心理科学进展, 2018, 26(12): 2180-2191 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.02180

研究前沿

品格优势及其影响结果

刘美玲, 田喜洲,, 郭小东

重庆工商大学管理学院, 重庆 400067

Character strengths and their consequences

LIU Meiling, TIAN Xizhou,, GUO Xiaodong

Chongqing Technology & Business University, Chongqing 400067, China;

通讯作者: 田喜洲, E-mail: tianxizhou@ctbu.edu.cn

收稿日期: 2017-10-31   网络出版日期: 2018-12-15

基金资助: *国家自然科学基金面上项目.  71872023
重庆市社科规划项目.  2016WT39
重庆市研究生“创新型科研项目” .  CYS17248

Received: 2017-10-31   Online: 2018-12-15

作者简介 About authors

刘美玲和田喜洲同为第一作者 。

摘要

品格优势是积极心理学中的一个核心概念, 具体指通过认知、情感和行为反映出来的一组积极人格特质, 也是促进个体身心健康与幸福感, 缓解抑郁与压力的良好资源。通过实验干预等方法的研究表明, 品格优势对个体(积极体验、身心健康、员工创造力、工作呼唤)和组织(工作绩效、领导力、组织有效性)均能产生积极的影响。不过, 目前品格优势与积极构念的关系研究较多, 而品格优势要素之间及其与才干优势之间的关系研究很少, 研究方法也较为单一。未来研究应重点关注以上问题。

关键词: 品格优势 ; 积极心理学 ; 美德 ; 实验干预法

Abstract

Character strengths are central concepts in positive psychology, referring to a set of positive individual traits reflected by thoughts, feelings and behaviors. Additionally, they are good resources for promoting physical health, mental health and well-being, as well as relieving depression and stress. The researches using experimental intervention have suggested that character strengths have a positive influence on both individual level (i.e., positive experiences, physical and mental health, employee creativity and calling) and organizational level (i.e., job performance, leadership, organizational effectiveness, etc.). However, there are many literatures on the relationship between character strengths and positive constructs, but few on the relationship between character strengths, and their relationship with talents. Similarly, the research methods are relatively lack of richness. So future efforts should be paid to such issues.

Keywords: character strengths ; positive psychology ; virtues ; experimental intervention

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本文引用格式

刘美玲, 田喜洲, 郭小东. (2018). 品格优势及其影响结果. 心理科学进展, 26(12), 2180-2191

LIU Meiling, TIAN Xizhou, GUO Xiaodong. (2018). Character strengths and their consequences. Advances in Psychological Science, 26(12), 2180-2191

1 引言

20世纪, 心理学研究主要关注精神疾病、人格障碍等心理问题的诊断及治疗(Seligman & Csikzentmihalyi, 2000)。直到Seligman 指出心理学的使命除了研究消极心理及治疗外, 还有让人类生活得更加充实有意义以及培养和识别天才(Seligman, 1998), 并开始创建积极心理学时, 心理学家们才开始全面关注积极心理现象, 研究个体的优势和美德(Snyder & Lopez, 2002), 就此“品格优势” (character strengths)1(1 在中国, 品格优势也译为性格优点(张宁, 张雨青, 2010)、性格优势(段文杰, 谢丹, 李林, 胡卫平, 2016; 王焕贞, 江琦, 侯璐璐, 2017)。)—— 一个描述人类积极人格特质的概念(Peterson & Seligman, 2004) 应运而生。自品格优势提出后, 就受到了世界各国相关学者的关注, 且呈现出良好、迅速的发展前景:一方面, 品格优势的研究已由个体生活中的情感、态度、行为(Peterson, Ruch, Beermann, Park, & Seligman, 2007)延伸到工作中的绩效(Littman- Ovadia & Lavy, 2016)、创造力(Kalyar & Kalyar, 2018)等, 近两年还深入到组织(Ruch, Gander, Platt, & Hofmann, 2016)中。另一方面, 品格优势的实践价值日益凸显, 不仅深受教育(Bressoud, Shankland, Ruch, & Gay, 2018)、医疗卫生(Duan & Bu, 2017)、军事管理(Boe, 2016)等领域相关研究者的青睐, 而且已在职业咨询(Littman-Ovadia, Lazar-Butbul, & Benjamin, 2013)、欣赏式探询(White, Vrodos, & Mcneil, 2015)等领域得到有效应用。此外, 已有学者开始将品格优势运用于工作重塑以及青少年体育训练方面(Kooij, Van Woerkom, Wilkenloh, Dorenbosch, & Denissen, 2017; Raimundi, Schmidt, & HernÁndez-Mendo, 2018)。

可见, 无论在理论还是实践上, 品格优势的研究都具有重要的意义, 它是促进个体身心健康与幸福感, 缓解抑郁与压力的良好资源(Li, Duan, & Guo, 2017), 也是创造美好生活的心理资本(张宁, 张雨青, 2010)。但遗憾的是, 目前国内外关于品格优势的所有研究中, 除张宁和张雨青(2010)外, 鲜有学者进行系统述评, 而品格优势相关研究的发展比较迅速, 尤其是其对个体和组织的影响研究目前备受关注, 所以很有必要对此进行梳理与总结。本文主要内容与顺序为:首先简要概述品格优势的内涵与研究方法, 然后重点阐述其积极影响结果, 最后在分析现有相关研究的基础上提出研究困境和未来展望。

2 品格优势内涵与研究方法

2.1 品格优势内涵

为使积极心理学研究取得突破性进展, 以Seligman为首的心理学家仿照《精神疾病诊断与统计分类手册, DSM》, 把人类积极的人格特质建立统一的分类标准。他们历时5年查阅多个国家的相关名著和史料, 发现了在各种文化中普遍存在并被公众广泛认可的六大类核心美德, 于2004年出版了专著《品格优势与美德分类手册, CSV》。其中每类美德中包含的具体品格(感恩、创造力、善良等, 共24种)即品格优势——从个体的认知、情感和行为中表现出来的一组积极特质, 是解释美德心理构成的过程或机制(Peterson & Seligman, 2004)。国内外, 大多学者基本都是延用此定义(Niemiec, 2014; 王焕贞, 江琦, 侯璐璐, 2017; 国建, 王詠, 刘兴云, 2015)。不过, 段文杰、谢丹、李林和胡卫平(2016)提出的品格优势概念不同于Peterson等人的定义, 前者认为品格优势与美德相近、甚至类似, 即品格优势和美德可能只是量而非质的区别, 而且他们兼顾中西文化的共通性和特殊性, 将24种品格优势分为亲和力(Relationship)、生命力(Vitality)和意志力(Conscientiousness)三大类长处(Duan et al., 2012), 确定了中国人的品格优势和美德的基本结构。总之, 积极心理学家将品格优势视为能使自身和他人受益的积极人格特质, 并且, 按品格优势对个体重要程度排序, 大多数人通常展现出3到7个显著优势(signature strengths) (Peterson & Seligman, 2004)。即一个人拥有的排序靠前并且频繁运用的品格优势, 代表了个体性格中最为突出的积极品质, 在运用显著优势时, 人们往往感到精力充沛而不是疲劳。

确定了构念内涵之后, 学者们基于适应性(Peterson & Seligman, 2004)、有效性(Ho et al, 2016)和简洁性(Duan & Ho, 2017)等目的, 对品格优势的测量工具不断修订, 目前已形成了一系列适应于特定群体、情境、文化背景等的量表, 如较有代表性的优势价值行动问卷(VIA-IS) (Peterson & Seligman, 2004)和中文长处问卷(CVQ-96) (Duan et al., 2012)等。这些均为品格优势的不断深入研究做出了重要的贡献。

2.2 品格优势的研究方法

随着品格优势研究的不断发展, 其研究方法不断增多, 常用的方法是问卷调查法, 而近几年干预实验法则备受青睐。问卷调查法是品格优势研究中经常用到的研究方法(Abasimi, Gai, & Wang, 2017; Martínez-Martí & Ruch, 2016; Peterson et al., 2007), 既可以收集横截面数据, 也可以采集纵向数据; 既可以研究小样本, 也可以调查大样本。如, Choudhury和Borooah (2017)使用VIA-IS-72 (优势价值行动问卷精简版)对240名本科生的学业与品格优势的关系进行了研究。Berthold和Ruch (2014)则收集了20538份原版VIA-IS问卷, 研究了宗教信仰与品格优势之间的关系。此外, 还有一些学者用了访谈法, 如Gentry等人(2013)以及 Sosik, Gentry和Chun (2012)研究品格优势与领导者绩效的关系时, 用访谈法分别对246名中层领导者和191名高层领导者进行了近4年的访谈记录。

品格优势干预实验法指研究者对参与者采用培训、教育、指导、操纵等方式, 使其识别、培养、运用自身品格优势(具体干预设计及结果等, 见表1)。这种方法能使研究者们观察到实验对象随着时间的推移, 产生的不同反应或受到的影响程度等, 从而可以测量变量带来的即时、长期和持续效果, 以便更容易发现变量产生作用的过程及机制。目前, 以品格优势为基础的干预方法已经广泛应用于教育、社会福利、青少年发展等领域(Quinlan, Swain, & Vella-Brodrick, 2012)。学者们常用的干预手段主要有:自我管理或者网上培训(Harzer & Ruch, 2015b; Gander, Proyer, Ruch, & Wyss, 2013; Mitchell, Stanimirovic, Klein, & Vella- Brodrick, 2009), 以及课程学习干预(李婷婷, 刘晓明, 2016; Proyer, Gander, Wellenzohn, & Ruch, 2015; Proctor, Maltby, & Linley, 2011)。如, Harzer和Ruch (2015b)让干预组参加网上培训来逐步了解、识别自身的显著优势, 并在工作中以新的方式运用这些优势; 控制组详细写下在家庭、工作等不同情境中发生的故事, 并思考其中体现的品格优势。而Duan和Ho等人则对中国285名本科生进行每周一次45分钟为期18周的选修课程干预, 课程内容主要为品格优势运用的意义及策略等知识(Duan et al., 2014)。

