Please wait a minute...
心理学报  2018, Vol. 50 Issue (7): 750-760    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00750
     研究报告 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
母亲鼓励自主与学步儿的探索行为:依恋的调节作用
江群1,2,卢珊1,张茜1,王争艳1()
1 首都师范大学心理学院, 首都师范大学儿童发展研究中心, 北京市“学习与认知”重点实验室, 北京 100048;
2 中国人民大学附属中学深圳学校, 广东 深圳 518119
The influence of maternal encouragement of autonomy on toddler’s exploration: Moderating effect of attachment
Qun JIANG1,2,Shan LU1,Qian ZHANG1,Zhengyan WANG1()
1 College of Psychology, Center for Child Development, Learning and Cognitive Key Laboratory, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048, China
2 The High School Affiliated to Renmin University of China Shenzhen School, Shenzhen 518119, China
全文: PDF(530 KB)   HTML 评审附件 (1 KB) 
输出: BibTeX | EndNote (RIS)       背景资料
文章导读  
摘要 

探索行为是婴幼儿从外部环境获取信息、促进认知发展的重要方式和途径。本研究采用家庭半结构观察和实验室陌生情境技术考察66名14个月母婴对中母亲的鼓励自主水平、儿童依恋类型与学步儿探索行为的关系。结果发现:在控制家庭社会经济地位(SES)及儿童气质困难度后, (1)母亲鼓励自主显著正向预测探索操作总频次、探索操作种类、探索坚持性; (2)儿童依恋类型显著负向预测探索操作总频次, 正向预测探索操作平均时长; (3)学步儿依恋类型可以显著地调节母亲鼓励自主对学步儿探索能力的作用, 表现为母亲鼓励自主行为能显著正向预测安全型依恋学步儿的探索能力; 当学步儿为不安全依恋时, 母亲鼓励自主行为对婴儿探索能力的预测作用不显著。 结论:母亲鼓励自主行为能够促进婴幼儿的探索行为, 且儿童依恋安全性对这一影响具有一定的促进作用。

服务
把本文推荐给朋友
加入引用管理器
E-mail Alert
RSS
作者相关文章
江群
卢珊
张茜
王争艳
关键词 学步儿探索行为母亲鼓励自主依恋    
Abstract

Exploratory behavior, derived from one’s motor development, is an important way for infants to obtain information from external environment. Exploration is generally associated with adaptive developmental outcomes, especially cognitive abilities. Although there have been a great number of studies on exploration, most of which focused on the informational value afforded by novel objects, individual differences and different stages of exploration. The environmental factors, more specifically, the maternal behaviors have been obtained little attention. However, two distinctive theories posit mother’s behavior plays a significant role in infant’s exploration, attachment theory and self-determination theory. According to attachment theory, the attachment system and the exploratory system are two distinct yet inseparably linked behavioral systems, and the attachment system contributes to the quality of infant exploration by providing the infant a secure base from which to explore. Self-determination theory argues that infant’s exploration is driven by his/her intrinsic motivation. Individuals will be most intrinsically motivated when the environment supports their need for autonomy, rather than controlling their behavior. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine influence of maternal encouragement of autonomy on 14-month toddler’s exploration and the moderating role of attachment in the relationship between maternal encouragement of autonomy and toddler’s exploratory behavior.

Sixty-six toddlers (M = 14.77 months, SD = 0.99) and their mothers participated in the study. Toddlers’ attachment status was assessed by the Strange Situation procedure in the laboratory. A semi-structure family observation was conducted in the next 2 to 4 weeks. Each toddler was shown three novel objects placing on the floor and requested to explore them for 6 minutes. The toddler’s exploration as well as maternal encouragement of autonomy was videotaped and coded.

Results were as follows: after controlling for children’s temperament and family socioeconomic status, (1) maternal encouragement of autonomy positively predicted toddler’s total frequencies of exploratory operations, types of exploratory operations and exploratory persistence; (2) mother-infant attachment negatively predicted toddler’s total frequencies of exploratory operations, and positively predicted toddler’s average duration of exploratory operations; (3) the influence of maternal encouragement of autonomy on toddler’s exploratory competence was significantly moderated by the pattern of attachment. Specifically, the prediction of maternal encouragement of autonomy on toddler’s exploratory competence was significant when the child established a security attachment, while for the insecure infants, this prediction was nonsignificant.

These results indicated that maternal encouragement of autonomy could significantly promote toddler’s exploratory behavior. Toddler’s secure attachment played a significant role in the relationship between maternal encouragement and toddler’s exploration. It highlighted the importance of establishing a secure attachment relationship, which was directly linked to the effectiveness of mother’s positive parenting behaviors.

