心理科学进展, 2018, 26(12): 2153-2160 doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.02153

研究前沿

幼儿对所有权权利的理解

李占星1, 牛更枫1, 喻丰,1, 朱莉琪,2

1. 西安交通大学人文社会科学学院社会心理学研究所, 西安 710049

2. 中国科学院行为科学重点实验室, 中国科学院心理研究所, 北京 100101

Preschoolers’ understanding of ownership rights

LI Zhanxing1, NIU Gengfeng1, YU Feng,1, ZHU Liqi,2

1. Institute of Social Psychology, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China;

2. CAS Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Beijing 100101, China

通讯作者: 朱莉琪, E-mail: zhulq@psych.ac.cn ; 喻丰, E-mail: yufengx@xjtu.edu.cn

收稿日期: 2018-01-2   网络出版日期: 2018-12-15

基金资助: *中国博士后基金资助.  2018M633484

Received: 2018-01-2   Online: 2018-12-15

摘要

对物品的所有权意味着所有者对所有物具有多重权利, 如触碰、使用、更改、追踪和转移等。研究发现, 3岁幼儿就能理解, 所有者对自己的物品具有触碰权和使用权, 而他人不具有。但是, 他们理解所有物的更改权、追踪权和转移权, 却相对滞后。这提示对不同所有权权利表征的发展可能是分化的。此外, 3岁幼儿还理解所有者具有赋予他人使用所有物的权利, 还会积极维护这种权利, 并对阻止权利实施的行为表示抗议, 说明他们也能理解二级所有权权利。为什么幼儿对不同所有权权利的表征会出现分化, 其背后的机制需要未来研究的探索。此外, 某些公共物品(如公共汽车)本身存在着所有权权利相分离的情况, 幼儿是如何表征的, 也值得我们进行研究。不同文化对所有权权利的侧重不同, 提示我们有必要对所有权权利认知的发展进行跨文化检验。

关键词: 所有权权利 ; 所有权三元理论 ; 多维权利理论 ; 二级所有权权利

Abstract

To own an object means that the owner has many informative rights to the object, such as touching, using, changing, tracking and transferring. Research revealed that 3-year-old children understand that an owner have exclusive rights to touch and use his/her own objects but others do not, but their understandings of owners’ rights to change, track and transfer property are relatively poorer. This indicates that the development of children’s representation of ownership rights may not be synchronous. Three-year- olds understand that an owner has right to entitle others to use his/her property, and actively maintain this. When someone prevents the enforcement of this right, they will protest. This demonstrates that young children are aware of second-order ownership rights. In future studies, the mechanisms underlying the dissociation among representations of different ownership rights should be explored. Besides, it is worthwhile investigating how children represent ownership rights of public property (such as buses). Different cultures may put different weight on specific ownership right, which calls for more cross-cultural studies.

Keywords: ownership right ; tripartite account of ownership right ; multi-dimensional account of ownership right ; second-order entitlements

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本文引用格式

李占星, 牛更枫, 喻丰, 朱莉琪. (2018). 幼儿对所有权权利的理解. 心理科学进展, 26(12), 2153-2160

LI Zhanxing, NIU Gengfeng, YU Feng, ZHU Liqi. (2018). Preschoolers’ understanding of ownership rights. Advances in Psychological Science, 26(12), 2153-2160

所有权在人们的日常生活中起着重要作用, 是维系正常社会关系的纽带(Bertram, 2014; Blumenthal, 2009; Friedman & Ross, 2011)。所有权决定了我们对自己的所有物享有一些他人无法享有的权利, 如触碰、使用、变更、追踪等(Nancekivell, Millar, Summers, & Friedman, 2016)。人们只有理解了所有权蕴含的这些权利, 才能更好地维护自己的利益, 并对他人的物品示以尊重, 避免社交冲突的发生。

因所有权而引发的物品冲突是幼儿生活中最常见、最频繁以及最激烈的社交冲突之一(Ross & Conant, 1992)。观察研究表明, 2岁左右的孩子就经常因为物品发生冲突(Ross, Friedman, & Field, 2015; Ross, 2013)。与此相对的是, 一些研究发现, 幼儿很早就能基于所有权原则(如先占)判断所有权(Nancekivell, Van de Vondervoort, & Friedman, 2013; 李占星, 朱莉琪, 2016)。其中可能的原因是, 幼儿虽然理解所有权原则, 但是对所有权权利的理解却是分化的, 这需要我们对所有权权利认知的发展进行考察和分析。

