ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 49 ›› Issue (5): 653-662.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.00653

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

1993~2013年常驻高海拔地区军人心理健康状态的横断历史研究

赵梦雪;冯正直;王毅超;赖薇; 胡丰;刘可愚;夏凡; 蒋 娟 ;王 佳; 夏 蕾   

  1. (中国人民解放军第三军医大学心理学院, 重庆 400038)
  • 收稿日期:2016-06-16 出版日期:2017-05-25 发布日期:2017-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 冯正直, E-mail: fzz@tmmu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家社会科学基金(14GJ003-123、15XSH017)、军队后勤科研指令性计划(14CXZ002)和第三军医大学人文社科基金课题(2015XRW02)支持。

Chinese military mental health at high altitude, 1993-2013: A cross-temporal meta-analysis of SCL-90

ZHAO Mengxue; FENG Zhengzhi; WANG Yichao; LAI Wei; HU Feng; LIU Keyu; XIA Fan; JIANG Juan; WANG Jia; XIA Lei   

  1. (School of Psychology, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038, China)
  • Received:2016-06-16 Online:2017-05-25 Published:2017-05-25
  • Contact: FENG Zhengzhi, E-mail: fzz@tmmu.edu.cn

摘要:

研究为探索常驻高海拔地区军人心理健康水平如何随社会年代变迁而改变, 运用了横断历史元分析的方法, 对1993年至2013年38篇采用90项症状自评量表(SCL-90)的文献调查数据进行分析, 考察了11454名常驻高海拔地区军人在该量表上9个因子得分随年代变化的趋势。结果发现:(1) SCL-90的7个因子均值与年代负相关, 且不受期刊类型等的影响。20年来, 7个因子下降了5%~15%不等。其中, 强迫变化最大, 抑郁、焦虑、人际敏感、偏执和精神病性均变化明显。这说明, 常驻高海拔地区军人心理健康虽有所波动但整体水平逐步提升, 变化幅度大致属于中等程度。(2)当年军费占GDP比值、居民消费水平指数与SCL-90部分因子均值负相关显著; 5年前的居民消费水平指数与7个因子显著负相关。这说明, 国防建设的经济投入和居民消费水平可能是影响常驻高海拔地区军人心理健康水平的重要因素。

关键词: 军人, 心理健康, 高海拔地区, 高原, 横断历史元分析

Abstract:

The plateau is an important defense area for the Chinese military. Severe plateau environment and tense military tasks are sources of stress, which can cause physical and mental problems for military personnel. From the 1980s, psychological experts began to pay close attention to the plateau military mental health. However, many research studies on military mental health status at high altitude could not come to a consistent conclusion. Furthermore, no one knows how the Chinese military’s mental health at high altitude changes overtime. In order to resolve the controversies and to explore the regularity and changing characteristics overtime in Chinese military mental health at high altitude, a cross-temporal meta-analysis technique was employed. Thirty-eight articles from 1993 to 2013 focusing on military mental health at high altitude were selected and analyzed during this study, with the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) taken as the measuring tool. Only those that reported the sample size, mean, and standard deviation were selected. The thirty-eight articles encompass a total of 11,454 plateau military personnel. Each sample/article was coded according to the periodical type, plateau area, and nationality and was assigned either as an independent or control variables. The cross-temporal meta-analysis was used to analyze the changes of the nine factors of SCL-90 in times. Our results showed that the 7 factors of SCL-90 had a significantly negative correlation with age and was not related to journal types, plateau areas, or nationality. Also the mean value of the 7 factors decreased by 0.24~0.52, and the effective size d decreased from 0.45 to 0.84, the military psychological problems at high altitudes gradually reduced, and the mental health level increased year by year. The proportion of military spending to GDP during the year had a negative correlation with the 4 factors of SCL-90, while residents' consumption level index was significantly correlated with the 7 factors. Residents' consumption level from 5 years back was significantly correlated with the 7 factors and we found that consumption could predict the military mental health level within the plateau areas. Interpersonal sensitivity had a significant negative correlation with the divorce rate after 5 years. Military mental health at high altitudes during the last 20 years has experienced three stages, that of rising, fluctuating, and the stable period. Our results also showed that military mental health status at high altitude fluctuates, but the overall level has gradually improved; the factors of obsessive-compulsive, somatization, and depression have higher scores; and also, the construction of national defense economy and resident consumption level has a great impact on the military mental health level at high altitude.

Key words: military, mental health, high altitude, plateau, cross-temporal meta-analysis