男性,但是男性和女性在TSST应激情境下的心跳和唾液皮质醇指标没有差异。研究结果提示,TSST在中国被试中具有良好的适用性,可以利用其开展与社会心理应激相关的研究。男女被试在与成就动机相关的应激源(例如,TSST)中的客观应激参数差异不明显。

[ 杨娟, 侯燕, 杨瑜, 张庆林 . ( 2011).

特里尔社会应激测试(TSST)对唾液皮质醇分泌的影响

心理学报, 43( 4), 403-409.]

URL     [本文引用: 3]

特里尔社会应激测试(Trier Social Stress Test:TSST)是国外应用广泛的社会心理应激测试手段,然而还没有研究对其在中国的适用性进行报告。本研究以健康大学生为被试,分别采用主观应激报告(简明心境量表和5点量表)和客观应激参数(心率和唾液皮质醇)为指标,探讨TSST在中国的适用情况以及性别因素对个体在TSST应激情境中的影响。结果发现,TSST诱发了中国被试显著的应激反应,在经历了TSST情境后,被试主观报告紧张水平增加,同时心跳加速,唾液皮质醇水平增加。即使女性被试主观报告紧张与不安的程度显著高于男性,但是男性和女性在TSST应激情境下的心跳和唾液皮质醇指标没有差异。研究结果提示,TSST在中国被试中具有良好的适用性,可以利用其开展与社会心理应激相关的研究。男女被试在与成就动机相关的应激源(例如,TSST)中的客观应激参数差异不明显。

Zou L., Jiang L., Zhang X C.., Hu J., Zhang H C. ., ( 2014).

The influence of self-construals on subjective well-being: Empirical research on mediating role of self-efficacy and relationship harmony

Studies of Psychology and Behavior, 12( 1), 107-114.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

对自我构念、自我效能感、关系和谐以及主观幸福感之间的关系进行分析.以275名企业员工,事业单位人员以及公务员为被试进行问卷调查,使用回归以及结构方程模型的方法进行分析.结果发现:独立自我比互依自我对主观幸福感的预测作用显著更大;独立自我显著地正向预测生活满意度和积极情绪,对消极情绪的预测作用不显著;互依自我显著地正向预测积极情绪,对生活满意度和消极情绪的影响不显著;自我效能感、关系和谐分别在独立自我与主观幸福感、互依自我与主观幸福感之间起中介作用.

[ 邹璐, 姜莉, 张西超, 胡婧, 张红川 . ( 2014).

自我构念对主观幸福感的影响机制分析:自我效能感和关系和谐的中介作用

心理与行为研究, 12( 1), 107-114.]

URL     [本文引用: 1]

对自我构念、自我效能感、关系和谐以及主观幸福感之间的关系进行分析.以275名企业员工,事业单位人员以及公务员为被试进行问卷调查,使用回归以及结构方程模型的方法进行分析.结果发现:独立自我比互依自我对主观幸福感的预测作用显著更大;独立自我显著地正向预测生活满意度和积极情绪,对消极情绪的预测作用不显著;互依自我显著地正向预测积极情绪,对生活满意度和消极情绪的影响不显著;自我效能感、关系和谐分别在独立自我与主观幸福感、互依自我与主观幸福感之间起中介作用.

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