1 所有权权利的内涵

所有权是一个抽象概念, 反映的是人与物之间的一种占有关系(Bertram, 2014; Friedman & Ross, 2011)。我们不能仅凭物品的外观(如颜色、大小)和状态(如它被一个人使用)来决定他是谁的, 而只能通过人与物之间的关系推理。这一抽象概念的复杂性还反映在其所包含的权利维度上。一些早期的理论家对所有权权利提出了自己的见解(Merrill, 1998; Snare, 1972)。Snare (1972)认为, 所有权意味着所有者对自己的所有物享有三种基本的权利:(1)使用权:即所有者具有使用自己物品的权利; (2)排他权:即在未经所有者同意的情况下, 所有者享用拒绝他人使用自己物品的权利; (3):转移权:即所有者具有将自己的物品及对应权利转移给他人的权利。这一理论被后人称为所有权的三元理论(tripartite account of ownership right), 并对后来的研究产生了广泛的影响。

所有权的三元理论阐明了所有权具有不同的权利维度, 同时将所有物的使用、转移以及排他权作为三种基本的权利, 这为后来的研究者研究所有权是如何表征的提供了借鉴(Bertram, 2014; Hook, 1993)。但是, 这一理论也受到了一些研究者的质疑。有些研究者认为, 所有权可能不只包含三个维度, 一些很重要的权利并没有纳入到该权利理论之下(Ross, 1996; Van de Vondervoort & Friedman, 2015; Van de Vondervoort, Meinz, & Friedman, 2017)。比如, 所有权事实上还包括对自己物品的触碰权利和追踪权利。在未经他人许可的情况下, 触碰和追踪他人的物品都被认为是对所有权的侵犯, 是不可接受的。此外, 使用事实上也包含不同的内涵, 不仅暗示个体能够持有自己的物品, 还暗示着所有者可以更改和处置自己的物品。相应地, 排他权也不应该简单地界定为拒绝他人使用自己的物品的权利, 还应包括拒绝他人触碰、更改、追踪和转移自己物品的权利。该理论认为所有权不仅包含着三种权利, 而是包含着多个维度, 因此被称为所有权的多维权利理论(multi-dimensional account of ownership right)。

此外, 还有学者认为, 只有排他权才是所有权的核心权利, 因为只有该权利能赋予所有者对所有物的绝对权利(Merrill, 1998; Nancekivell & Friedman, 2014)。Nancekivell和Friedman (2014)呈现幼儿一个物品和一个主体, 或者告诉幼儿主体拥有这个物品, 或者告知这个物品属于另外的一个人。要求幼儿列出主体可能使用该物品的所有方式。结果发现, 两种条件下幼儿列出的内容有所不同。在告知该主体拥有该物品的条件下幼儿列出了更多的使用方式, 而在告知该物品属于另外一个人的时候, 幼儿回答主体应将物品归还给他人, 或者回答主体对该物品有更多的限制行为(如不能触碰或改变)。研究结果支持排他权是所有权的核心权利的假设, 并且表明幼儿就能对这一核心权利进行表征。

以上理论仅仅是针对日常的私人所有物所提出的。所有物有私有和公有之分, 对于私人所有物, 其所有权通常指向于特定的个体; 而对于公共所有物, 其所有权通常指向于多个人或者群体(如班级、国家等)。相比于私人所有物, 公共所有物的权利可能更加复杂。公共所有物中的个体通常具有使用公共物品的权利, 而不具有占有和转移公共物品的权利 (Corlatean, Popescu-Cruceru, & Asmarandei, 2012)。公共汽车司机具有驾驶汽车的权利, 但是并不占有汽车, 也不能对其进行买卖。此外, 集体还通常以制度的形式, 对公共物品的所有权权利进行限制, 并且在不同的时期有不同的表现(如在我国的某些时期, 土地是不可以转让的), 这说明公共物品的所有权权利更加受社会制度的制约。目前尚没有系统的理论专门探讨过公共所有物的权利维度区分, 需要理论界加以重视。

2 幼儿对不同所有权权利的理解

尽管关于所有权的权利维度究竟如何, 目前还存在分歧, 但是有不少的实证研究基于多维权利理论的视角, 考察了幼儿的所有权权利表征, 并且发现幼儿对这些权利的理解存在发展差异。这些研究主要针对私人物品的所有权权利, 集中在所有物的触碰权、使用权、变更权、追踪权和转移权五个方面, 并且将对排他权的理解融入对这些权利的理解当中进行研究。这些实证研究的结果对于我们了解幼儿抽象概念的发展以及所有权权利的内涵, 具有重要价值。

