Abstract：Chinese scholar Zhi Quan Ju Shi [执权居士] originally created Xin Li (Xue) [心理(学)] as the name of psychology or mental philosophy in 1872, which was earlier than Japanese scholar Amane Nishi’s usage of Xin Li Xue [心理学] in 1875. This paper argues that late Qing Dynasty’s Chi Ping Sou [持平叟], Zhi Quan Ju Shi [执权居士], Chi Ping Zi [持平子], Chi Ping Ju Shi [持平居士] and Gong Dao Lao Ren [公道老人] were the same person, whose real name was Zhu Fengjia [朱逢甲]. A well-educated scholar, Zhu had rich knowledge in Chinese traditional culture. Meanwhile, through helping a few Western missionaries to establish a newspaper in China, Zhu had contacts with western disciplines and gained a sense of modern knowledge system. In an 1871 article on anthroposophy, Zhu used the words Xin Zhi Li Yu Shi [心之理与事] the laws and facts of the mind) from a perspective of psychology, laying out the basis for his coinage of the term Xin Li Xue. The interaction between Chinese and Western knowledge constituted the cultural context in which Zhu created the term Xin Li Xue. However, Zhu’s coinage of the term did not have the same degree of influence as the one by Amane Nishi.
During the late Qing Dynasty, with the import of psychological knowledge, Western missionaries and Chinese intellectuals created the following names for the subject: Ling Hun Xue [灵魂学] used by W. Lobscheid in 1868 and E. Faber in 1873. Xin Ling Xue [心灵学] used by C.W. Mateer in 1876 and Yan Yongjing in 1889; Xin Cai Xue [心才学] and Xin Xing Xue [心性学] by Yan Yongjing 1882. Xin Xing Xue was also used by J. Edkins in 1886. Xing Qing Xue [性情学] was used by H. B. Loch in 1886. Xin Xue [心学] was used by Yan Fu [严复] in 1895. Xing Xue [性学] was used by W. A. P. Martin in 1898. Ling Xue [灵学] was used by D. Z. Sheffield in 1890s. Although these subject names were not adopted by later Chinese intellectuals, they were all products of Chinese traditional culture encountering Western psychology. Of particular note was the non-elite intellectual Zhu Fengjia’s original creation of the term Xin Li Xue, as used in Chinese psychology and Japanese psychology today. This paper suggests that although non-elite Chinese intellectuals’ contribution were not huge and often ignored by subsequent generations, they nonetheless offered wisdom to some important events, such as the coinage of the term Xin Li Xue.
阎书昌. 晚清时期执权居士创制“心理(学)”一词的考察[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(8): 920-928.
YAN Shu-Chang. An investigation into Zhi Quan Ju Shi’s coinage of the term Xin Li (Xue) in the late Qing dynasty. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(8): 920-928.
Allen, Y. J. (1869). Xiao Bian Ming Jiao Lun Ⅱ. The Church News, 2, 74–75.
[林乐知. (1869). 消变明教论二. 教会新报, 2, 74–75.] Chi Ping Ju Shi. (1875, September 4). Letters from the readers. Shen Bao, (1030), 1.
[持平居士. (1875-09-04). 来书. 申报, (1030), 1.] Chi Ping Sou. (1870). On breach of etiquette. The Church News, 2, 92–94.
[持平叟. (1870). 失礼辨. 教会新报, 2, 92–94.] Chi Ping Sou. (1871). On the anthroposcopy. The Church News, 3, 238–239.
[持平叟. (1871). 相术论. 教会新报, 3, 238–239.] Chi Ping Sou. (1872a). Twins begin from the same to different. The Church News, 4, 23.
[持平叟. (1872a). 兄弟孪生前同后不同. 教会新报, 4, 23.] Chi Ping Sou. (1872b). Reply to Mr. Ma’s questions on Zhu Zi Quan Shu. The Church News, 4, 65.
[持平叟. (1872b). 答英国马先生《朱子全书》疑义书. 教会新报, 4, 65.] Chi, Ping Sou. (1872, July 17). On destiny. Shen Bao, (67), 3.
