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注意控制定势和线索类型在注意捕获中的作用
刘丽1,2; 白学军1
(1天津师范大学心理与行为研究院, 天津 300074) (2天津商业大学法学院心理系, 天津 300134)
The effects of attentional control setting and types of cues on attentional capture
LIU Li1,2; BAI Xuejun1
(1 Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300074, China) (2 Department of Psychology, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134, China)
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摘要 

采用前线索范式, 通过3个实验考察了注意控制定势和线索类型在注意捕获中的作用。实验1要求被试搜索颜色奇异项目标或突现目标, 涉及较弱的注意控制定势, 结果表明, 突现线索在作为匹配线索和不匹配线索时都能捕获注意, 而颜色奇异项线索只有在作为匹配线索时才能捕获注意。实验2要求被试搜索具体特征的红色或白色目标, 使被试建立较强的特征搜索定势, 结果表明, 颜色奇异项线索和突现线索在作为匹配线索时都能捕获注意, 但是在不匹配条件下, 颜色奇异项线索被抑制了, 而突现线索不能捕获注意; 实验3采取go/no-go范式, 要求被试对红色目标进行反应, 对白色目标进行抑制, 并通过设置不同的线索-目标时间间隔来进一步考察注意捕获的机制, 结果表明, 在600 ms间隔下, no-go突现线索被抑制, 而对于go颜色奇异项线索来说, 随着时间间隔的增加, 注意捕获效应减少。结果与相倚捕获假说和抑制独立捕获假说不符, 支持注意转移假说:自上而下的注意控制定势通过把注意从和目标不匹配的特征位置转移发挥作用; 颜色奇异项线索和突现线索的注意捕获机制相同, 但是突现线索相对于颜色奇异项线索来说, 在与目标不匹配的条件下, 更容易捕获注意, 更难被抑制。

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刘丽
白学军
关键词 注意捕获 注意控制定势 相倚捕获假说 搜索模式 注意转移假说 抑制独立捕获假说    
Abstract

The degree to which involuntary allocation of attention is influenced by top-down set has been a topic of debate during the last 20 years. According to contingent attentional capture theory, the initial allocation of attention is conditioned on top-down attentional control settings (ACSs), such that stimuli that do not match those settings will not elicit an involuntary attention shift. According to attentional disengagement account, in contrast, attention is always initially allocated to salient stimuli, and the effects of ACSs simply reflect the speed at which attention is disengaged from an irrelevant stimulus. We proposed that attentional capture effect of unmatched cue depends on the strength of ACS. When ACS is weaker, unmatched cue tends to capture attention, but when ACS is strong enough, it tends to be suppressed. The mechanism of the attentional capture was also explored. In addition, two types of exogenous cues (color singleton cue and onset cue) with the same task (or ACS) were compared; whether onset cue and color singleton cue might be modulated differently by ACS was also investigated. The present study was designed to explore the mechanisms involved in attentional capture phenomenon in the spatial-precuing paradigm. In Experiment 1, each participant looked for the color singleton target or onset target throughout the entire block. We supposed such a task involved a weaker ACS. In Experiment 2, each participant looked for a red or white feature target, which forced the participants to maintain a strong ACS level. In Experiment 3, go/no-go paradigm was used to make participant set up a stronger ACS. Red and white feature targets presented changed unpredictably on a trial-by-trial basis; participants were required to respond to red feature targets and suppress their response to white feature target. In all experiments, a spatially non-predictive color singleton cue or onset cue would appear before the display of the targets; the probabilities of the presence of these two types of cues were equal. The cue at the predicted target location was at a chance level; there were two types of cue–target location: valid (the target appeared at the cued location); invalid (the target appeared at an uncued location). In Experiment 1 and 2, cue-to-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was set at 150 ms. In order to better reveal the underlying mechanism of attentional capture, SOAs were set at 150 ms and 600 ms in Experiment 3 to explore how the effect of capture changed with time. Our results showed that in Experiment 1, in the color singleton searching task, both matched color singleton cues and unmatched onset cues could capture attention and that the magnitude of capture effects of matched color singleton cues was larger than that of onset cues. In the onset searching task, only matched onset cues could capture attention; color singleton cues could not capture attention. In Experiment 2, it was shown that both matched color singleton cues and onset cues could capture attention. However, when unmatched color singleton cues were suppressed, unmatched onset cues could not capture attention. In Experiment 3, go and matched color singleton cues could capture attention, but the magnitude of capture effects under longer SOAs was smaller than that under shorter SOAs. When no-go and unmatched onset cues were suppressed, the magnitude of suppression effect was not significant under shorter SOAs, but was significant under longer SOAs. The present findings demonstrated that (1) ACS operated through disengagement of attention from featured locations that did not match ACS and suppressing the location afterwards, which supported attentional disengagement account, (2) The overall pattern of results showed that the mechanisms for attention capture for the onset cue and color singleton cues were the same. However, But in comparison with color singleton cues, unmatched onset cues can capture attention more easily, and were more difficult to be suppressed in the same search task.

Key wordsattentional capture    attentional control set    contingent capture account    search mode    attentional disengagement account
收稿日期: 2015-03-19      出版日期: 2016-09-25
基金资助:

天津市高等学校创新团队培养计划; 国家自然科学基金(81471629); 教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地重大项目(11JJD190004); 天津市高等学校人文社会科学研究项目(20132551)

通讯作者: 刘丽, E-mail: liuli799@126.com; 白学军, E-mail: bxuejun@126.com    
引用本文:   
刘丽;白学军. 注意控制定势和线索类型在注意捕获中的作用[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.01093.
LIU Li; BAI Xuejun. The effects of attentional control setting and types of cues on attentional capture. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2016, 48(9): 1093-1104.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2016.01093      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2016/V48/I9/1093
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