2.1 幼儿对所有物触碰权的理解

所有者具有触碰自身物品的权利, 同时具有排除他人接触自己物品的权利。除非获得所有者的许可, 所有者可以拒绝他人接触自己的物品(Kanngiesser & Hood, 2014; Rossano, Rakoczy, & Tomasello, 2011)。这可能跟个体推理他人接触物品的意图相联系, 因为接触别人的物品易被推测为图谋不轨。观察研究表明, 当别人接触自己的物品的时候, 相比于接触别人的物品的时候, 3岁幼儿会表示出更多的抗议(Kanngiesser & Hood, 2014), 即便两个物品在外观上是一模一样的也是如此(McEwan, Pesowski, & Friedman, 2016)。Rossano等(2011)采用游戏法, 考察了2~3岁幼儿对物品接触权利的理解。游戏中一个玩偶试图接近一个物品, 该物品或者为玩偶自身所有, 或者为被试所有, 或者为第三方所有。结果发现, 当玩偶接近属于被试的物品的时候, 2~3岁幼儿都会表示抗议; 当玩偶接近属于第三方的物品的时候, 3岁幼儿的抗议行为显著多于2岁幼儿; 而当玩偶接近属于玩偶自己的物品的时候, 幼儿不会表示抗议。这提示, 2~3岁幼儿的所有权表征和对物品的接触权利是关联的, 不经同意的接触行为被视为侵犯所有权, 需要加以制止。

Van de Vondervoort等(2015, 2017)考察了4~7岁儿童对触碰不同物品和身体部位可接受性的判断。结果发现, 儿童的判断会受到物品和身体部位归属及所有者是否赞成的影响。当触碰行为得到所有者赞成的时候, 不管触碰的目标属于谁, 被试都认为触碰是可以接受的。而当所有者不赞成的时候, 这种判断会受到触碰目标归属的影响。只有触碰的物品或者身体部位属于触碰者自己的时候, 才被判断为行为是可接受的。这说明, 幼儿理解所有权在对物品的接触权利中起着重要作用, 并且这一理解跟对身体部位接触权利的理解是类似的。

为什么幼儿会将物品的接触权利跟所有权关联起来?这可能跟所有权的历史演化有关。一些研究者(Brosnan, 2011; Stake, 2004)指出, 人类最早的所有权思想起源于动物的领地意识。当一个族群试图接近另一个族群的领地时, 会遭到另一个族群的强烈反对。在人类的游戏中, 仍能发现这种领地意识的痕迹(DeScioli & Wilson, 2011)。这种领地意识可能随着文明的发展逐渐泛化到跟“自我”相关的物品中去。凡属于自己的物品皆被纳入拒斥他人接近的范围之中, 构成所有权权利的一部分。该解释能很好地说明动物的领地行为与人类所有权行为的相近性, 但还需要比较心理学的进一步验证。

2.2 幼儿对所有物使用权的理解

使用权是所有权权利的一个重要方面。观察研究发现, 2岁左右的幼儿在游戏情境中会通过申明所有权(如“它是我的”)的方式坚持对自己物品的使用权(Dixon, 2015)。3岁幼儿会基于所有权预测行为者会使用自己的工具, 而不会使用他人的工具(Pesowski & Friedman, 2018)。这些研究提示幼儿很早就将使用权与所有权关联起来。

一种考察幼儿理解所有物使用权利的方式, 是对他们在冲突情境中对使用者和所有者的支持程度进行评价。一些研究发现, 幼儿对所有者使用权利的坚持, 甚至超过了成人(Neary & Friedman, 2014)。Neary和Friedman (2014)以3~5岁的幼儿和成人为被试, 给他们呈现一个故事, 故事中一个人正在使用一件物品(如一个蜡笔)。这件物品或者属于另一个人, 或者无人所有。在前一种条件下, 物品所有者也想用这件物品, 在物品无人所有条件下, 另一个人也想用这件物品。幼儿在前一种条件下更倾向于支持所有者使用该物品, 而成人则没有表现出这种倾向。与此相对, 在无人所有条件下, 儿童和成人都更支持使用者继续使用该物品。研究还引入一个道德困境故事, 故事中一个主体想要用所有者的物品阻止给动物造成的伤害(如用一只鱼网捞起一只落入水里的狗), 但是所有者不想使用者使用该物品。结果发现, 3岁幼儿虽未表现出对所有者的明显支持, 但是他们比4~5岁的幼儿更支持所有者。以上结果提示, 幼儿比成人更倾向于坚持所有者对物品的使用权利, 而成人则表现出一定程度的分离。后天经验在塑造这种转变的过程中可能起着重要作用。儿童可能逐渐学习到, 在某些情境下人们不得不考虑使用者的心情和使用目的, 此时需要将物品的使用权与所有权相分离, 这对于维系良好的社会关系具有重要意义。