[持平叟. (1872-07-17). 时命辨. 申报, (67), 3.] Gao Nian Hui Yin. (1888, January 14). Shen Bao, (5298), 2.
[高年会饮. (1888-01-14). 申报, (5298), 2.] Kodama, S. (1982). On the Haven's Mental Philosophy (1). Researches of the Institute of Humanities and Social Sciences of Nihon University, (26), 97–114.
[児玉斉二. (1982). 《奚般氏心理學》の研究(1). 日本大学文理学部人文科学研究所研究纪要, (26), 97–114.] Liu, Y. Z. (1995). Jiangsu Shuyuan Zhi Chu Gao. In S. S. Zhao & Z. X. Xue (Eds.), Zhongguo Li Dai Shuyuan Zhi (Vol. 1, pp.1–112 ). Nanjing: Jiangsu Education Publishing House.
柳诒徵. (1995). 江苏书院志初稿. 见 赵所生, 薛正兴 (主编), 中国历代书院志 (第1册, pp.1–112), 南京: 江苏教育出版社. Masini, F. (1997). The Formation of Modern Chinese Lexicon and its Evolution Toward a National Language: The Period from 1840 to 1898 (Originally published in 1993, Translated by H. Q. Huang). Shanghai: Publishing House of the Chinese Dictionary.
[马西尼. (1997). 现代汉语词汇的形成: 十九世纪汉语外来词研究 (黄河清 译). 上海: 汉语大词典出版社.] Nie, C. S., & Wang, S. Z. (2012). Collating and stipulation of the term “Xinlixue” in modern and the interaction among China, Japan and Western. In T. Y. Feng (Ed.), Humanities Review (2012, pp. 287–303). Beijing: China Social Sciences Publishing House.
[聂长顺, 王淑贞. (2012). 近代“心理学”的厘定与中西日文化互动. 见 冯天瑜 (主编), 人文论丛 (2012年卷, pp. 287–303). 北京: 中国社会科学出版社.] Nishikawa, Y. (2008). A local history of Chiba prefecture: a cross section of the modern times: A common ground between the samurai of the Sakura clan and the western scholarship, mental philosophy and psychology, at the time of the last days of the Tokugawa Shogunate and the beginning of the new Meiji era. Journal of The Open University of Japan, (26), 25–37.
[西川泰夫. (2008). 千葉県郷土史：近現代史の一断面: 幕末から開明期における佐倉藩士と洋学“西国の心学、心理学”との接点. 放送大学研究年報, (26), 25–37.] Shen, H. Y. (1991). “Heart” and “psychology”. The Advances of Social Science, (10), 23–26.
[申荷永. (1991). “心”与“心理学”. 社会科学动态, (10), 23–26.] Wang, F. Y. (2008). History of Chinese psychological thoughts. Shanghai: Shanghai Educational Press.
[汪凤炎. (2008). 中国心理学思想史. 上海: 上海教育出版社.] Wang, F. Y. (2015). The textual research of the provenance of Chinese “XinliXue”. Psychological Exploration, 15(3), 195–201.
[汪凤炎. (2015). 汉语“心理学”一词是如何确立的. 心理学探新, 15(3), 195–201.] Sheffield, D. Z. (1911). Psychology. Tongzhou: North China Union College.
[谢卫楼. (1911). 心灵学. 通州: 华北协和书院.] Xiong, Y. Z. (2011). Western Learning and the Society of the Late Qing Dynasty (revised edition). Beijing: Renmin University of China Press.
[熊月之. (2011). 西学东渐与晚清社会(修订版). 北京: 中国人民大学出版社.] Yan, G. C. (1998). Rectifying the meaning of “Xin Li (Psychology)”. Psychological Science, 21, 97–101.
[燕国材. (1998). “心理”正名. 心理科学, 21, 97–101.] Yan, S. C. (2012, December). Who Originally Created the Term Xin Li Xue, Chinese or Japanese? Presented at the 15th National Conference of Psychology, Guangzhou, China.