表1   品格优势的干预研究

作者 干预方式/群体/内容 干预设计 干预结果
李婷婷, 刘晓明(2016) 课程干预, 使大学生发现并运用品格优势 干预前/后, 干预完成6周, 进行开放式访谈并测试 积极认知/情感/行为显著提升
Harzer, Ruch (2015) 网上培训, 使成人识别并在工作中运用显著优势 干预前/后, 干预完成1/6个月后测试 工作呼唤、生活满意度提升
Proyer, Gander, 等(2015); Gande, Proyer等(2013) 自我管理; 使成人/老人识别并运用品格优势 干预前/后, 干预完成1/3/6个月后完成在线测量并反馈 幸福感增加, 抑郁感降低
Duan, Ho, 等(2014) 选修课程干预, 使本科生运用显著优势 干预前/干预完成9/18周测试 生活满意度增加
Proctor, Tsukayama, 等(2011) 课程干预, 帮小学生培养并发现新的品格优势 干预前, 干预6个月后完成访谈 生活满意度、幸福感增加
Proctor, Maltby等(2011) 干预练习, 使大学生运用品格优势 干预3/6个月后测试 自尊心、自我效能感增加
Mitchell等(2009); Seligman等(2005) 自我管理; 使成人识别并运用显著优势 干预前/后, 干预完成1周/1/3/6个月后测试 幸福感增加, 抑郁感降低

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比较可知, 在干预实验中, 研究者们处于相对主动的地位, 可以控制实验中的研究对象、变量及情境等, 从而能对产生的现象反复观察、比较, 得到的结论更准确, 适用于实验对象较少的精确性研究。而问卷调查法等操作简单、成本较低, 且可以在短时间内获得大量数据或资料; 但是难以了解到实验对象的心理状态及反应等, 且不利于进行横向比较。不过, 品格优势相关研究中更多的是几种方法的同时使用, 择各方法之优, 不仅能节约成本, 还可以使实验结果更准确等。总之, 以上方法在品格优势的研究中均起到了举足轻重的作用。

3 品格优势的影响结果

整合已有的研究可以发现, 品格优势的影响范围比较广泛, 这里主要从个人层面和组织层面展开(见图1)。

图1

图1   品格优势的影响结果


3.1 个人层面

就个人层面而言, 品格优势的影响结果研究大多是针对个体的情感、态度和行为等。具体可从以下几方面展开。

3.1.1 品格优势与个人积极体验

品格优势是积极的心理特质, 对个体的积极体验(生活满意度、主观幸福感、生活意义等)起着至关重要的作用。Peterson等人研究发现, 希望、热情、感恩等与生活满意度呈较强的相关性, 幽默与生活快乐、信仰与生活意义密切相关, 而与生活投入相关的则是好奇心和毅力等(Peterson et al., 2007)。之后, 学者们又做了大量的相关研究, 大多得到了与Peterson等人类似的结果(Murrell, 2015; Martínez-Martí & Ruch, 2014; Buschor, Proyer, & Ruch, 2013)。

但是由于文化、群体、视角等的不同, 不少研究结果存在略微差别, 主要体现为具体品格优势与积极体验的相关性。第一, 文化不同导致的差异。Chan (2009)对中国香港教师的相关研究表明, 24个品格优势中有16个与主观幸福感显著正相关。而Abasimi和Gai (2016)对非洲加纳高中教师以及Neto, Neto和Furnham (2014)对澳大利亚青年的研究发现, 生活满意度与所有品格优势均相关。此外, Hausler等人(2017)对奥地利医学生的研究结果显示, 相较主观幸福感, 与心理幸福感密切相关的品格优势更多, 且相关性更强。第二, 群体不同导致的差异。Ruch等人(2013)对德国和瑞士10~17岁青少年的品格优势进行分析显示, 希望、感恩、热情等与生活满意度呈较强的正相关性。而Blanca等人对11~14岁青少年的研究发现, 有18种品格优势均与生活满意度正相关, 且爱与被爱、正直和毅力等呈现出最强的相关性(Blanca, Ferragut, Ortiz-Tallo, & Bendayan, 2017)。第三, 视角不同导致的差异。Littman-Ovadia和Niemiec (2016)研究了品格优势等对各领域(家庭、工作等)生活意义的作用, 结果表明, 品格优势干预有助于提升生活意义。而Allan (2015)的研究却发现, 只有当品格优势之间无冲突时(如爱和社交能力等)才可以提升生活意义; 而有冲突时与生活意义负相关, 如勇气高于公平时, 使得生活意义下降。

此外, 还有学者发现, 婚姻满意度和所有品格优势均呈正相关性(国建 等, 2015); 热情、希望等与生活目的显著相关, 创造力、洞察力等与生活投入相关性最强, 幽默、欣赏美与卓越等与生活快乐最相关(Lee, Foo, Adams, Morgan & Frewen, 2015)。总之, 品格优势的运用——尤其是希望、热情、感恩等, 总能给个体带来各种积极体验。而这些积极体验很有可能就是品格优势的中介机制, 如满意度、幸福感较高的个体, 工作更加投入(Bedyńska & Żołnierczyk-Zreda, 2015)、工作绩效更高(Afshar & Doosti, 2016)等, 未来可以对其做深入研究。

3.1.2 品格优势与身心健康

研究发现品格优势对个人的身体健康和心理健康具有积极的影响。首先, Proyer, Gander, Wellenzohn和Ruch (2013)的研究发现, 大多品格优势(谦虚和信仰除外)都与健康行为有关, 如良好的饮食习惯与自律、好奇心、创造力等智力优势相关, 而身体健康只与热情、希望、感恩等正相关。Peterson, Park和Seligman (2006)对2087名成人的品格优势分析发现, 勇气、善良和幽默可以促进身体疾病(如慢性疼痛、肥胖等)的恢复; 欣赏美和卓越、好学有助于个体应对心理障碍(抑郁、厌食、焦虑等)。其次Harzer (2016)在她的著作中讲到, 品格优势与心理健康(如环境适应、个人成长、自我认可等)相关, 且热情、希望和好奇心最为密切, 这与Petkari和Ortiz-Tallo (2018)对大学生的研究结果类似。而Browne等人(2017)对首发精神病患者(first episode psychosis)的研究发现, 仁慈、公正及自我超越三类美德对心理健康和人际关系的改善显著相关。最后, 品格优势的干预研究也表明品格优势对身心健康的促进作用, 如感恩干预有助于促进亲社会行为(Emmons & Mishra, 2011); 宽恕干预使得抑郁和焦虑感减少(Wade, Hoyt, Kidwell, & Worthington, 2014); 幽默干预使老人的抑郁程度降低(Konradt, Hirsch, Jonitz, & Junglas, 2013)。可见, 善于运用品格优势这种资源的个体, 心理和身体都更加健康。

3.1.3 品格优势与员工创造力

关于品格优势与员工创造力的关系研究慢慢受到关注。不过, 这里需要明确指出, 员工创造力与品格优势中的创造力是不同的, 后者是一种人格特质或者说是心理学中的人性, 它只是个人思想和行为的驱动因素, 与行为和思想本身是分开的; 而员工创造力是一种表现形式, 可以通过观点创意水平及观点的可行性来评估。Kieran (2014)指出, 个人创造力与好奇心、勇气、诚实、谦虚和毅力有关, 他还认为品格优势之所以能促进创造力, 主要是因为品格优势促进了个体知识与技能的获得以及面对各种挑战的能力提升。不过最早关于品格优势与员工创造力的研究是Avey等人在2012年做的相关研究。他们选取了来自美国各类组织中974名员工, 对品格优势中的智慧与学识优势(好奇心、独创性等)、员工创造力等之间的关系进行研究, 结果表明所有智慧与学识优势都与员工创造力正相关, 其中好奇心与员工创造力的相关性最强(Avey, Luthans, Hannah, Sweetman & Peterson, 2012)。此研究结果得到了Azizloo和Mohammadi (2015)的支持。不过Azizloo等人还发现培养和发展员工的智慧和学识优势, 可以促进科技和实践的成熟、组织理念的创新, 最终使得组织革新和创造力的增加。类似地, Kalyar和Kalyar (2018)对巴基斯坦200个组织的研究表明, 智慧与学识优势与员工创新性绩效正相关, 而压力在其中起到了部分中介作用。此外, 还有一些学者研究了爱(love)与创造力的关系。如Campbell和Kaufman (2015)发现, 日常创造行为及自我评价的创造力都与爱显著正相关。总之, 品格优势有助于员工创造力的提升, 这对员工个人和组织都产生了积极的影响。

3.1.4 品格优势与工作呼唤

工作呼唤(calling)是一种工作, 它强调个体对目标的内心认同与强烈渴望, 积极投入以此获得意义感, 并服务社会或者更高的力量(Dik & Duffy, 2009)。研究表明品格优势与工作呼唤有关。首先, 人职匹配理论的相关研究间接表明, 品格优势有助于促进工作呼唤。Dik和Duffy (2009)在对呼唤的研究中强调, 人职匹配有助于形成工作呼唤。而品格优势促进了人职匹配, 人与环境匹配理论认为, 人与环境匹配越好, 越可能产生好的结果(Kristof-Brown & Billsberry, 2013), 即个人特征(兴趣、价值观等)与环境(工作等)要求之间越一致越好(Kristof, 1996)。工作任务与个人品格优势之间的一致性可归入人职互补性匹配概念之内(complementary person-job fit) (Kristof, 1996)。这一概念说明, 人与工作相互提供对方所需:品格优势使人产生寻找与之相匹配的工作的需求(Peterson & Seligman, 2004), 越是需要这种优势的工作, 越能满足个人的需求(Harzer & Ruch, 2013), 人与工作也越匹配, 也更能产生积极的工作结果, 接近呼唤的本质要求(Allan & Duffy, 2014; Harzer & Ruch, 2012)。其次, 积极心理学领域对品格优势的研究中, 发现人们喜欢与其品格优势相匹配的工作(Park & Peterson, 2006)。而且研究表明, 个人在工作中运用品格优势时会表现出较高的工作满意度(Littman-Ovadia, Lavy, & Boiman-Meshita, 2016)、体验到更多的激情及意义(Harzer & Ruch, 2013), 此时工作就变成了呼唤(Allan & Duffy, 2014)。最后, 很多学者的研究也直接表明了品格优势是促使工作成为呼唤的一个因素。如, Harzer和Ruch (2012)的研究发现, 在工作中运用4到7种显著优势的员工比运用少于4种的员工, 更有可能将工作视为工作呼唤。之后, 他们又做了基于品格优势的干预对工作呼唤等的影响研究, 结果也表明, 在工作中加强个人品格优势的运用能使工作成为呼唤的程度增加(Harzer & Ruch, 2015b)。而Smith (2011)的研究表明, 热情、希望、自律等对工作转变成工作呼唤具有预测作用, 且有助于提高员工的生产率、工作满意度及幸福感。综上可知, 品格优势有助于个体在工作中产生更多的积极体验, 从而促进工作呼唤。

3.2 组织层面

作为一种良好资源, 品格优势对个体的生活和工作均产生了积极的结果, 那么它对组织的影响如何呢?Peterson和Park (2006)曾提出品格优势是组织典型的未开发资源。之后的十多年来, 关于品格优势的研究慢慢渗入到组织中。品格优势对组织的影响主要体现在工作绩效、领导力、团队角色以及组织有效性等方面。