另一种检验幼儿理解所有物使用权利的途径, 来自他们对物品使用的解释(Nancekivell & Friedman, 2017)。当要求3~5岁的幼儿解释为什么一个人可以使用一件物品(如帽子或书)时, 年长幼儿利用所有权解释原因(如“因为这是她的”)的概率高于其他解释, 且随着年龄增长, 幼儿越来越倾向于利用所有权解释原因。3岁幼儿虽然不常使用所有权解释为什么一个人可以使用某物品, 但他们会频繁地使用所有权解释为什么一个人不可以使用某物品, 特别是当告诉他们所有权信息(如告知他们使用的一件物品属于另一个人)的时候更是如此。年长儿童并未表现出两种条件之间的差异(Nancekivell & Friedman, 2017)。这可能跟幼儿记忆搜索能力的发展有关。在解释为什么一个人可以使用一件物品时, 幼儿需要在记忆中搜索更多的可能性, 这相对降低了他们利用所有权来解释的倾向。

2.3 幼儿对所有物更改权利的理解

所有权意味着所有者不仅可以使用自己的物品, 还可以对所有物进行更改, 而其他人则不能。在一项研究(Sheridan, Konopasky, Kirkwood, & Defeyter, 2016)中, 研究者分给3~7岁的儿童一些工具, 指定其中的一部分是儿童自己的, 一部分是实验者的。儿童需要利用这些工具解决所面对的问题(如用棍子把水桶从管道里弄出来)。结果发现, 相比于指定给自己的工具, 5岁及以上的儿童会尽力避免更改实验者的工具以解决问题。还有研究(Shaw, Li, & Olson, 2012)发现, 6~8岁的儿童会判断, 对于一个智力客体(如故事)而言, 除了所有者之外, 其他人无权改变它(如改变故事的结尾)。这些结果提示, 5~6岁幼儿将更改权视为所有者权利的一个重要方面。

另一些研究则提示, 幼儿对更改权的表征和所有权可能是分离的, 并且依赖于情境(Kim & Kalish, 2009)。Kim和Kalish (2009)采用捡物、购买、借用、赠予等四类故事, 要求4~5岁幼儿、7~8岁儿童和成人判断发生这四类转移之后, 原持有者还是新持有者能够以新的方式改变物品。结果发现, 在捡物和借物情境下, 儿童和成人均支持原所有者可以以新的方式改变物品。而在购买和赠予情境下, 4~5幼儿判断物品所有权发生了转移, 但是否认购买者和礼物接受者可以以新的方式改变物品。这一结果说明, 幼儿对所有权更改权的理解跟对所有权的表征可能是脱节的, 特别是当所有物发生了转移的时候。

2.4 幼儿对所有物追踪权利的理解

人们通常以追踪的方式维系跟所有物之间的占有状态。对自己的物品进行追踪会让人产生心理安慰, 而追踪别人的物品则会令人不快。小至3岁的幼儿就能通过追踪历史线索识别自己的所有物(Gelman, Manczak, Was, & Noles, 2016; Gelman, Noles, & Stilwell, 2014)。Gelman等人(2016)指定两个一模一样的物品中的一个属于幼儿并对其进行标记, 之后将两个物品的位置进行多次变换, 结果发现, 3岁幼儿会通过追踪标记线索找到自己的物品。这说明, 至少从3岁起, 追踪所有物的行为就已经出现。

近期的一项研究通过定向追踪任务考察了3~10岁儿童和成人对不同物品追踪权利的理解(Gelman, Martinez, Davidson, & Noles, 2018)。研究首先让儿童在一台电脑上观看两个房间的鸟瞰图, 并将两个按钮分别放在两个房间的不同位置, 当两个按钮在不同的位置之间移动的时候, 鸟瞰图上标定的位置之间也会通过带有颜色的标记进行移动, 借此让儿童熟悉定向追踪的过程。之后, 他们分配给儿童和一个虚拟人物两套不同的物品(比如书包)。并通过演示, 询问被试当物品所有者把追踪的按钮放在自己的物品上的时候, 以及非所有者把追踪的按钮放在他人的物品上的时候可不可以。结果发现, 成人会判断物品所有者把追踪的按钮放在自己的物品上是可以的, 非所有者把追踪的按钮放在他人的物品上是不可以的。而一直到10岁, 儿童仍没有意识到非所有者把追踪的按钮放在他人的物品上是不可以的。这一结果暗示儿童对所有物追踪权利的理解相对于对其他所有权权利的理解可能发展得更晚。