[阎书昌. (2012, 12). “心理学”谁首创, 中国人抑或日本人？第15届全国心理学学术会议论文摘要集(广州).] Yan, S. C. (2015). A History of Chinese Modern Psychology (1872-1949). Shanghai: Shanghai Educational Press.
[阎书昌. (2015). 中国近代心理学史 (1872-1949). 上海: 上海教育出版社.] Yang Jiang San Ren. (1874, January 13). On persuading Chi Ping Zi to Stop the debate. Shen Bao, (527), 2.
[阳江散人. (1874-01-13). 劝持平子息事论. 申报, (527), 2.] Yang, X. H., & Zhao, L. R. (Eds.) (2000). Modern History of Chinese Psychology. Jinan: Shandong Educational Press.
[杨鑫辉, 赵莉如. (主编) (2000). 中国近现代心理学史. 济南: 山东教育出版社.] Yao, X. F. (2005). Christianity and Yanming’s philosophy of the mind: Soliciting articles of The Church News (1868- 1874). In Z. W. Xu (Ed.), Review of Christian thoughts (Vol. 3, pp. 357–364). Shanghai: Shanghai People's Publishing House.
[姚兴富. (2005). 基督教与阳明心学: 以《教会新报》(1868-1874)的征文为例. 见 许志伟 (主编), 基督教思想评论 (第三辑, pp. 357–364). 上海: 上海人民出版社. ] Yin Xiang Guan Zhu. (1872, July 8). Xiang Sui Xin Zhuan. Shen Bao, (59), 1–2.
[吟香馆主. (1872-07-08). 相随心转. 申报, (59), 1–2.] Yuan, S. Y., Sun, H. F., & Li, B. X. (1998). Complete works of Zhang Zhidong. Shijiazhuang: Hebei People's Publishing House.
[苑书义, 孙华峰, 李秉新. (1998). 张之洞全集 (第12册). 石家庄: 河北人民出版社.] Zhang, Y. X. (1940). A brief history of the development of Chinese psychology. Researches on Educational Psychology, (3), 16–31.
[张耀翔. (1940). 中国心理学的发展史略. 教育心理研究, (3), 16–31.] Zhao, L. R. (1991). Early relations and exchanges in the history of psychology in China and Japan. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 23, 88–96.
[赵莉如. (1991). 中日心理学史上的早期联系与交流. 心理学报, 23, 88–96.] Zhao, L. R. (1992). Revision and supplement to when the term Xin Li Xue was used firstly in China. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 24, 223.
[赵莉如. (1992). 关于“心理学”名称在中国何时开始使用问题的修正和补充. 心理学报, 24, 223.] Zhen Shi Zhi Shi. (1872, December 5). Debating on the wax and wane of Western religion. Shen Bao, (187), 3– 4.
[真实之士. (1872-12-05). 附录辨论西教废兴书来稿. 申报, (187), 3–4.] Zhi Fei Zi. (1871). Refute the wrong of anthroposcopy. The Church News, 3, 191–192.
[知非子. (1871). 谈相辟缪. 教会新报, 3, 191–192.] Zhi Quan Ju Shi. (1872, December 12). Reply to Western missioner's comments. Shen Bao, (193), 1–2.
[执权居士. (1872-12-12). 论西教事答教友来书. 申报, (193), 1–2.] Zhi Quan Ju Shi. (1872, November 28). On the the wax and wane of Western religion. Shen Bao, (182), 2.
[执权居士. (1872-11-28). 附论西教兴废来书. 申报, (182), 2.] Zhong, N. (2008). “Mind” and “psychology” in the Chinese context. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 40, 748–756.
[钟年. (2008). 中文语境下的“心理”和“心理学”. 心理学报, 40, 748–756.] Zhu, F. J. (1979). On Espionage (Trans. by S. Q. Huang). Beijing: The Mass Press.
[朱逢甲. (1979). 间书 (黄肃秋译), 北京：群众出版社.] Zhu, F. J. (1872). The abstracts of new books translated from the Western. The Church News, 4, 252.
[朱逢甲. (1872). 新译西书提要. 教会新报, 4, 152.]