3.2.1 品格优势与工作绩效

品格优势与工作绩效密切相关。Balbinot(2011)的研究发现, 毅力、希望、创造力等与金融业财务部门员工的工作绩效评分有关; 勇气和热情与工作水平及薪酬有关。而Harzer和Ruch (2014)对此做了深入的研究。他们对426名员工进行了品格优势及其与工作绩效(4维度:任务绩效、工作奉献、人际促进、组织支持)的关系研究, 结果表明, 不同的品格优势直接影响工作绩效的不同维度。如:毅力、自律、团队精神等与任务绩效相关; 勇敢、好奇心、好学等与工作奉献相关; 领导力、公平、善良等与人际促进相关; 而24种品格优势中的18种(宽恕、谦虚等除外)与组织支持密切相关。另外, Harzer和Ruch还提出品格优势和工作绩效的4个维度可能还存在间接联系——运用显著优势, 使人感到精力充沛, 从而更快地学习新知识, 产生高的工作绩效(Harzer & Ruch, 2014)。此外, 还有一些研究也表明, 品格优势与工作绩效是相关的, 且毅力与工作绩效最为相关(Littman-Ovadia & Lavy, 2016)。然而也有学者的研究得到了不同于以上的研究结果。如Sartika和Mardiawan (2016)对印度尼西亚某酒店员工的相关研究发现, 员工的品格优势对员工绩效的作用非常小(仅占8.4%), 员工的显著优势(诚实、感恩、公平等)对员工绩效并没有起到很大的作用。

3.2.2 品格优势与领导力

研究表明品格优势对组织中管理者的选拔、发展及团队管理至关重要, 尤其是高层管理者。如Gentry和Sosik等人的研究发现, 诚实、勇敢、洞察力和社交能力与领导者的绩效评估正相关, 且社交能力与诚实分别是中层管理人员(Gentry et al., 2013)和高层管理人员(Sosik et al., 2012)绩效的最重要预测因素。Eckstein (2017)对领导者进行品格优势的识别和运用干预后, 发现他们对各自显著优势的认识及在领导角色中的运用均提高了, 从而促进下属员工对自身品格优势的识别及在团队运作中的运用。此外, 品格优势与组织中的领导风格和领导行为也有关系。Dronnenschmidt (2014)通过对173位挪威领导者的研究发现, 智慧和学识优势及勇气优势是变革型领导风格的预测指标, 且自我效能在勇气优势、仁慈优势、节制优势与变革型领导的关系中起了调节作用。Thun和Kelloway (2011)开发和构建了基于品格优势导向的领导模型测量量表, 该模型有三个维度:仁慈型领导(用善良、爱与被爱评估), 智慧型领导(用创造力、好奇心等评估)、节制型领导(用毅力、自律等评估)。验证其效度时发现:随着参与者品格优势评分的增加, 交易型领导、道德型领导的评分显著提高; 被动监督和虐待管理的领导行为的评分显著降低。他们的进一步研究(N = 1296)还得出:仁慈型领导对组织公民行为及心理健康具有预测作用, 智慧型领导对情感承诺具有预测作用。此外, Shek等人考察了品格优势与服务型领导的关系, 发现品格优势是服务型领导有效领导的主要一环。他们还讲到品格优势已成为香港大学服务型领导课程的内容之一(Shek, Sun, & Liu, 2015)。以上可见品格优势对领导者的选拔、考核以及领导风格和领导行为等的重要作用。

3.2.3 品格优势与组织有效性

不少研究也间接地表明品格优势可以促进组织有效性。如, 谨慎和信仰与对社会期望的响应措施相关(Niemiec, 2013), 有助于企业处理公共关系问题。Harzer和Ruch (2015a)以及Kalyar和Kalyar (2018)的研究都表明品格优势的运用有助于应对与工作有关的压力, 而压力的降低有助于员工生产率的提升(Harzer & Ruch, 2014)、反生产力行为(如消极怠工、故意做出有损组织的行为等)的减少(张文勤, 汪冬冬, 2017)以及旷工率的下降(Marzec, Scibelli, & Edington, 2015)。且Kalyar和Kalyar (2018)还指出, 组织培养员工的品格优势, 帮助员工开发创造性活动, 使用新的方式完成任务, 有助于组织获得人力资源的竞争优势。Lavy和Littman-Ovadia (2016)的研究发现品格优势可以通过积极情绪等的中介作用, 影响员工的生产率、组织公民行为; 而且也可能与组织选拔人才有关, 如选拔具有较高压力工作岗位的员工时, 招聘考核中可以增加与应对压力有关的品格优势的项目设计, 以选择合适的人员等。另外, 品格优势对团队角色也有一定的影响。Ruch和Gander等人选取不同职业的565名成人, 对品格优势、团队角色(创新者、信息收集者、激励者等)及工作满意度进行评估, 结果表明, 所有的品格优势与团队角色正相关, 其中与创新者和激励者的相关性最强, 与信息收集者最弱。且热情、团队精神、领导力等是所有团队角色的重要预测因素; 创造力、毅力、自我调节等是某些具体角色的重要预测因素等(Ruch et al., 2016)。总之, 品格优势可以通过多方面作用于组织。它们不仅可以帮助企业选拔优秀的人才, 还能促进组织中员工工作绩效的提升和管理的有效性, 使组织立足于各种复杂的环境中, 且保持稳定发展。

综上可知, 品格优势对个体和组织都能产生积极的影响。而且可以发现, 目前的相关研究大多是在两个层面上展开:一是把24种品格优势作为一个整体, 二是研究某些特定品格优势(多为显著优势)。那么还有其它层面吗?不少学者都曾提到过不同情境下的 “优势组合” (Huber, Webb & Höfer, 2017), 如Peterson和Park (2006)比较过“理性”优势和“感性”优势。Littman-Ovadia, Lavy和Boiman-Meshita (2016)发现“快乐优势”与显著优势对个体工作层面产生影响的机理不同; 而Haridas, Bhullar和Dunstan (2017)则发现较于“理性”优势, “感性”优势与心理健康有着更强烈的相关性。所以, 目前的研究可能忽略了:(1)不同情境下的优势组合研究也可以作为品格优势的一个研究层面; (2)与显著优势相反、排名靠后的品格优势组合也有它们潜在的价值。

4 研究困境与展望

4.1 研究困境

综上可知, 品格优势的应用价值和现实意义越来越受到各领域学者的认可, 其积极影响也得到了大量数据和实验的支撑。但目前的研究大多是基于实验、干预、访谈等手段通过问卷填写收集数据, 得出品格优势与个体的某些情感、行为表现等的关系; 应用价值也多停留在帮助个体如何识别自身品格优势以及告知他们运用特定优势的益处, 并没有提出品格优势测量评估后的应用方法和具体操作方式(如何培养、采用何种手段)。Niemiec, Shogren和Wehmeyer (2016)就提出, 单纯的评估学生的品格优势根本改变不了当前的教育方式, 学生个人也得不到提升。可见, 品格优势的具体运用应该是目前研究中的困境之一。对此, 我们尝试提出以下解决思路。

一方面是通过改变个体所处的外在情景。即通过改变学习或工作的环境和条件来激发个体培养和运用品格优势(Niemiec et al., 2016)。管理者通过给员工、学生等一定的物质或精神奖励, 建立一种“收获情景”或者通过罚款、批评等方式建立一种“损失情景” (毛畅果, 2017), 促使或逼迫个体慢慢改变习惯、行为、认知等来培养和运用自身的品格优势。比如, 在企业中设立最佳团队奖、最佳建议奖、最美心灵奖等奖项来促进员工培养团队精神、勇敢、好学、善良、热情等品格优势。另一方面则是把品格优势具体化。这种方法主要以品格优势的分类为起点, 把24种品格优势再次进行细分。如殷开达、陈劲、王明霞和梁靓(2015)提出包含关心、守信、主动、负责等24种品格要素的创造性品格。如果把品格优势中的创造力细分为诸如关心、主动等品格, 个体就比较容易从一些具体的方面付诸行动来培养自身的品格优势。当然这些都是设想, 并没有得到实际验证, 所以需要未来深入探究找到理想的出路。

4.2 未来展望

4.2.1 品格优势之间的相互关系

24种品格优势之间可能存在内部的相互影响。一方面, Peterson和Park (2006)提出, 品格优势之间可能存在冲突, 如感性(heart)的品格优势(感恩、爱与被爱等)与理性(head)的品格优势(毅力、自律等)以及个人主导(individually-focused)的品格优势(好奇心、创造力等)与他人主导(other- focused)的品格优势(团队精神、公平等)往往不会同时发生。另一方面, Kieran (2014)认为, 美德之间并不像积极心理学提出的可以独立分为24种品格优势, 他认为美德之间是相互联系的, 如创造力取决于好奇心、毅力、勇敢等, 他还指出, 缺乏好奇心的人, 通常对追求创造性的探索不感兴趣, 缺乏勇气的人, 往往不喜欢展露自我及观点等。由此可见, 品格优势之间可能是相互影响的, 或内部冲突, 或内部联系, 具体关系如何需要未来做进一步探究。

4.2.2 品格优势与才干优势的关系

目前, 关于个体优势的研究主要是品格优势和才干优势(talent) (Buckingham & Clifton, 2001;田喜洲, 刘美玲, 2017), 才干优势主要是由Clifton和Buckingham博士在盖洛普公司(Gallup)资助下达成的研究成果。他们认为, 才干优势由可以测量的才干、知识和技能构成。他们开发的优势识别器(Strength Finder)成为了个人才干优势识别的最重要工具, 并将个体才干归纳为成就、公平、审慎、包容、统筹等34个主题。才干优势大多与天赋(比如, 演奏小提琴的能力非常高), 才智(比如学业成绩)等有关, 而品格优势是积极的人格特质, 相对更可塑, 往往需要更多的意志和努力, 属于生活的道德范畴, 所以需要未来做具体的研究将它们区别开来。此外, 可以发现, 才干优势34个主题中的公平、审慎、包容等与品格优势中的公平、谨慎、宽恕是一致的, 那么两者之间是否相互影响, 目前还没有学者进行研究。