需要注意的是, Gelman等人(2018)实际考察的是对于数字隐私(digital privacy)追踪的可接受度, 并且采用的是虚拟追踪(virtual tracking)的方式(电脑演示), 无论是追踪的内容还是追踪的方式, 都跟幼儿的生活相差甚远。真实生活中, 幼儿能接触到的是通过身体搜寻的方式对现实物品的追踪, 而非基于电子设备对虚拟客体的追踪。由于幼儿较少跟电子追踪设备相接触, 而表征虚拟客体需要具备一定的抽象思维能力, 这可能妨碍了幼儿有关所有物追踪权利的表达。倘若在更为真实的环境之中执行该任务, 幼儿对所有物追踪权利的理解可能有更好的表现。

2.5 幼儿对所有物转移权利的理解

所有权的三元理论将物品转移权作为所有权的基本权利之一, 认为只有所有者可以将物品转移给他人, 而他人不具有该权利。但可惜的是, 尚未有人直接检验过幼儿对所有物转移权利的理解, 却有人考察过幼儿能否区分不同转移方式中所有权的变化, 或许能启迪我们理解幼儿是如何表征转移权利的。

所有权具有合法转移和非法转移之分。只有那些经所有者意愿许可的转移方式(如交易、赠予、继承等)才被认为是合法的转移途径, 而那些在所有者不知情的情况下占为己有的行为(如偷窃、捡物不还)则被认为是非法的转移途径。Hook (1993)较早采用行为评定的方式发现, 8岁之前的儿童经常认为赠予不还和偷窃不还是同等恶劣的行为, 提示他们或许不能理解不同转移方式之间的差别。而Blake和Harris (2009)的研究发现, 4~5岁的幼儿能区分偷窃和赠予情境中所有权的变化, 认为偷窃的东西必须归还, 而赠予的物品不需要。而2~3岁的幼儿在做出区分时仍存在困难, 主要表现为他们能理解非法转移中所有权的不变性, 但不愿承认合法转移中所有权的变化。4岁的幼儿还会判断, 不管接受者是不是喜欢礼物, 送出去的礼物都属于接受者(Noles & Gelman, 2014)。Cram和Ng (1989)的一项研究考察了幼儿对捡物不还的理解, 发现一直到5岁, 还有近一半的幼儿认为物品属于捡到的那个人。

以上研究仅仅考察了儿童对所有权转移的理解。我们认为, 要全面了解儿童对所有物转移权利的表征, 还需要针对该问题进行更为直接的检验。考虑到幼儿对所有物其他权利(如更改权)的表征与对所有权的表征存在分离的情况, 对所有物转移权利的理解也可能存在这一情况。幼儿可能会考虑到情境中行为者的情绪, 认为将收到的礼物转赠给他人会让送礼物的人感到不高兴, 所以即便承认礼物所有权发生了变化, 也不认为所有者可以将其转赠。另一方面, 幼儿虽然理解偷窃不会导致所有权变化, 但可能基于现实主义原则, 认为物品在偷窃者手上, 所以他可以将其转移。所有这些可能性, 都有待未来的研究作进一步的验证。

综上, 幼儿对不同所有权权利的理解存在发展上的差异。这种发展差异, 主要反映在以下两个方面:其一, 幼儿对不同所有权权利的表征并非是同步发展的, 对某些权利维度的表征发展更为迅速。3岁幼儿理解所有者对自己的物品具有触碰权和使用权, 但他们理解所有物的变更权、追踪权和转移权, 却相对滞后。综合来看, 幼儿理解所有物的变更权、追踪权和转移权可能需要更多的认知努力和抽象表征能力。一方面, 由于存在物品时间或者空间上的变化, 对所有物变更权、追踪权和转移权的判断需要儿童具有较高的持续注意能力(儿童必须对追踪或转移的过程持续关注)和视觉工作记忆能力(幼儿在看着物品运动的过程中必须同时记住谁是原来的占有者谁是后来的占有者)。而年幼幼儿的持续注意能力和视觉工作记忆能力仍在发展(Hitch, Halliday, Schaafstal, & Schraagen, 1988; Ruff & Lawson, 1990)。另一方面, 无论是变更权、追踪权还是转移权, 都需要个体将所有物的原始状态、变更状态以及不同的占有者联系起来, 联合进行表征。研究发现, 相比于成人, 年幼幼儿的多重表征能力仍具有局限性, 特别是在涉及到空间运动的任务时尤其如此(Tahej, Ferrel-Chapus, Olivier, Ginhac, & Rolland, 2012), 这可能导致他们在所有权权利的判断上也出现困难。

