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心理学报
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团队成员地位与知识分享行为:基于动机的视角
胡琼晶1;谢小云2
(1北京大学光华管理学院, 北京 100871) (2浙江大学管理学院, 杭州 310058)
Group Members’ Status and Knowledge Sharing Behavior: A Motivational Perspective
HU Qiongjing1; XIE Xiaoyun2
(1 Guanghua School of Management, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China) (2 School of Management, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China)
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摘要 

本文基于动机的视角, 详细讨论了在团队合作情境下不同地位的个体所具有的双重动机以及团队成员地位与个体知识分享行为之间的关系。通过2(个人地位:高vs. 低) × 2(地位稳定性:稳定vs. 不稳定)的实验研究(n = 113), 本文发现在团队内地位差异稳定的情况下, 高地位成员会比低地位成员表现出更多的知识分享行为; 在团队内地位差异不稳定的情况下, 低地位成员会比高地位成员更愿意分享知识。并且对于高地位成员而言, 相比团队内地位差异稳定的情况, 在团队内地位差异不稳定的情况下其知识分享行为显著减少。此外本研究还发现, 地位关心作为一种与地位动机紧密相关的个体特征也会对个体的知识分享行为产生影响。具体来说, 在团队内地位差异稳定的情况下, 地位关心与个体地位存在交互作用, 对于低地位成员, 其地位关心水平越高团队内知识分享行为越少。最后, 探讨了本文的理论意义及实践启示。

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胡琼晶
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关键词 动机团队成员地位知识分享地位稳定性地位关心    
Abstract

Knowledge sharing has long been recognized as an effective way of making full use of the information and knowledge owned by group members. Although there are still few studies in exploring the relationship between status and knowledge sharing, extant literature has demonstrated contradictory conclusions concerning the effect of status. From a motivational perspective, this study aimed to explore how status would influence group members’ knowledge sharing behavior under different circumstances. Specifically, we speculated that the effect of status on group members’ knowledge sharing behavior was contingent on status stability within groups. When the difference in status was stable, high-status members would demonstrate more knowledge sharing behavior than low-status members. However, when the status difference was unstable, the condition would be reversed. Furthermore, we posited that the extent to which a group member would be influenced by status might depend on his or her concern for status. We predicted that individual status, status stability, and concern for status would have a three-way interaction effect on group members’ knowledge sharing behavior. A 2 (Status: high vs. low) × 2 (Status stability: stable vs. unstable) between-group experiment was conducted to test our hypotheses. A total of 113 college students participated in the experiment and were directed to finish two tests on a computer program. Each participant had two simulated teammates. After the first round of test, “artificial” performance was fed back to each participant. In the second round, each participant was given 12 chances to share answers with his or her teammates. After the test, they were asked to fill out a questionnaire on the computer. In this study, we used performance rating to manipulate individual status in groups and manipulated status stability by changing the task type in the second round of test. Knowledge sharing behavior was measured by the times each participant agreed to share his or her answer. We used SPSS 17.0 to analyze our data. Most of our hypotheses were supported by the results. First, status stability would interact with individual status to have a significant effect on group members’ knowledge sharing behavior. F-test showed that in a high status stability condition, high-status members demonstrated more knowledge sharing behavior than low-status members did. However, in a low status stability condition, low-status members tended to share more knowledge with others than high-status members did. It was also revealed that high-status members were more likely to share their knowledge when the status difference was stable than when it was unstable condition. In addition, when the status difference was stable within group, individual’s concern for status would interact with one’s status to impact his or her knowledge sharing behavior, such that the more concern the low-status members had for their status, the less they would share their knowledge within the group. Overall, we discuss individual’s dual motives at different status levels as well as the relationship between group members’ status and knowledge sharing behavior. It contributes to the literature in the following ways. First, it optimizes ecological validity of group study and makes a contribution to explore the interaction process within group. Second, by introducing status stability as a contextual factor, we integrate contradictory theories and develop a more comprehensive understanding of the effect of status. What is more, we supplement the study of status by investigating status from a motivational perspective. The findings have practical implications for group knowledge management.

Key wordsmotive    group member’s status    knowledge sharing    status stability    concern for status
收稿日期: 2014-01-27      出版日期: 2015-04-25
基金资助:

国家自然科学基金项目(71072115; 71372056)资助。

通讯作者: 谢小云, E-mail: xiexy@zju.edu.cn    
引用本文:   
胡琼晶;谢小云. 团队成员地位与知识分享行为:基于动机的视角[J]. 心理学报, 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00545.
HU Qiongjing; XIE Xiaoyun. Group Members’ Status and Knowledge Sharing Behavior: A Motivational Perspective. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 2015, 47(4): 545-554.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00545      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2015/V47/I4/545
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