ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 1993, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (03): 28-35.

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发散性思维的年龄差异及“位置法”记忆训练的作用

许淑莲;吴志平;吴振云;孙长华   

  1. 中国科学院心理研究所,中国科学院心理研究所,中国科学院心理研究所,中国科学院心理研究所 北京 100012 ,北京 100012 ,北京 100012 ,北京 100012
  • 出版日期:1993-09-25 发布日期:1993-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 许淑莲

AGE DIFFERENCES ON DIVERGENT THINKING AND THE EFFECT OF MEMORY TRAINING BY“THE METHOD OF LOCI”

Xu Shulian;Wu Zhiping;Wu Zhenyun;Sun Changhua Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences   

  • Online:1993-09-25 Published:1993-09-25

摘要: 该研究的目的是探讨发散性思维的年龄差异以及“位置法”记忆训练对发散性思维的迁移作用。训练组为经过记忆训练的青年人24名,老年组20名,对照组为相匹配的青年人24名、老年人19名。结果表明:(1)在图形、符号、语义三方面的流畅性、变通性和独特性上,老年组均很显著地比青年组差。青年组的个别差异较大,老年组的更大,尤其是独特性。(2)青年训练组的图形流畅性、独特性及语义的独特性成绩显著优于其对照组,老年训练组图形的变通性有优于其对照组的趋势(P=.052),说明“位置法”记忆训练对发散性思维有一定的间接迁移作用,尤其是对青年人。(3)发散性思维与想象力、数字符号、训练前和训练后词的记忆以及图形的记忆成绩均有很显著正相关。而词汇成绩只与训练组两项发散性思维有显著相关。

关键词: 发散性思维, 年龄差异, “位置法”记忆训练, 流畅性, 变通性, 独特性

Abstract: The purpose of this work was to study the age differences on divergentthinking and the transfer effect of memory training. The experimental sub-jects were 24 young and 20 old adults after memory training, and the controlSs were 24 young and 19 old adults who matched with the experimentalgroups. The results indicated: (1) There were marked age differences betweenthe young and the old adults on fluency, flexibility and originality of figu-ral, symbolic and semantic test items; and the individual differences ofdivergent thinking performances was rather large among young adults, butstill less than that of the elderly, (2) Compared with the control groups, theperformances of the young experimental group were significantly better onfigural fluency and originality,and semantic originality,while the performan-ces of the old experimental group were better only on the figural flexibility(P=.052). It showed that memory training with the "Method of Loci" had acertain indirect transfer effect on divergent thinking, especially to young adu-lts. (3) There were obvious and positive correlations between divergent thinkingand imagination ability, the performances of "Digit-symbol" test, memory ofwords of pre-and post-training, and the memory performances of pictures aswell, but the"Vocabulary"test was only correlated with two forms of divergentthinking in the training group.

Key words: divergent thinking, age difference, memory training by "the method of loci", fluency, flexibility, originality