4.2.3 品格优势的消极影响

由上可发现, 学者们研究的品格优势影响结果, 不管是个人层面还是组织层面基本上都是积极的方面, 那么品格优势会产生消极的影响吗?这可能是未来比较有趣且有意义的研究。Peterson和Seligman (2004)曾指出社交能力的运用不足会伴随着无能为力, 不了解或误解别人; 而过度运用则会伴随着对自己和他人情感、非言语行为和社交细节的过度分析(Niemiec, 2014)。这一观点在Freidlin等人的研究中首次得到了验证。他们的研究结果表明, 社交能力、谦虚的过度运用, 以及社交能力、自我调节、热情、幽默的运用不足都与社会焦虑有密切的关系(Freidlin, Littman-Ovadia, & Niemiec, 2016); 他们还发现与品格优势的过度运用相比, 运用不足与负面结果有更强的关系。但相关研究太少, 且品格优势运用过度或不足的程度也没有明确界定。由此可知, 关于品格优势的干预研究, 可能也需要针对具体情境或者个人进行适度的干预。所以, 为了使品格优势的运用发挥最大作用, 未来应该更深入地研究品格优势运用的最佳程度界定, 以及最佳程度外可能产生的消极影响。

4.2.4 研究方法丰富化

虽然品格优势的研究方法不断增多, 但目前主要使用问卷调查法和干预实验法, 尤其在我国的相关研究多为问卷调查法(王焕贞 等, 2017; 国建 等, 2015), 而其它研究方法的应用较少, 未来很有必要采用多种方法对品格优势进行相关研究, 以增加研究结果的精确性、新视角的发现等。如元分析法, 能够降低不确定性以及研究结论的不一致性等, 确保结论的客观性、科学性和真实性(王永贵, 张言彩, 2012); 或者行为观察法、案例分析法、几种方法的结合等多方面验证研究结果的准确性、可行性; 甚至引入行为遗传学和神经生物学的研究方法和工具(段文杰 等, 2016), 从基因表达和神经生理机制的新角度对品格优势进一步探索。这样更有助于研究品格优势对个体和组织产生积极影响的内在作用机理, 以及可能会产生的消极影响等。

4.2.5 本土化研究

迄今为止, 品格优势的研究大多集中在国外, 国内仅有少数学者对其进行了介绍(王焕贞等, 2017; 段文杰 等, 2011; 张宁, 张雨青, 2010), 研究对象几乎都集中在学生群体(李婷婷, 刘晓明, 2016), 而且大多是关于个人的生活层面(国建 等, 2015), 基本没有涉及到工作层面。而且, 研究表明, 虽然品格优势具有普遍适应性, 但每种具体优势的程度存在诸如性别、年龄、宗教、地域文化等差异(Margelisch, 2017; Berthold & Ruch, 2014), 所以, 需要进一步探究中国文化背景下各个群体的品格优势。此外, 当今的劳动力市场存在一些严峻的问题:求职者找不到合适的工作, 人事部门招不到合适的人才; 企业员工平均离职率不断上升以及员工的幸福指数、企业的生产效率低下等。而品格优势与个人工作满意度、工作呼唤、工作绩效等有密切的关系, 但相关研究都在国外。所以, 未来探究品格优势对我国人民工作层面的影响很有必要且很有价值。

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
作者已声明无竞争性利益关系。

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Duan, W., &Ho, S. M.Y . ( 2017).

Three-dimensional model of strengths: Examination of invariance across gender, age, education levels, and marriage status

Community Mental Health Journal, 53( 2), 233-240.

URL     PMID:27324904     

Strengths are positive qualities that significantly contributed to well-being of individuals and community. Therefore, a reliable and valid measure of strengths for research and practice is needed. The Brief Strengths Scale (BSS) is a newly developed tool for measuring the three-dimensional strengths model (i.e., temperance, intellectual, and interpersonal strength). However, empirical support for the measurement invariance of the BSS has not been obtained. This study examined the three-factor structure of BSS across gender, age, education, and marriage groups in a community sample (n65=65375) using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis. After removing one item of each subscale from the original version, the revised model provided a good fit to the data at different subgroups. The revised nine-item BSS indicated that measurement invariance across gender and age groups was achieved. In addition, the measurement was more influenced by social-cultural factors than biological factors.

Duan W., Ho S. M. Y., Bai Y., Tang X., Zhang Y., Li T., & Tom Y . ( 2012).

Factor structure of the Chinese virtues questionnaire

Research on Social Work Practice, 22( 6), 680-688.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Objectives: The present study examined the factorial invariance and functional equivalence of the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS) among the Chinese. Methods: A total of 839 undergraduate students completed the 240-item Simplified Chinese version of the VIA-IS online. Another 40 students participated in qualitative interviews to examine the meaning and function of the items in Chinese culture. Results: A total of 144 items were removed from the original version questionnaire (240-item) because of low item-loading and lack of cultural validity. A Chinese Virtues Questionnaire-96 (CVQ-96) in simplified Chinese containing 96 items (4 items per strength) was adopted. Three subscales (interpersonal, vitality, and cautiousness) were developed after exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Conclusion: A theoretically meaningful 3-factor model of virtue, comparable to some virtue structures proposed in previous studies conducted in Western countries, was obtained. The inventories being developed can facilitate positive social work assessment and intervention.

Duan W., Ho S. M. Y., Tang X., Li T., & Zhang Y . ( 2014).

Character strength-based intervention to promote satisfaction with life in the Chinese university context

Journal of Happiness Studies, 15( 6), 1347-1361.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The present study examined the efficacy of a strength-based intervention program among Chinese undergraduates to increase satisfaction with life. A total of 285 undergraduates enrolled in an 18-week elective course participated in this study. A 2 (informed about the purposes of the intervention vs. not informed about the purposes of the intervention) 2 (strength-training intervention vs. experiential control) experimental design was adopted. The Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS) was completed during week two of the course to obtain the personal character strengths profile of each participant. The Satisfaction with Life Scale was adopted as an indicator for this study. Baseline (2nd week), short-term post-test (9th week), and long-term follow-up (18th week) test scores were obtained. All participants increased their satisfaction with life from the baseline to the peaks after the 6-week interventions, and then showed a slow downward trend. In the short-term, the students who were informed about the purpose of the study, as well as those in the strength-training group exhibited more increase in satisfaction with life. However, in the long-term, only those students in the strength-training group sustained the change in satisfaction with life. Strength-based intervention to promote satisfaction with life among Chinese undergraduates was effective. Placebo effect gradually decreased with the passage of time, and eventually disappeared. The results can facilitate the easy-to-use positive intervention in university context.

Eckstein, B.L. ( 2017).

The role of coaching in developing character strengths in leaders (Unpublished master’s thesis)

South Africa Stellenbosch University.

[本文引用: 1]

Emmons R. A. , & Mishra, A.(2011) .

Why gratitude enhances well- being: What we know, what we need to know

In K. M. Sheldon, T. B. Kashdan, & M. F. Steger (Eds.), Designing positive psychology: Taking stock and moving forward (pp. 248-262). NY: Oxford University Press.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

react-text: 461 De novo Parkinson's disease (PD) patients identified presence or absence of a unique shape presented with homogeneous distractors. Response time (RT) was examined as a function of prior experience with target and/or distractor assessing latent inhibition (LI; slower RTs to a target that was formerly a distractor against a background of distractors that were formerly targets as compared with a... /react-text react-text: 462 /react-text [Show full abstract]

Freidlin P., Littman-Ovadia H., & Niemiec R. M . ( 2017).

Positive psychopathology: Social anxiety via character strengths underuse and overuse

Personality and Individual Differences, 108, 50-54.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Based on an international sample of 238 adults, we found that general character strengths underuse and overuse were related to negative outcomes, while optimal use was related to positive outcomes. The overuse of social intelligence and humility, and underuse of zest, humor, self-regulation and social intelligence was associated with social anxiety. Using discriminant analysis, this combination successfully re-sorted 87.3% of the participants into those that do and do not have clinical levels of social anxiety. These findings suggest that strengths are in fact multifaceted, providing novel insight into the role that sub-optimal-use facets play in undesirable outcomes, providing a glimpse of psychopathology through the lens of positive psychology.

Gander F., Proyer R. T., Ruch W., & Wyss T . ( 2013).

Strength-based positive interventions: Further evidence for their potential in enhancing well-being and alleviating depression

Journal of Happiness Studies,14( 4), 1241-1259.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The impact of nine strengths-based positive interventions on well-being and depression was examined in an Internet-based randomized placebo-controlled study. The aims of the study were to: (1) replicate findings on the effectiveness of the gratitude visit, three good things, and using character strengths interventions; (2) test variants of interventions (noting three good things for 2 weeks; combining the gratitude visit and three good things interventions; and noting three funny things for a week); and (3) test the effectiveness of the counting kindness, gift of time, and another door opens-interventions in an online setting. A total of 622 adults subjected themselves to one of the nine interventions or to a placebo control exercise (early memories) and thereafter estimated their degrees of happiness and depression at five times (pre- and post-test, 1-, 3-, and 6 months follow-up). Eight of the nine interventions increased happiness; depression was decreased in all groups, including the placebo control group. We conclude that happiness can be enhanced through some "strengths-based" interventions. Possible mechanisms for the effectiveness of the interventions are discussed.

Gentry W. A., Cullen K. L., Sosik J. J., Chun J. U., Leupold C. R., & Tonidandel S . ( 2013).

Integrity’s place among the character strengths of middle-level managers and top-level executives

The Leadership Quarterly, 24( 3), 395-404.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

One purpose of this study was to extend integrity research in organizations into the ranks of middle management. We therefore examined whether middle-level managers' behavioral manifestations of integrity related to ratings of their performance. Results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that direct report ratings of a middle-level manager's integrity were positively related to boss ratings of that manager's performance. A second purpose of this study was to understand differences in integrity's relative importance to performance among other character strengths, and as a function of context (e.g., managerial level). We extend research in this area by showing, through relative weight analysis, that integrity was relatively less important to middle-level managers' current performance compared to other character strengths (e.g., social intelligence). In contrast, integrity was relatively more important for the performance of top-level executives roles middle-level managers may hold in the future. Implications of these results for future research and practice as well as the current study's limitations are discussed.

Haridas S., Bhullar N., & Dunstan D. A . ( 2017).

What's in character strengths? profiling strengths of the heart and mind in a community sample

Personality and Individual Differences, 113, 32-37.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The present study investigated a profile-based perspective of six dimensions of character strengths (i.e., heart strengths, heart/self-focused strengths, heart/others-focused strengths, mind strengths, mind/self-focused strengths, and mind/others-focused strengths), with the aim of identifying an optimal combination of Peterson's (2006) character strengths. A second aim was to examine whether profile membership was associated with mental health markers. We predicted that at least two qualitatively distinct profiles would emerge: the “heart” strengths profile and the “mind” strengths profile. We also predicted that a “heart” strengths profile would be more strongly associated with markers of mental health than a “mind” strengths profile. Respondents ( N 02=02595, M age 02=0234.1102years, SD 02=0213.18) completed measures assessing endorsement of character strengths and a range of mental health markers. A latent profile analysis identified an optimal 4-profile solution based on these six dimensions of strengths. Emergent profiles were Profile 1 ( Low Strengths ), Profile 2 ( Mind Strengths ), Profile 3 ( Heart Strengths ), and Profile 4 ( High Strengths ). As expected, profile membership was significantly associated with mental health markers. Notably, strengths of the heart (e.g., zest, hope, kindness) contributed to more favorable presentations. Therefore, cultivating strengths associated with the heart dimension might enhance mental health.

