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心理学报
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工作影响员工幸福体验的“双路径模型”探讨 ——基于工作要求-资源模型的视角
李爱梅;王笑天;熊冠星;李斌;凌文辁
(暨南大学管理学院, 广州 510632)
A Dual-Pathway Model of Work Influencing on Happiness: A Perspective of Job Demands-Resources Model
LI Aimei; WANG Xiaotian; XIONG Guanxing; LI Bin; LING Wenquan
(Management School, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China)
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摘要 

幸福体验是国内外学者与管理实践者关注的重要问题, 文章基于工作要求-资源模型和资源保存理论, 通过分阶段收集834名在职工作人群样本, 构建并检验了“工作影响员工幸福体验的双路径模型”。研究发现:(1)工作要求通过工作-家庭冲突的完全中介作用, 负向影响员工幸福体验的资源损耗路径; (2)工作资源通过工作-家庭促进的部分中介作用, 正向影响员工幸福体验的资源增益路径; (3)工作资源中的上司支持缓冲工作要求对工作-家庭冲突的正向影响; (4)工作要求和工作资源交互影响员工幸福体验, 高要求高资源的工作组合下, 员工的幸福体验水平最高。研究从理论上揭示了工作影响员工幸福体验的内在心理机制, 提出工作资源作为“利之刃”和工作要求作为“伤之刃”共同影响员工幸福体验的“双刃效应”。这些研究发现对于管理实践如何提升员工幸福体验也提供了理论指导。

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李爱梅
王笑天
熊冠星
李斌
凌文辁
关键词 幸福体验工作要求-资源模型资源保存理论双刃效应    
Abstract

Work constitutes the major part of individual’s social life. Researchers have been studying its influence on employee for decades. However, several limitations exist in previous research. First, the majority of the research has been focusing on its adverse effects, while the positive effect of work has been somehow overlooked. Second, the underlying mechanism of work affecting happiness remains unexplored. To address these issues, a dual-process model was proposed and tested in the current study, drawing from job demands-resources model and resource conservation theory. Specifically, this study examined the relationship among work, family, and happiness. We primarily concentrated on the separate and joint effects of job-demands and job-resources on work-family interference and happiness as well. 834 part-time graduates from three colleges comprise our sample. Participants were asked to fill out questionnaires at three time points (Time 1: job demands and job resources; Time 2: work-family conflict and work-family facilitation; and Time 3: satisfaction with life and affective well-being). These variables were assessed by: Job Demands-Resources Scale, Work-Family Conflict & Facilitation Scale, Satisfaction With Life Scale, Princeton Affect and Time Survey. All Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were acceptable (ranging from 0.86 to 0.90). Polynomial regression, path analysis, and response surface methodology were utilized to test the hypotheses. The results indicated that: (1) job demands had a significantly negative influence on happiness; (2) work-family interference fully mediated such relationship; (3) job resources positively influenced on individual’s perceived happiness; and (4) work-family facilitation partially mediated the relationship between job resources and happiness. (5) Furthermore, it was also found that supervisor support, working as a moderator, buffered the positive association between job demands and work-family interference. (6) Lastly, the results revealed that when job demands and job resources were both high, individual’s experienced happiness peaked. Significance: The present study furthers our understanding of the mechanism regarding how work potentially influences employee’s happiness. The theoretical and managerial implications of our findings, limitations, as well as future research directions were discussed.

Key wordshappiness    job demands-resources model    resource conservation theory    dual blades effect
收稿日期: 2014-07-01      出版日期: 2015-05-25
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金项目(项目编号:71271101, 71171096, 71333007)和暨南大学企业发展研究所基金资助。也是广东高校女性发展研究中心和管理学院育题基金项目的阶段成果。

通讯作者: 李爱梅, E-mail: tliaim@jnu.edu.cn    
引用本文:   
李爱梅;王笑天;熊冠星;李斌;凌文辁. 工作影响员工幸福体验的“双路径模型”探讨 ——基于工作要求-资源模型的视角[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00624.
LI Aimei; WANG Xiaotian; XIONG Guanxing; LI Bin; LING Wenquan. A Dual-Pathway Model of Work Influencing on Happiness: A Perspective of Job Demands-Resources Model. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2015, 47(5): 624-636.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00624      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2015/V47/I5/624
[1] 段锦云,魏秋江. 建言效能感结构及其在员工建言行为发生中的作用[J]. , 2012, 44(7): 972-985.
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