Key wordstoddler    exploratory behavior    maternal encouragement of autonomy    attachment
收稿日期: 2017-07-07      出版日期: 2018-05-29
ZTFLH:  B844  
基金资助:* 国家自然科学基金(31470994);* 北京市社会科学基金项目资助(15JYB016)
作者简介: 卢珊和江群为共同第一作者。
引用本文:   
江群,卢珊,张茜,王争艳. 母亲鼓励自主与学步儿的探索行为:依恋的调节作用[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(7): 750-760.
Qun JIANG,Shan LU,Qian ZHANG,Zhengyan WANG. The influence of maternal encouragement of autonomy on toddler’s exploration: Moderating effect of attachment. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2018, 50(7): 750-760.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.00750      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2018/V50/I7/750
序号 操作行为 描述
(1) 一只手或两只手把着玩具在支撑表面上滑动
(2) 摇晃 拿着玩具在空中来回移动
(3) 旋转 在手上转动玩具或玩具部件
(4) 按压、拍打 用手指或手掌挤压玩具
(5) 把玩具在支撑表面上撞击
(6) 两只手倒换 把玩具从一只手换到另一只手
(7) 掉落、扔 丢弃玩具
(8) 把玩具拉近自己
(9) 把玩具放到嘴巴里
(10) 抓取玩具
(11) 手在玩具表面上轻轻移动
(12) 手部接触 用手拿着玩具
(13) 举、抬 把玩具抓起离开支撑表面并举高
(14) 打开玩具盖子的动作,如:打开形状屋的房顶
(15) 够取 发出动作想要拿物体到接触物体之间的动作
(16) 松手放 松开手放开玩具
(17) 周围环境 对周围环境的探索
  婴幼儿17种具体探索操作行为表
变量 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 M ± SD Min~Max
1. 探索操作总频次(次) 1 88.95 ± 23.95 1.72~3.94
2. 探索操作平均时长(秒) -0.54*** 1 2.02 ± 0.54 39.77~141.36
3. 探索操作种类(类) 0.42*** -0.14 1 12.61 ± 1.59 0.67~3.44
4. 探索坚持性(秒) 0.48*** -0.12 0.38** 1 244.80 ± 42.64 8.00~17.00
5. 探索能力 0.14 -0.08 0.16 0.03 1 16.94 ± 12.06 133.00~300.00
6. 母亲鼓励自主(次) 0.28* -0.11 0.35** 0.29* 0.12 1 37.31 ± 13.08 0.00~47.00
7. 儿童依恋类型 -0.35** 0.37** 0.11 -0.23+ 0.15 -0.08 1
SES -0.01 ± 0.72 -2.00~1.00
气质困难度 3.19 ± 0.45 1.72~3.94
  
变量及步骤 探索操作总频次 探索操作平均时长 探索操作种类 探索坚持性 探索能力
β ΔR2 β ΔR2 β ΔR2 β ΔR2 β ΔR2
第一步(enter) 0.020 0.073+ 0.025 0.013 0.040
SES 0.07 -0.07 0.05 0.00 -0.20
儿童气质困难 -0.12 0.26 -0.15 -0.11 -0.03
第二步(enter) 0.180** 0.131* 0.136* 0.125* 0.039
SES 0.11 -0.07 0.14 0.05 -0.16
儿童气质困难 -0.21+ 0.33+ -0.17 -0.19 -0.02
母亲鼓励自主 0.26* -0.08 0.37** 0.28* 0.14
儿童依恋类型 -0.33** 0.35** 0.14 -0.21 0.16
第三步(enter) 0.001 0.020 0.000 0.026 0.065*
SES 0.12 -0.09 0.14 0.04 -0.18
儿童气质困难 -0.21+ 0.32+ -0.17 -0.19 -0.03
母亲鼓励自主 0.31 -0.30 0.38+ 0.04+ -0.26
儿童依恋类型 -0.32* 0.33** 0.14 -0.23 0.12
自主×依恋 -0.06 0.26 -0.01 0.29 0.46*
总计(ΔR2) 0.201 0.225 0.161 0.163 0.145
  儿童依恋类型对母亲鼓励自主预测学步儿探索行为的调节效应分析(N = 62)
  依恋类型对母亲鼓励自主与学步儿探索能力的调节作用
[1] Aiken, L.S., &West,S.G . ( 1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. California: Sage.