Harzer, C. (2016).

The eudaimonics of human strengths: The relations between character strengths and well-being

In J. Vittersø (Ed), Handbook of eudaimonic well-being (pp. 307-322). Berlin: Springer International Publishing.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Abstract The present chapter was aimed at presenting an overview of the findings on the relations between character strengths and well-being. In order to get a broader picture about these relations, not just eudaimonic well-being but also hedonic well-being was considered. Within the scope of the chapter at hand, focus was on subjective well-being as indicator of hedonic well-being as well as on psychological well-being as indicator of eudaimonic well-being. Following the definitions of these constructs, research findings on the correlations between character strengths and well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: positive affect, negative affect, and global life satisfaction; psychological well-being: environmental mastery, personal growth, purpose in life, autonomy, self-acceptance, and positive relationships) are presented. None of the character strengths systematically showed a correlation coefficient that indicated a detrimental relation between a strength and (indicators of) subjective and psychological well-being. On the contrary and as expected, character strengths seem to be important individual factors facilitating well-being. Across all indicators of well-being (i.e., subjective well-being and psychological well-being) zest, hope, and curiosity were the most substantial correlates among the character strengths. Moreover, in addition to zest, hope, and curiosity, further character strengths were relevant for specific indicators of subjective well-being and psychological well-being as well. In-depth interpretations of the most important relations are presented and discussed. Finally, concluding remarks and open questions are presented, and future directions for research are discussed.

Harzer, C., &Ruch, W . ( 2012).

When the job is a calling: The role of applying one’s signature strengths at work

The Journal of Positive Psychology, 7( 5), 362-371.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

This study investigates the role of applying the individual signature strengths at work for positive experiences at work (i.e. job satisfaction, pleasure, engagement, and meaning) and calling. A sample of 111 employees from various occupations completed measures on character strengths, positive experiences at work, and calling. Co-workers (N65=65111) rated the applicability of character strengths at work. Correlations between the applicability of character strengths and positive experiences at work decreased with intraindividual centrality of strengths (ranked strengths from the highest to the lowest). The level of positive experiences and calling were higher when four to seven signature strengths were applied at work compared to less than four. Positive experiences partially mediated the effect of the number of applied signature strengths on calling. Implications for further research and practice will be discussed.

Harzer, C., &Ruch, W . ( 2013).

The application of signature character strengths and positive experiences at work

Journal of Happiness Studies, 14( 3), 965-983.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

AbstractWe hypothesized that the amount of positive experiences at work (job satisfaction, pleasure, engagement, meaning) is a function of the extent to which the situational circumstances at the workplace allow for the application of an individual signature character strengths. For the description of the individual a reliable and valid instrument already exists, but not for the environment. Hence, the newly developed Applicability of Character Strengths Rating Scales (ACS-RS) with information on its reliability and validity were also presented. A sample of 1,111 adults filled in the ACS-RS and measures for possession of character strengths and positive experiences at work. The ACS-RS was reliable by means of internal consistency and inter-rater reliability. It proved to be valid in several ways being sensitive to: (a) the differences in the applicability of trait-relevant behavior in formal versus informal situations by showing higher applicability of the character strengths in the latter; (b) the differences between traits regarding their applicability across situations; (c) people disposition to choose situations fitting their dispositions by showing positive relationships between the degree of possession and applicability. Moreover, correlations between applicability of strengths and positive experiences increased with the individual centrality of the strengths. The more signature strengths were applied at the workplace, the higher the positive experiences at work. This study showed that character strengths matter in vocational environments irrespective of their content. Strengths-congruent activities at the workplace are important for positive experiences at work like job satisfaction and experiencing pleasure, engagement, and meaning fostered by one job.

Harzer, C., &Ruch, W . ( 2014).

The role of character strengths for task performance, job dedication, interpersonal facilitation, and organizational support

Human Performance, 27( 3), 183-205.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

It was hypothesized that character strengths relate to job performance. Both constructs were investigated with respect to their currently known dimensions (i.e., 24 character strengths; job performance: task performance, job dedication, interpersonal facilitation, organizational support) to get a comprehensive overview of their co-occurrence. Two samples, 318 and 108 employees, respectively, filled in measures assessing character strengths as traits and their usefulness at work, and the job performance dimensions. For Sample 2, also supervisors judged the employees job performance. Based on this set of two samples we show replicable associations between character strengths and job performance (self-reports and supervisory ratings). Furthermore, the number of individual strengths beneficial at work was related to job performance. These promising findings open a new field for research on human performance.

Harzer, C., &Ruch, W . ( 2015 a).

The relationships of character strengths with coping, work-related stress, and job satisfaction

Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 165.

URL     PMID:4341515      [本文引用: 3]

Personality traits have often been highlighted to relate to how people cope with stressful events. The present paper focuses on character strengths as positive personality traits and examines two basic assumptions that were derived from a core characteristic of character strengths (i.e., to determine how individuals deal with adversities): (1) character strengths correlate with coping and (2) buffer the effects of work-related stress on job satisfaction. Two different samples (i.e., a mixed sample representing various occupations [N = 214] and a nurses sample [N = 175]) filled in measures for character strengths, coping, work-related stress, and job satisfaction. As expected, intellectual, emotional, and interpersonal strengths were related to coping. Interpersonal strengths played a greater role for coping among nurses, as interactions with others are an essential part of their workday. Furthermore, intellectual strengths partially mediated the negative effect of work-related stress on job satisfaction. These findings open a new field for research on the role of personality in coping with work-related stress. Character strengths are trainable personal characteristics, and therefore valuable resources to improve coping with work-related stress and to decrease the negative effects of stress. Further research is needed to investigate this assumed causality.

Harzer, C., &Ruch, W . ( 2015 b).

Your strengths are calling: Preliminary results of a web-based strengths intervention to increase calling

Journal of Happiness Studies, 17( 6), 1-20.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Cross-sectional research indicated that the application of signature strengths at work seemed to be crucial for perceiving a job as a calling. The present study aimed at testing this assumed causality in a random-assignment, placebo-controlled web-based intervention study. The intervention group (n = 83) was instructed to use their four highest character strengths more often at work for 4 weeks. Meanwhile the control group (n = 69) reflected about four situations (independent from the current workplace) where they excelled. For the evaluation of the effects of the two conditions, participants completed measures on calling and global life satisfaction before (Pretest), directly after the four-week training period (Posttest 1), and 3 (Posttest 2) and 6 months (Posttest 3) later. Calling significantly increased in the intervention group but not in the control group from Pretest to Posttest 1, and remained constant until Posttest 3. Global life satisfaction significantly increased in the intervention group but not in the control group from Pretest to Posttest 2 and from Posttest 1 to Posttest 3. That indicated that the changes on global life satisfaction were less steep than the changes in calling and lagged, but significant long lasting changes were observed likewise. Results supported the assumption that the application of strengths at work impacts calling and life satisfaction. Limitations as well as implications for research and practice are discussed.

Hausler M., Strecker C., Huber A., Brenner M., Höge T., & Höfer S . ( 2017).

Distinguishing relational aspects of character strengths with subjective and psychological well-being

Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1159.

URL     PMID:5504157      [本文引用: 2]

Research has shown that character strengths are positively linked with well-being in general. However, there has not been a fine-grained analysis up to date. This study examines the individual relational aspects between the 24 character strengths, subjective well-being (SWB), and different aspects of psychological well-being (PWB) at two times of measurement (N= 117). Results showed that overall the “good character” was significantly stronger related with PWB than with SWB. The character strength “hope” was at least moderately correlated with the PWB aspects meaning, optimism and autonomy, and “zest” with the PWB aspects relationships and engagement. “Persistence” showed the highest correlation with the PWB aspect mastery. Out of the 24 character strengths, the happiness-related strengths (hope, zest, gratitude, curiosity, and love) were more likely to correlate with PWB and SWB than any other character strength. This study offers a more fine-grained and thorough understanding of specific relational aspects between the 24 character strengths and a broad range of well-being aspects. Future studies should take up a detailed strategy when exploring relationships between character strengths and well-being.

Ho S. M. Y., Li W. L., Duan W. J., Siu B. P. Y., Yau S., Yeung G., & Wong K . ( 2016).

A brief strengths scale for individuals with mental health issues

Psychological Assessment, 28( 2), 147-157.

URL     PMID:26029942     

Abstract Using their strengths and virtues enables individuals to build resilience and alleviate mental health issues. However, most existing instruments for measuring strengths are too lengthy to provide effective assessment for clinical screening. A brief instrument with good factorial and ecological validity is needed to measure strengths, especially among individuals with mental health issues. In this study, the authors developed a brief inventory, the Brief Strengths Scale-12 (BSS-12), to assess 3 strengths: Temperance Strength, Intellectual Strength, and Interpersonal Strength. Two studies were conducted. Study 1 was conducted in Hong Kong. Service recipients (n = 149) from a psychiatric rehabilitation organization were recruited to establish the factor structure and construct validity of the BSS-12. In Study 2, 203 university undergraduates from mainland China were recruited to examine the factorial invariance of the BSS-12 in a different culture and population. Each factor demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency, content validity, and discriminant validity. The BSS-12 may be a useful tool for assessing strengths in clinical and nonclinical settings for service planning and the evaluation of intervention effectiveness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

Huber A., Webb D., & Höfer S . ( 2017).

The German version of the strengths use scale: The relation of using individual strengths and well-being

Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 637.

URL     PMID:5406780      [本文引用: 1]

Theoretical perspectives in positive psychology have considered the possession and use of strengths equally but in applied research more studies focused on having them, probably due to the absence of psychometrically adequate scales. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the psychometric characteristics of the German language version of the Strengths Use Scale (SUS) and to explore relationships between strengths use and several indicator measures of well-being: the presence of positive and the absence of negative affect, self-esteem as identity aspect, vitality as self-regulatory resource, and stress for capturing the evaluation of difficulties and obstacles impinging on well-being. The original English version of the SUS was translated following recommended independent forward-backward translation techniques. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted, including a German-speaking convenience sample of university students (N= 374). Additionally, the relations of strengths use and well-being indicators were analyzed. Factorial validity revealed a single-factor structure of the German version of the SUS, explaining 58.4% variance (factor loadings: 0.58 to 0.86), approving the scale design and showing high internal consistency (Cronbach 0.95). The hypothesized positive relationships of strengths use with positive affect, self-esteem, and vitality were confirmed as well as the negative relationships with negative affect and stress. The German version of the SUS is psychometrically sound and data indicate that individual strengths use and well-being related measures interact. The instrument can be recommended for future research questions such as if and how the promotion of applying individual strengths during education enhances levels of well-being, or how the implementation of strengths use in job-design guidelines or working conditions can result in higher levels of well-being or healthiness.

