ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 52 ›› Issue (7): 811-822.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00811

• 研究报告 •    下一篇

面孔可爱度和客观熟悉度对婴儿面孔注意偏向效应的影响

雷怡1,2,3(), 夏琦2,4, 莫志凤2,5, 李红2,3   

  1. 1 四川师范大学脑与心理科学研究院, 成都 610066
    2 深圳大学心理学院, 深圳 518060
    3 深圳市神经科学研究院, 深圳 518060
    4 深圳市光明区第二中学, 深圳 518107
    5 广西师范大学化学与药学学院, 桂林 541001
  • 收稿日期:2018-01-21 出版日期:2020-07-25 发布日期:2020-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 雷怡 E-mail:leiyi821@vip.sina.com
  • 基金资助:
    * 自闭症诊疗方法研究(2018B030335001);国家自然科学基金(31671150);国家自然科学基金(31871130);广东省普通高校创新团队建设项目(2015 KCXTD009);广东省省级(基础研究及应用研究)重大项目(2016KZDXM009);深圳市基础研究布局项目(JCYJ20150729104 249783);深圳市孔雀计划项目(KQTD2015033016104926);深港脑科学创新研究院项目(2019SHIBS0003)

The attention bias effect of infant face: The mechanism of cuteness and familiarity

LEI Yi1,2,3(), XIA Qi2,4, MO Zhifeng2,5, LI Hong2,3   

  1. 1 Institute for Brain and Psychological Sciences, Sichuan Normal University, Chengdu 610066, China
    2 School of Psychology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China
    3 Shenzhen Institute of Neuroscience, Shenzhen 518060, China
    4 Shenzhen Guangming District Second Middle School, Shenzhen 518107, China
    5 School of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541001, China
  • Received:2018-01-21 Online:2020-07-25 Published:2020-05-25
  • Contact: LEI Yi E-mail:leiyi821@vip.sina.com

摘要:

近年来, 研究发现, 与成人面孔和其他社会性刺激相比, 成人对婴儿面孔表现出更多的注意偏向。本研究利用点探测范式, 结合眼动技术, 探讨了面孔可爱度和熟悉度对婴儿面孔注意偏向效应的影响。行为结果表明, 成人对高可爱度的婴儿面孔的反应时注意偏向更强; 眼动结果发现, 高可爱度的婴儿面孔的首注视时间偏向和总注视时间偏向更强, 表现为注意维持模式, 并且, 这一效应只出现在低熟悉度条件下; 而在可爱度评分上, 高熟悉度的婴儿面孔的可爱度评分显著高于低熟悉度的婴儿面孔。结果表明, 在低熟悉度条件下, 可爱度才会影响成人对婴儿面孔注意偏向效应; 在偏好行为上, 对婴儿面孔的主观评定和观看行为上可能存在分离的情况。

关键词: 婴儿面孔, 注意偏向, 可爱度, 熟悉度

Abstract:

Previous studies found attention bias towards an infant’s face among parents and non-parents. Ethologist Konrad Lorenz proposed the concept of “baby schema,” indicating that the rapid reaction towards an infant’s information is an innate releasing mechanism. The follow-up research found that the attention bias effect was affected by individual differences, such as gender, characteristics, hormones, etc. However, little is known about an infant’s facial features and the impact of those features on the attention bias.
This study investigates the influence of cuteness and familiarity on the attention bias effect towards an infant’s face. A 2 (cuteness:high cuteness, low cuteness) × 2 (familiarity: high familiarity, low familiarity) within subject design was used in this study. Before the formal experiment, according to 31 participants’ rating of cuteness after pictures of infants’ face with high and low cuteness were shown. The familiarity of faces was manipulated by infant face learning. There were 35 participants in our formal experiment and each participant completed 3 parts: infant facial images learning and recognition task, dot probe task, and rating task. This study used eye-movement tracking and subjective ratings to investigate the influence of cuteness and familiarity of infant’s faces on the preference/ attention bias effect towards an infant’s face by comparing the attention bias indexes under four conditions in the dot probe task.
The dot-probe task indicated that compared to adult’s faces, participants reacted quicker when the target was presented at the same location with an infant’s face. The reaction time bias under the high-cuteness infant face condition was stronger than the low-cuteness infant face condition. The eye-movement tracking results showed that participants preferred looking at the high-cuteness infant faces, indicating first fixation duration bias and the total gaze duration bias. However, there was no significant difference in the direction of eye movement and first fixation latency bias. These results implied an attention maintenance pattern for high- cuteness infant faces. Furthermore, this pattern only existed under the low-familiarity condition. The attention bias effect between high and low-cuteness infant faces was not significantly different under the high-familiarity condition. For the rating of cuteness, infant faces with high-familiarity were rated as cuter than the low-familiarity infant faces, regardless of their cuteness.
In conclusion, our experiment identified that the cuteness of infants’ face influences the effect of attention bias towards an infant’s face under the low-familiarity condition. Regarding the preferences, there may be a dissociative situation between subjective rating and gazing behavior.

Key words: infant face, attention bias, cuteness, familiarity

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