[2] Ainsworth M. D. S., Blehar ?M. C., Waters ?E., & Wall S . ( 1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation (Vol. 38). US:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
[3] Ainsworth, M. D.S., &Bell S.M . ( 1970). Attachment, exploration, and separation: Illustrated by the behavior of one-year-olds in a strange situation. Child Development, 41, 49-67.
pmid: 5490680
[4] Bao Z. Z., Zhang W., Li D. P., Li D. L., & Wang Y. H . ( 2013). School climate and academic achievement among adolescents: A moderated mediation model. Psychological Development and Education, 29( 1), 61-70.
[ 鲍振宙, 张卫, 李董平, 李丹黎, 王艳辉 . ( 2013). 校园氛围与青少年学业成就的关系: 一个有调节的中介模型. 心理发展与教育, 29( 1), 61-70.]
[5] Baumgartner, H.A., &Oakes L.M . ( 2013). Investigating the relation between infants' manual activity with objects and their perception of dynamic events. Infancy, 18( 6), 983-1006.
[6] Bond, M.H . ( 1998). Chinese dimensions of parenting: Broadening western predictors and outcomes. International Journal of Psychology, 33( 5), 345-358.
[7] Bowlby, J. ( 1982). Attachment and loss: Retrospect and prospect. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 52( 4), 664-678.
[8] Bradley-Johnson S., Johnson C. M., Swanson J., & Jackson A . ( 2004). Exploratory behavior: A comparison of infants who are congenitally blind and infants who are sighted. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 98( 8), 496-502.
[9] Chen X. Y., Liu M. W., Li B. S., Cen G. Z., Chen H. C., & Wang L . ( 2000). Maternal authoritative and authoritarian attitudes and mother-child interactions and relationships in urban China. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 24, 119-126.
[10] Corriveau K. H., Harris P. L., Meins E., Fernyhough C., Arnott B., Elliott L., .. De Rosnay M . ( 2009). Young children’s trust in their mother’s claims: Longitudinal links with attachment security in infancy. Child Development, 80( 3), 750-761.
[11] Deci, E.L., &Ryan R.M . ( 2010). Self-determination. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
[12] Ding, Y.H . ( 2012). Study on the influence factors of infant-mother attachment and the outcomes of cognition and behavior in toddler age (Unpublished doctorial dissertation). Fudan University, Shanghai.
[ 丁艳华 . ( 2012). 母婴依恋关系的影响因素及其对幼儿期认知和行为发展作用的研究 (博士学位论文). 复旦大学, 上海.]
[13] Dujardin A., Bosmans G., De Raedt R., & Braet C . ( 2015). Children's attentional exploration of threatening information as related to trust in maternal support. Developmental Psychology, 51( 10), 1341-1350.
pmid: 26376289
[14] Frodi A., Bridges L., & Grolnick W . ( 1985). Correlates of mastery-related behavior: A short-term longitudinal study of infants in their second year. Child Development, 56( 5), 1291-1298.
pmid: 4053744
[15] Gibson, E.J . ( 1988). Exploratory behavior in the development of perceiving, acting, and the acquiring of knowledge. Annual Review of Psychology, 39( 1), 1-42.
[16] Greenfield P. M., Suzuki L. K., & Rothstein-Fisch C . ( 2006). Cultural pathways through human development. In W. Damon &? R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
[17] Grolnick W., Frodi A., & Bridges L . ( 1984). Maternal control style and the mastery motivation of one-year-olds. Infant Mental Health Journal, 5( 2), 72-82.
[18] Grolnick W. S., Gurland S. T., DeCourcey W., & Jacob K . ( 2002). Antecedents and consequences of mothers' autonomy support: An experimental investigation. Developmental Psychology, 38( 1), 143-155.
pmid: 11806696
[19] Grolnick, W.S., &Ryan R.M . ( 1989). Parent styles associated with children's self-regulation and competence in school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81( 2), 143-154.
[20] Grossmann K., Grossmann K. E., Kindler H. & Zimmermann, P. , ( 2008). A wider view of attachment and exploration: The influence of mothers and fathers on the development of psychological security from infancy to young adulthood. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (2nd ed., pp. 857-879). New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.
[21] Grotevant, H.D . ( 1992). Assigned and chosen identity components: A process perspective on their integration. In G. R. Adams, T. P. Gullotta, & R. Montemayor (Eds.), Advances in adolescent development, Vol. 4. Adolescent identity formation( pp. 73-90). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
[22] Grusec, J. E. &Davidov, M. , ( 2010). Integrating different perspectives on socialization theory and research: A domain- specific approach. Child Development, 81( 3), 687-709.
pmid: 20573097
[23] Gutman, L.M., &Feinstein L. , ( 2010). Parenting behaviours and children’s development from infancy to early childhood: Changes, continuities and contributions. Early Child Development and Care, 180, 535-556.