Kalyar, M.N., &Kalyar, H . ( 2018).

Provocateurs of creative performance: Examining the roles of wisdom character strengths and stress

Personnel Review, 47( 8), 334-352.

[本文引用: 3]

Kieran, M. ( 2014).

Creativity, virtue and the challenges from natural talent, ill-being and immorality

Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement, 75( 4), 203-230.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

We praise and admire creative people in virtually every domain from the worlds of art, fashion and design to the fields of engineering and scientific endeavour. Picasso was one of the most influential artists of the twentieth century, Einstein was a creative scientist and Jonathan Ive is admired the world over as a great designer. We also sometimes blame, condemn or withhold praise from those who fail creatively; hence we might say that someone's work or ideas tend to be rather derivative and uninspired. Institutions and governmental advisory bodies sometimes aspire, claim or exhort us to enable individual creativity, whether this is held to be good for the individual as such or in virtue of promoting wider socio-economic goods. It is at least a common thought that people are more self-fulfilled if they are creative and society more generally is held to be all the better for enabling individual creativity.

Konradt B., Hirsch R. D., Jonitz M. F., & Junglas K . ( 2013).

Evaluation of a standardized humor group in a clinical setting: A feasibility study for older patients with depression

International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 28( 8), 850-857.

URL     PMID:23132732      [本文引用: 1]

Background Positive effects of humor on older patients with depressive symptoms have been repeatedly reported. Empirical evidence however is rare. We investigated the efficacy of a standardized humor therapy group in a clinical context especially for older depressed patients.Patients and methods An experimental group with treatment (49 patients) was compared with a control group with no treatment (50 patients) in a semi-randomized design. Included were patients with major depression according to ICD-10. A set of questionnaires (Geriatric Depression Scale, Short Form Health Survey, State-Trait-Cheerfulness Inventory, and Satisfaction with Life Scale) was administered pretreatment and posttreatment.Results Both groups showed improvement for depression, suicidal tendency, state cheerfulness, and state bad mood. Only participants of the humor group showed changes of state seriousness and satisfaction with life (pConclusion Our results indicate an additional benefit of this specific therapeutic intervention for older depressed patients. Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Kooij D. T. A. M., Van Woerkom M., Wilkenloh J., Dorenbosch L., & Denissen J. J . ( 2017).

Job crafting towards strengths and interests: The effects of a job crafting intervention on person-job fit and the role of age

Journal of Applied Psychology, 102( 6), 971-981.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Abstract We introduce 2 novel types of job crafting—crafting toward strengths and crafting toward interests—that aim to improve the fit between one’s job and personal strengths and interests. Based on Berg, Dutton, and Wrzesniewski (2013), we hypothesized that participating in a job crafting intervention aimed at adjusting the job to personal strengths and interests leads to higher levels of job crafting, which in turn will promote person–job fit. Moreover, we hypothesized that this indirect effect would be stronger for older workers compared with younger workers. Results of an experimental field study indicated that participating in the job crafting intervention leads to strengths crafting, but only among older workers. Strengths crafting was, in turn, positively associated with demands–abilities and needs–supplies fit. Unexpectedly, participating in the job crafting intervention did not influence job crafting toward interests and had a negative effect on crafting toward strengths among younger workers. However, our findings suggest that some types of job crafting interventions can indeed be an effective tool for increasing person–job fit of older workers.

Kristof, A.L. ( 1996).

Person-organization fit: An integrative review of its conceptualizations, measurement, and implications

Personnel Psychology, 49( 1), 1-49.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This article presents a comprehensive definition and conceptual model of person-organization fit that incorporates supplementary as well as complementary perspectives on fit. To increase the precision of the construct's definition, it is also distinguished from other forms of environmental compatibility, silch as person-group and person-vocation fit. Once defined, commensurate measurement as it relates to supplementary and complementary fit is discussed and recommendations are offered regarding the necessity of its use. A distinction is made between the direct measurement of perceived fit and the indirect measurement of actual person-organization fit, using both cross- and individual-level techniques, and the debate regarding differences scores is reviewed. These definitional and measurement issues frame a review of the existing literature, as well as provide the basis for specific research propositions and suggestions for managerial applications.

Kristof-Brown, A.L., &Billsberry, J . ( 2013).

Fit for the future

In A. L. Kristof-Brown & J. Billsberry (Eds.), Organizational fit: Key issues and new directions( pp. 1-18). Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Lavy, S., &Littman-Ovadia, H . ( 2016).

My better self: Using strengths at work and work productivity, organizational citizenship behavior, and satisfaction

Journal of Career Development, 44( 2), 95-109.

[本文引用: 1]

Lee J. N. T., Foo K. H., Adams A., Morgan R., & Frewen A . ( 2015).

Strengths of character, orientations to happiness, life satisfaction and purpose in Singapore

Journal of Tropical Psychology, 5, 1-21.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Positive psychology has identified six virtues comprising 24 character strengths of humans. This study examines the relationships among these character strengths, including Happiness, Life Purpose and Life Satisfaction as valued by Singapore Chinese, Malays, Indians and Other Asians and Caucasians. A sample of Singapore adults (N = 304) completed an online survey in English comprising four measures, the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths, the Orientations to Happiness Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Life Engagement Test. Results show that Zest, Hope, Curiosity, Capacity to Love and Gratitude are the top five character strengths of the sampled Singaporeans. Happiness orientation through pursuing a Life of Meaning is preferred by all four ethnic groups. Ethnic differences are found for character strengths of Kindness, Humour, Gratitude, and Religiousness and Spirituality. Life of Meaning and Life of Engagement, Happiness orientations and character strengths of Curiosity and Perseverance are direct predictors of Life Purpose. In turn, Life Purpose and character strengths of Capacity to Love and Gratitude are found to be direct predictors of Life Satisfaction. Despite its other limitations, this study lays the groundwork for future studies using more robust sampling strategies and greater participation from the major ethnic groups in Singapore.

Li T., Duan W., & Guo P . ( 2017).

Character strengths, social anxiety, and physiological stress reactivity

Peerj, 5( 5), e3396.

URL     PMID:5452949      [本文引用: 1]

In this paper, the effects of character strengths on the physiological reactivity to social anxiety induced by the Trier Social Stress Task were reported. On the basis of their scores in the Chinese Virtues Questionnaire, 30 college students were assigned to either high- (n= 15) or low-character-strength (n= 15) groups. Their psychological stress and physiological data across three laboratory stages (namely, baseline, stress exposure, and post-stress) were collected. Results indicated that individuals with high character strengths exhibited rapid cardiovascular recovery from baseline to post-stress even if high- and low-character-strength groups showed similar patterns of cardiovascular arousal in response to the stress at baseline and stress exposure. These results prove that character strengths are stress-defense factors that allow for psychological and physiological adaptation to stress.

Littman-Ovadia, H., &Lavy, S . ( 2016).

Going the extra mile: Perseverance as a key character strength at work

Journal of Career Assessment, 24( 2), 240-252.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Littman-Ovadia, H.,& Niemiec, R. M. (Eds).(2016).

Character strengths and mindfulness as core pathways to meaning in life. Clinical Perspectives on Meaning

Berlin: International Publishing.

[本文引用: 1]

Littman-Ovadia H., Lazar-Butbul V., & Benjamin B. A . ( 2013).

Strengths-based career counseling: Overview and initial evaluation

Journal of Career Assessment, 22( 3), 403-419.

[本文引用: 3]

Littman-Ovadia H., Lavy S., & Boiman-Meshita M . ( 2016).

When theory and research collide: Examining correlates of signature strengths use at work

Journal of Happiness Studies, 18( 2), 527-548.

URL    

Abstract Signature strengths are individuals highest-ranked strengths, those that they own, celebrate, and frequently exercise. Their use has been theorized to elicit positive affect, and contribute significantly to individuals functioning and well-being. The present study examined two elements of these ideas in the work arena: (a) Associations of strengths use at work with work outcomes (work meaningfulness, engagement, job satisfaction, performance, organizational citizenship behavior, and counterproductive work behaviors), focusing on differences in the associations of signature-strengths use, lowest-strengths use, and happiness strengths-use at work; (b) The role of positive affect in mediating these associations. The results, based on self-reports of an international sample of 1031 working individuals, generally indicated that the use of all kinds of strengths had positive correlates. As expected, using signature strengths had the highest, robust unique contribution to behavioral outcomes (performance, organizational citizenship behavior, and lower counterproductive work behavior). But unexpectedly, using happiness strengths (and not signature strengths) had the highest, robust unique contribution to psycho-emotional work-related outcomes (work meaningfulness, engagement, and job satisfaction). Positive affect mediated the association between strengths use and all work-related outcomes for the three kinds of strengths, when each was examined separately. However, when uses of the three kinds of strengths were examined together, positive affect mediated the effects of lowest strengths use and those of happiness strengths use, but not the effects of signature strengths use. These findings highlight the differential benefits of using different kinds of strengths, and suggest that additional (and different) mechanisms may underlie these effects.

Margelisch, K. ( 2017).

Character strengths, their valuing and their association with well-being in middle and older age (An exploratory research study)

(Unpublished doctorial dissertation).ZÜrich: Universität ZÜrich.

[本文引用: 1]

Martínez-Martí, M.L., &Ruch, W . ( 2014).

Character strengths and well-being across the life span: Data from a representative sample of German-speaking adults living in switzerland

Frontiers in Psychology, 5( 5), 1253.

URL     PMID:25408678      [本文引用: 1]

Character strengths are positive, morally valued traits of personality. This study aims at assessing the relationship between character strengths and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative affect) in a representative sample of German-speaking adults living in Switzerland (N = 945). We further test whether this relationship is consistent at different stages in life. Results showed that hope, zest, love, social intelligence and perseverance yielded the highest positive correlations with life satisfaction. Hope, zest, humor, gratitude and love presented the highest positive correlations with positive affect. Hope, humor, zest, honesty, and open-mindedness had the highest negative correlations with negative affect. When examining the relationship between strengths and well-being across age groups, in general, hope, zest and humor consistently yielded the highest correlations with well-being. Additionally, in the 27-36 years group, strengths that promote commitment and affiliation (i.e., kindness and honesty) were among the first five positions in the ranking of the relationship between strengths and well-being. In the 37-46 years group, in addition to hope, zest and humor, strengths that promote the maintenance of areas such as family and work (i.e., love, leadership) were among the first five positions in the ranking. Finally, in the 47-57 years group, in addition to hope, zest and humor, strengths that facilitate integration and a vital involvement with the environment (i.e., gratitude, love of learning) were among the first five positions in the ranking. This study partially supports previous findings with less representative samples on the association between character strengths and well-being, and sheds light on the relative importance of some strengths over others for well-being across the life span.