[24] Hellendoorn A., Wijnroks L., van Daalen E., Dietz C., Buitelaar J. K., & Leseman P . ( 2015). Motor functioning, exploration, visuospatial cognition and language development in preschool children with autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 39, 32-42.
pmid: 25635383
[25] Henderson, B.B . ( 1984). Parents and exploration: The effect of context on individual differences in exploratory behavior. Child Development, 55, 1237-1245.
[26] Hughes D. A. ( 2017). Building the bonds of attachment: Awakening love in deeply traumatized children. Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield.Hutt, C.( 1970). Specific and diversive exploration. In Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 5, pp. 119-180). New York: Academic Press.
[27] Jennings K. D., Harmon R. J., Morgan G. A., Gaiter J. L., & Yarrow L. J . ( 1979). Exploratory play as an index of mastery motivation: Relationships to persistence, cognitive functioning, and environmental measures. Developmental Psychology, 15( 4), 386-394.
[28] Joussemet M., Landry R., &Koestner R . ( 2008). A self- determination theory perspective on parenting. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 49( 3), 194-200.
[29] Kochanska, G., &Kim S. , ( 2013). Difficult temperament moderates links between maternal responsiveness and children’s compliance and behavior problems in low-income families. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54( 3), 323-332.
pmid: 23057713
[30] Laranjo, J, &Bernier A , ( 2013). Children's expressive language in early toddlerhood: Links to prior maternal mind-mindedness. Early Child Development and Care, 183( 7), 951-962.
[31] Lin Q., Wang Z. Y., Lu S., Liang X., He Q., Wang Z., & Hu R. S . ( 2014). Internal working models of toddlers: A bridge from maternal sensitivity to toddlers’ attachment Behaviors. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 46(3), 353-366.
[ 林青, 王争艳, 卢珊, 梁熙, 贺琼, 王朝, 胡若时 . ( 2014). 从母亲的敏感性到学步儿的依恋安全性: 内部工作模式的桥梁作用. 心理学报, 46( 3), 353-366.]
[32] Liu M. W., Chen X. Y., Zheng S. J., Chen H. C., & Wang L . ( 2009). Maternal autonomy- and connectedness-oriented parenting behaviors as predictors of children's social behaviors in China. Social Development, 18( 3), 671-689.
[33] Lobo M. A., Galloway J. C., & Heathcock J. C . ( 2015). Characterization and intervention for upper extremity exploration & reaching behaviors in infancy. Journal of Hand Therapy, 28( 2), 114-125.
[34] Lobo M. A., Kokkoni E., de Campos A. C., & Galloway J. C . ( 2014). Not just playing around: Infants’ behaviors with objects reflect ability, constraints, and object properties. Infant Behavior and Development, 37( 3), 334-351.
pmid: 24879412
[35] Ludlow, B. ( 2010). Self-determination. Teaching Exceptional Children, 43( 2), 6.
[36] Matte-Gagné C., Bernier A., & Lalonde G . ( 2015). Stability in maternal autonomy support and child executive functioning. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24( 9), 2610-2619.
[37] McElwain, N.L., &Booth-LaForce C, , ( 2006). Maternal sensitivity to infant distress and nondistress as predictors of infant-mother attachment security. Journal of Family Psychology, 20( 2), 247-255.
pmid: 16756400
[38] Palmer S. B., Summers J. A., Brotherson M. J., Erwin E. J., Maude S. P., Stroup-Rentier V., .. Haines S. J . ( 2013). Foundations for self-determination in early childhood: An inclusive model for children with disabilities. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 33( 1), 38-47.
[39] Ruff, H.A . ( 1989). The infant's use of visual and haptic information in the perception and recognition of objects. Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie, 43( 2), 302-319.
pmid: 2486501
[40] Schieche, M.G., &Spangler G. , ( 2005). Individual differences in biobehavioral organization during problem-solving in toddlers: The influence of maternal behavior, infant-mother attachment, and behavioral inhibition on the attachment- exploration balance. Developmental Psychobiology, 46( 4), 293-306.
[41] Schulz, L.E., &Bonawitz E.B . ( 2007). Serious fun: Preschoolers engage in more exploratory play when evidence is confounded. Developmental Psychology, 43( 4), 1045-1050.
pmid: 17605535
[42] Schwarzer G., Freitag C., & Schum N . ( 2013). How crawling and manual object exploration are related to the mental rotation abilities of 9-month-old infants. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 97.
pmid: 3586719
[43] Soska, K.C., &Adolph K.E . ( 2014). Postural position constrains multimodal object exploration in infants. Infancy, 19( 2), 138-161.