Martínez-Martí, M.L., &Ruch, W . ( 2016).

Character strengths predict resilience over and above positive affect, self-efficacy, optimism, social support, self-esteem, and life satisfaction

Journal of Positive Psychology, 12( 2), 110-119.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The incremental value of character strengths in the prediction of resilience, after the effects of other well-known resilience-related factors (i.e. positive affect, self-efficacy, optimism, social support, self-esteem, life satisfaction) and sociodemographic variables are accounted for, is examined. Using a cross-sectional design, participants (N = 363 adults) completed online measures of character strengths, resilience, and resilience-related factors. A principal component analysis of character strengths was conducted and five factors were extracted, which could be interpreted as emotional, interpersonal, intellectual, restraint, and theological strengths. All strengths factors, except theological strengths, yielded significant positive correlations with resilience. A hierarchical regression showed that strengths predicted an additional 3% of the variance in resilience over and above sociodemographic variables, positive affect, self-efficacy, optimism, social support, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Emotional strengths and strengths of restraint were significant positive predictors. Implications, limitations, and future research are discussed.

Marzec M. L., Scibelli A., & Edington D . ( 2015).

Impact of changes in medical condition burden index and stress on absenteeism among employees of a us utility company

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 8( 1), 15-33.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of changes of medical condition burden index (MCBI) and stress on absenteeism and discuss implications for policy/program design. Design/methodology/approach – Sample: US utility employees that participated in Health Risk Appraisals (HRA) during 2009 and 2010 (n=3,711). Methods: the MCBI was created by summing number of medical conditions. Absenteeism was measured from administrative records. Change in MCBI and stress and impact on absenteeism was assessed according to incremental change, by low/high categorizations, and by using multivariate regression. Findings – Incrementally, greater changes in MCBI or stress generally resulted in corresponding absenteeism change. For both MCBI and stress, high categories were associated with greater absenteeism compared to those in low categories. Those remaining in the low MCBI category decreased absenteeism (610.10 days/year; p=0.01). Changes from low to high MCBI resulted in increased absenteeism (+0....

Mitchell J., Stanimirovic R., Klein B., & Vella-Brodrick D . ( 2009).

A randomized placebo controlled trial of a self-guided internet intervention promoting well-being

Computers in Human Behavior, 25( 3), 749-760.

[本文引用: 1]

Murrell, L.K. ( 2015).

Character strengths and well-being: Differences in social activity among college students (Unpublished doctorial dissertation)

Oklahoma State University.

[本文引用: 1]

Neto J., Neto F., & Furnham A . ( 2014).

Gender and psychological correlates of self-rated strengths among youth

Social Indicators Research, 118( 1), 315-327.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Research on virtues and character strengths has increased over the last decade. A total of 283 young participants from Portugal completed a measure of character strengths (Furnham and Lester in Eur J Psychol Assess 28:95–101, 2012 ) grounded on the values in action inventory of strengths (Peterson and Seligman in Character strengths and virtues: a handbook of classification, APA Press, Washington, DC, 2004 ). Participants also completed well-being measures, and a Big Five personality trait measure. The study examined the factor structure of self-assessed character strengths as well as demographic (particularly gender), well-being and personality correlates of the virtues which are the “higher order” classification of the strengths. Our results provided evidence for a four-dimensional model, though somewhat different from the theoretical formulation. Females typically scored higher on character strengths than males. Regressions investigating demographic, well-being and personality determinants of these strengths evidenced personality factors (particularly openness and agreeableness) were always most powerful predictors of the self-reported strengths than demographic and well-being measures. Limitations of the research are discussed and directions for future investigation are suggested.

Niemiec, R.M. ( 2013).

Via character strengths: Research and practice (the first 10 years)

In H. H. Knoop & D. F. Antonella (Eds.), Well-being and cultures: perspectives from positive psychology( pp. 11-29). New York, NY: Springer Science+Business Media.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT The VIA Classification is a widely used framework for helping individuals discover, explore, and use those qualities that are strongest in them their character strengths. The VIA Inventory of Strengths is an accessible and widely used assessment instrument that measures 24 universally valued strengths. Research has found a number of important links between these character strengths and valued outcomes (e.g., life satisfaction, achievement). The practice of character strengths has not been studied as extensively; however, a number of practices, strength-based models, and applications are emerging with good potential.

Niemiec R. M. ( 2014).

Mindfulness and character strengths: A practical guide to flourishing

Cambridge, MA, US: Hogrefe Publishing.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Abstract The first third of the book reviews the latest research and best practices of mindfulness and of character strengths. The second third of the book outlines the integration of these areas, discussing practices and concepts around "strong mindfulness" (i.e., bringing character strengths to mindfulness practices) and "mindful strengths use" (i.e., bringing mindfulness to character strengths practices). The latter third of the book offers a manualized program called Mindfulness-Based Strengths Practice (MBSP) that integrates these areas of positive psychology. MBSP marks the first science-based program designed to work with character strengths and is one of the first mindfulness-programs designed to explicitly boost what is best in human beings rather than to counter illness, pain, and psychological/medical disorders. Handouts, audio CD with practices, lecture points, cautions, case examples, and intervention exercises are relayed to make it easy for researchers to study the 8-week MBSP program and for equipped practitioners to apply it with their clients. Adaptations to various settings and populations are discussed.

Niemiec, R M., Shogren, K A., & Wehmeyer, M L . ( 2016).

Character strengths and intellectual and developmental disability: A strengths-based approach from positive psychology

Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 52( 1), 13-25.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

There has been limited focus in the disability field on assessing and intervening to promote strengths of character. However, character strengths have received significant attention in the broader field of positive psychology. This paper provides an overview of the growing science of character strengths and explores why and how character strengths are relevant to people with intellectual and developmental disabilities and a strengths-based perspective in the disability field. We offer key concepts, research findings, and interventions from the science of character that can provide a framework for the intellectual and developmental disabilities field to begin to build on strengths of character to enhance the systems of supports and quality of life outcomes experienced by people with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

Park N. , & Peterson, C.(2006) .

Methodological issues in positive psychology and the assessment of character strengths

In A. D. Ong, & M. H. M. van Dulmen (Eds.), Handbook of methods in positive psychology (pp. 292-305).New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Peterson, C., &Park, N . ( 2006).

Character strengths in organizations

Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27( 8), 1149-1154.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

Character refers to qualities within individuals that lead them to desire and to pursue the good. We propose that strengths of character are a neglected but critically important resource for organizations. Character matters because it leads people to do the right thing, and the right thing can be productive and profitable.

Peterson C., Park N ., & Seligman, M. E. P. ( 2006).

Greater strengths of character and recovery from illness

Journal of Positive Psychology, 1( 1), 17-26.

URL     [本文引用: 3]

How are character strengths related to recovery? A retrospective web-based study of 2087 adults found small but reliable associations between a history of physical illness and the character strengths of appreciation of beauty, bravery, curiosity, fairness, forgiveness, gratitude, humor, kindness, love of learning, and spirituality. A history of psychological disorder and the character strengths of appreciation of beauty, creativity, curiosity, gratitude, and love of learning were also associated. A history of problems was linked to decreased life satisfaction, but only among those who had not recovered. In the case of physical illness, less of a toll on life satisfaction was found among those with the character strengths of bravery, kindness, and humor, and in the case of psychological disorder, less of a toll on life satisfaction was found among those with the character strengths of appreciation of beauty and love of learning. We suggest that recovery from illness and disorder may benefit character. 'Tis an ill wind that blows no good.

Peterson C., Ruch W., Beermann U., Park N ., & Seligman, M. E. P. ( 2007).

Strengths of character, orientations to happiness, and life satisfaction

Journal of Positive Psychology, 2( 3), 149-156.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Why are certain character strengths more associated with life satisfaction than others? A sample of US adults (N65=6512,439) completed online surveys in English measuring character strengths, orientations to happiness (engagement, pleasure, and meaning), and life satisfaction, and a sample of Swiss adults (N65=65445) completed paper-and-pencil versions of the same surveys in German. In both samples, the character strengths most highly linked to life satisfaction included love, hope, curiosity, and zest. Gratitude was among the most robust predictors of life satisfaction in the US sample, whereas perseverance was among the most robust predictors in the Swiss sample. In both samples, the strengths of character most associated with life satisfaction were associated with orientations to pleasure, to engagement, and to meaning, implying that the most fulfilling character strengths are those that make possible a full life.

Peterson C. , & Seligman, M. E. P. (Eds).(2004) .

Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification Oxford University Press, USA A handbook and classification

Oxford University Press, USA .

[本文引用: 6]

Petkari, E., &Ortiz-Tallo, M . ( 2018).

Towards youth happiness and mental health in the united arab emirates: The path of character strengths in a multicultural population

Journal of Happiness Studies, 19( 2), 333-350.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Abstract Happiness, good mental health and the possession of character strengths have been proposed in the context of positive psychology as important conditions for achieving a life full of gratification. However, there is a scarcity of studies examining those conditions in Eastern cultural contexts, in order to replicate findings from the Western countries. In this vein, the present study aims to explore the influence of strengths on happiness and mental health in the multicultural context of United Arab Emirates and it is hypothesised that certain strengths are better predictors of happiness and mental health than others, also after controlling for potential sociodemographic confounders. A sample of young university students, in the majority coming from eastern countries was assessed through the Global Happiness Scale, the GHQ-12 and the VIA-IS-120. The results of the regression analyses revealed that the group of character strengths under the denomination of Transcendence together with being young was associated with higher levels of happiness and better mental health. In addition, the possession of strengths of Restraint was associated with less happiness, whilst being a man indicated a better mental health. Such results have important implications regarding the replication of previous results from Western contexts in the context of UAE, highlighting the need for implementation of culturally context-tailored strategies for achieving happiness and mental health through the use of character strengths.

Proyer R. T., Gander F., Wellenzohn S., & Ruch W . ( 2013).

What good are character strengths beyond subjective well-being? the contribution of the good character on self-reported health-oriented behavior, physical fitness, and the subjective health status

The Journal of Positive Psychology, 8( 3), 222-232.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Character strengths were tested in relation to subjective (life satisfaction) and physical (self-evaluated health and physical fitness) well-being (440 adults). Health-behaviors and the mediating role of health-behaviors in explaining the relationship between character and well-being were also considered. Emotional, intellectual strengths and strengths of the heart were positively associated with life satisfaction and physical fitness. Emotional strengths correlated positively with the self-evaluation of feeling healthy. All strengths (except for modesty and religiousness) were related to health-behaviors; e.g. healthy eating and watching ones food consumption were associated with self-regulation and intellectual strengths. Health behaviors partially mediated the relation of broader strengths factors on subjective and physical well-being. The largest indirect effects were found for leading an active way of life. The study suggests that there are positive relations between character strengths and subjective but also physical well-being. Furthermore, potential mechanisms, which might account for these relations (i.e. health-behaviors) are assessed.

Proyer R. T., Gander F., Wellenzohn S., & Ruch W . ( 2015).

Strengths -based positive psychology interventions: A randomized placebo-controlled online trial on long-term effects for a signature strengths - vs. a lesser strengths- intervention

Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 456.

[本文引用: 1]

Proctor C., Maltby J., & Linley P. A . ( 2011).

Strengths use as a predictor of well-being and health-related quality of life

Journal of Happiness Studies, 12( 1), 153-169.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

AbstractThere is a growing body of research devoted to the examination of character strengths as conceptualized by Values-In-Action (VIA) strengths classification system. However, there remains a dearth of research examining generic strengths use and its relationship with well-being, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and VIA character strengths. In this crosssectional study, 135 undergraduate university students completed measures of strengths use, subjective well-being (SWB), self-esteem, self-efficacy, and HRQOL, and endorsed five top VIA strengths. Results revealed strengths use is a unique predictor of SWB, but not HRQOL. The VIA strengths of hope and zest were significant positive predictors of life satisfaction. The most commonly-endorsed VIA strengths were: love, humor, kindness, social intelligence, and open-mindedness. The least-endorsed VIA strengths were: leadership, perseverance, wisdom, spirituality, and self-control. Overall, results suggest an important link between generic strengths use and specific VIA strengths and their impact on SWB.

Proctor C., Tsukayama E., Wood A. M., Maltby J., Eades J. F., & Linley P. A . ( 2011).

Strengths gym: The impact of a character strengths-based intervention on the life satisfaction and well-being of adolescents

Journal of Positive Psychology, 6( 5), 377-388.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This preliminary research study examined the impact of Strengths Gym, a character strengths-based positive psychological intervention program, on adolescent life satisfaction. Using a quasi-experimental treatment-control condition design, the study compared student outcomes for life satisfaction, positive and negative affect, and self-esteem for 319 adolescent students aged 12–14 (M65=6512.98): 218 adolescent students who participated in character strengths-based exercises in the school curriculum, and 101 adolescent students who did not participate in character strengths-based exercises in the school curriculum. Results revealed that adolescents who participated in character strengths-based exercises experienced significantly increased life satisfaction compared to adolescents who did not participate in character strengths-based exercises. Overall, results provide encouraging preliminary support for the application of character strengths-based exercises in the school curriculum as a means of increasing life satisfaction and well-being among youths.

Quinlan D., Swain N., & Vella-Brodrick D. A . ( 2012).

Character strengths interventions: Building on what we know for improved outcomes

Journal of Happiness Studies, 13( 6), 1145-1163.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract these interventions work may facilitate development of more effective interventions, while expanding the field of character strengths interventions to include a broader range of activities and approaches may also offer benefits. Research examining individual factors, such as strengths use, psychological need satisfaction, goal-setting and goal-striving provides promising leads to explain how strengths interventions work. However, the effect on intervention efficacy of relational or contextual factors, such as intervention environment or facilitator attitude to strengths, has not yet been explored. Implications for interventions in school settings are considered.

Raimundi M. J., Schmidt V., & HernÁndez-Mendo A . ( 2018).

Exploratory study about character strengths in argentinean athletes from youth national teams: comparison with adolescents from different levels of practice

Revista Iberoamericana De Psicologia Del Ejercicio Y El Deporte, 13( 1), 101-110.

[本文引用: 2]

Ruch W., Gander F., Platt T., & Hofmann J . ( 2016).

Team roles: Their relationships to character strengths and job satisfaction

Journal of Positive Psychology, 13( 2), 190-199.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Well-functioning teamwork has frequently been linked to increased work satisfaction and performance. However, there is a paucity of research on the different types of roles in teams. Recently, a new model of role behavior in teams was proposed (comprising seven such team roles: Idea creator, information gatherer, decision-maker, implementer, influencer, energizer, and relationship manager), but an assessment instrument was lacking so far. The present study describes the construction of an instrument for the assessment of these roles in two samples (N = 291 and 274) and examines their relationships with character strengths and job satisfaction. Results show that the team roles are positively related to job satisfaction and most character strengths. The findings support the important role of character strengths in work-related settings and lay ground for further studies on team roles.

Sartika, D., &Mardiawan, O . ( 2016).

The contribution of character strength to the hotel industry employees’ performance in Bandung

International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 6( 12), 958-962.

[本文引用: 1]

Seligman, M. E.P. ( 1998).

Building human strength: Psychology's forgotten mission

APA Monitor, 29( 1), 4.

[本文引用: 1]

Seligman, M. E.P., &Csikszentmihalyi, M . ( 2000).

Positive psychology: An introduction

Flow and the Foundations of Positive Psychology, 55( 1), 5-14.

[本文引用: 2]

Seligman M. E. P., Steen T. A., Park N., & Peterson C . ( 2005).

Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions

American Psychologist, 60( 5), 410-421.

URL     PMID:16045394     

Abstract Positive psychology has flourished in the last 5 years. The authors review recent developments in the field, including books, meetings, courses, and conferences. They also discuss the newly created classification of character strengths and virtues, a positive complement to the various editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (e. g., American Psychiatric Association, 1994), and present some cross-cultural findings that suggest a surprising ubiquity of strengths and virtues. Finally, the authors focus on psychological interventions that increase individual happiness. In a 6-group, random-assignment, placebo-controlled Internet study, the authors tested 5 purported happiness interventions and 1 plausible control exercise. They found that 3 of the interventions lastingly increased happiness and decreased depressive symptoms. Positive interventions can supplement traditional interventions that relieve suffering and may someday be the practical legacy of positive psychology.

Shek D. T. L., Sun R. C. F., & Liu T. T . ( 2015).

Character strengths in Chinese philosophies: Relevance to service leadership

International Journal on Disability and Human Development, 14( 4), 309-318.

[本文引用: 1]

Smith, M.R. ( 2011).

The relationship between character strengths and work satisfaction

(Unpublished doctorial dissertation). Retrieved from Pro-Quest Dissertations and Theses database. University of Otago, New Zealand.

[本文引用: 1]

Snyder C. R. , & Lopez, S. J. (Eds).(2002) . Handbook of positive psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.

[本文引用: 2]

Sosik J. J., Gentry W. A., & Chun J. U . ( 2012).

The value of virtue in the upper echelons: A multisource examination of executive character strengths and performance

Leadership Quarterly, 23( 3), 367-382.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Previous research on upper echelon (i.e., top-level) executives has focused on how character flaws or lapses in ethical judgment lead to detrimental outcomes. Research is lacking that specifically examines whether character strengths that are reflected in the behaviors of top-level executives are related to positive outcomes. Therefore, this study examined behavioral manifestations of the character strengths of integrity, bravery, perspective, and social intelligence as influences on executive performance in the context of top-level executive leadership of for-profit and not-for profit organizations. Using matched-report data from 191 top-level, U.S. executives' direct reports and bosses and board members, this study found positive relationships between direct reports' ratings of executive integrity, bravery, and social intelligence and bosses' and board members' ratings of executive performance. These character strengths each accounted for variance in executive performance above and beyond direct reports' ratings of executives' developing and empowering behaviors and other control variables. Among the character strengths examined, integrity was found to have the most contribution in explaining variance in executive performance via relative weight analysis. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

Thun, B., &Kelloway, E.K . ( 2011).

Virtuous leaders: Assessing character strengths in the workplace

Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 28( 3), 270-283.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Three studies were conducted to build, test, and compare a model of character-based leadership. The first qualitative study used the critical incident technique (Flanagan, 1949) and Peterson and Seligman's (2004) comprehensive theoretical framework of character strengths to develop and construct a scale. The second study tested the scale's psychometric properties. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that character-based leadership is a three-dimensional construct and demonstrates adequate content validity. The third study tested the new scale against organizational and personal outcome measures. The resulting structural model provided a strong fit. Relationships emerged between leader wisdom and employee affective commitment, leader humanity and employee wellbeing, employee organizational citizenship behaviours (OCBs), employee cognitive trust, and employee affective trust, and between leader temperance and employee trust. Copyright 2011 ASAC. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Wade N. G., Hoyt W. T., Kidwell J. E. M ., & Worthington, E. L. Jr. ( 2014).

Efficacy of psychotherapeutic interventions to promote forgiveness: A meta-analysis

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 82( 1), 154-170.

[本文引用: 1]

White M. A., Vrodos J., & McNeil T . ( 2015)

Student leadership, well-being and service: Integrating appreciative inquiry, strengths and leadership

In M. White. A. Murray (Eds.), Evidence-based approaches in positive education ( pp. 151-165). Berlin: Springer Netherlands.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Student leadership development is often touted as an important aspect of character development in schools. However, many school leaders find themselves in positions of responsibility without a few models of student leadership to help conceptualize their approach. While it is easy to say that they can learn this on the job, there is a benefit in adopting a systematic approach to leadership development. This chapter documents the reflection of two student leaders throughout 2012–2013, and the integration of well-being concepts in their leadership style at St. Peter’s College, Adelaide. It reports on an Appreciative Inquiry Summit the student leaders designed and delivered after a consultation with Martin Seligman, David Cooperrider, and Lea Waters. This chapter is a case study of their leadership experience and demonstrates the process they adopted to contribute to the school’s vision and mission throughout the year. John Vrodos and Tom McNeil were Captain and Vice-captain of St. Peter’s College, Adelaide in 2013. From the outset and throughout the year, these student leaders decided to integrate well-being and positive psychology approaches in their leadership. This chapter is a co-authored reflection of their experiences in 2013, with particular reference to a National Student Leadership Summit the boys hosted. Student leadership has long been a feature of St. Peter’s College, Adelaide. The origins of the prefect structure can be linked to the educational philosophy of Dr. Thomas Arnold that swept through the British Empire at the height of colonial expansion. With the rise of Victorian England, it was natural that colonial versions of the great English public schools, like St. Peter’s College, would adopt this approach, drawing on the experience of schools such as Eton, Winchester, Harrow, and Rugby.

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