[44] Sroufe, L.A . ( 2005). Attachment and development: A prospective, longitudinal study from birth to adulthood. Attachment & Human Development, 7( 4), 349-367.
pmid: 16332580
[45] Stright A. D., Gallagher K. C., & Kelley K . ( 2008). Infant temperament moderates relations between maternal parenting in early childhood and children’s adjustment in first grade. Child Development, 79( 1), 186-200.
pmid: 18269517
[46] van den Boom, D. C . ( 1994). The influence of temperament and mothering on attachment and exploration: An experimental manipulation of sensitive responsiveness among lower- class mothers with irritable infants. Child Development, 65( 5), 1457-1477.
pmid: 7982362
[47] Vig, S. ( 2007). Young children’s object play: A window on development. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 19(3), 201-215.
[48] Whipple N., Bernier A., & Mageau G. A . ( 2011). Broadening the study of infant security of attachment: Maternal autonomy-support in the context of infant exploration. Social Development, 20( 1), 17-32.
[49] Zhang Z. S., Shen L. X., Xu J. D., Lu X. Q., Zhang S. Y . ( 2000). The temperament study of one-month to twelve- year old children in Shanghai. Chinese Mental Health Journal, 14( 2), 79-83.
[ 张劲松, 沈理笑, 许积德, 陆雪奇, 张松友 . ( 2000). 上海市 1 个月~12岁儿童气质特点研究. 中国心理卫生杂志, 14( 2), 79-83.]
[1] 谢其利,李崇敬,全小山,何飞,江光荣. 少年夫妻老来伴:夫妻依恋与留守老人孤独感[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(7): 771-781.
[2] 张秀敏, 杨莉萍.  基督徒祷告过程中人神依恋关系的质性探索[J]. 心理学报, 2018, 50(1): 115-129.
[3] 王艳辉;李董平;孙文强;赵力燕;赖雪芬;周月月. 亲子依恋与初中生亲社会行为:有调节的中介效应[J]. 心理学报, 2017, 49(5): 663-679.
[4] 李彩娜;孙颖;拓瑞;刘佳. 安全依恋对人际信任的影响:依恋焦虑的调节效应[J]. 心理学报, 2016, 48(8): 989-1001.
[5] 邢淑芬;梁熙;岳建宏;王争艳. 祖辈共同养育背景下多重依恋关系及对幼儿社会−情绪性发展的影响[J]. 心理学报, 2016, 48(5): 518-528.
[6] 王大华;杨小洋;王岩;Richard B. Miller. 老年人夫妻依恋的测量及与一般依恋的关系[J]. 心理学报, 2015, 47(9): 1133-1142.
[7] 陈武;李董平;鲍振宙;闫昱文;周宗奎. 亲子依恋与青少年的问题性网络使用:一个有调节的中介模型[J]. 心理学报, 2015, 47(5): 611-623.
[8] 林青;王争艳;卢珊;梁熙;贺琼;王朝;胡若时. 从母亲的敏感性到学步儿的依恋安全性:内部工作模式的桥梁作用[J]. 心理学报, 2014, 46(3): 353-366.
[9] 陆爱桃,张积家,Michael Harris Bond,张学新,Michael Friedman,Chan Ching. 冲突与支持影响情侣依恋的文化差异[J]. 心理学报, 2009, 41(06): 534-544.
[10] 王争艳,赵冬艳,雷雳. 亲子性话题沟通风格对青少年性行为和性态度的预测:
依恋的调节效应
[J]. 心理学报, 2007, 39(06): 1063-1073.
[11] 李同归,加藤和生. 成人依恋的测量:亲密关系经历量表(ECR)中文版[J]. 心理学报, 2006, 38(03): 399-406.
[12] 胡平,孟昭兰. 城市婴儿依恋类型分析及判别函数的建立[J]. 心理学报, 2003, 35(02): 201-208.
[13] 胡平,孟昭兰. 城市婴儿依恋类型分析及判别函数的建立[J]. 心理学报, 2003, 35(02): 201-208.
[14] 吴放,邹泓. 幼儿与成人依恋关系的特质和同伴交往能力的联系[J]. 心理学报, 1995, 27(04): 434-441.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
版权所有 © 《心理学报》编辑部
本系统由北京玛格泰克科技发展有限公司设计开发  技术支持:support@magtech.com.cn