其二, 某些权利维度会从幼儿的所有权表征之中脱离, 但幼儿有时又过分看重所有权权利的某个方面。比如, 他们否认礼物的接受者有权对物品进行更改, 但是却比成人更加坚持所有者对所有物的使用权。这些发展差异对我们理解和干预幼儿的所有权争端具有一定帮助。幼儿频繁的所有权争端可能跟他们过分坚持所有物的使用权利有关, 他们可能将他人的使用视为剥夺所有权的一种行为, 因而拒绝分享。教育工作者需要注意到这一点, 针对性地加以引导。一方面, 在保证幼儿理解了所有权占有原则的基础上, 教育者应鼓励他们多与他人分享, 教导他们在什么情况下可以适当放弃所有物的使用权。另一方面, 教育者可通过场景演示或者扮演游戏的方式, 适当设置权利冲突的场景, 强化幼儿对物品更改权、追踪权和转移权的认识, 同时增进他们的多重权利表征能力。这能帮助他们在现实的生活中加以灵活运用。

3 儿童对二级所有权权利(second-order entitlements)的理解

人类社会是由一些社会规则来维系的, 这些规则不仅赋予我们一定的权利, 还规定对于维护这些规则具有一定的义务。比如, 所有权规则在赋予我们维护自己的所有权权利的同时, 还要求我们在目睹侵犯他人所有权行为的时候要加以制止。更进一步地, 当所有者赋予他人使用自己的物品的时候, 如果一个人阻止他人使用, 我们也具有干涉这一不当阻止行为的权利(Hohfeld, 1913; Searle, 2010)。这种基于所有权规则之上的干预权利, 称之为二级所有权权利(Schmidt, Rakoczy, & Tomasello, 2013)。

研究发现, 3岁幼儿在看到一个非所有者扔掉他人的物品的时候, 就会表现出明显的抗议, 而2岁幼儿不会(Rossano et al., 2011)。不仅如此, 3岁幼儿还会通过恢复行为对他人的所有权加以维护(Riedl, Jensen, Call, & Tomasello, 2015; Van de Vondervoort & Hamlin, 2015)。Riedl等(2015)考察了在第三方立场下, 3~5岁幼儿对不同物品获得方式的干预, 发现相比于物品是通过他人许可的方式获得, 当通过偷窃、不公平占有等不当方式获得物品时, 3~5岁幼儿更可能干预。如果告诉幼儿可以选择将不当获得的物品占为己有, 或者归还给原所有者时, 儿童更偏好于将不当获得的物品归还给所有者, 而不是占为己有。这一结果说明, 儿童存在一种维护所有权秩序的偏好。这一偏好不仅表现在对违反所有权权利行为的干预上, 还表现在对他人所有物的恢复行为上。

Schmidt等人(2013) 通过抗议范式, 设置游戏情境, 考察了3岁幼儿对二级所有权权利的理解和维护情况。情境中存在一个所有者、一个行为者和一个裁判。所有者或者同意行为者玩自己的玩具, 或者没有同意。而无论哪种条件, 裁判都会站出来阻止行为者玩这个玩具。结果发现, 当所有者赋予行为者玩玩具的权利的时候, 3岁幼儿会站出来反对裁判的阻止行为。而在未赋予行为者玩玩具的权利的时候, 他们不会反对裁判的阻止行为。这说明, 3岁幼儿不仅理解所有者具有赋予他人使用所有物的权利, 还会对所有者的这种权利进行积极的维护, 对不当的权利阻止行为进行抗议。

以上研究均是基于行为层面。幼儿能否基于认知层面理解一个人具有维护他人所有权的权利和义务, 目前并不清楚。儿童理解所有权权利, 可能也像心理理论的发展一样, 存在梯度等级的差异(Wellman, Fang, Liu, Zhu, & Liu, 2006)。由于理解较高级的社会推理任务需要具备较高的递推推理能力, 儿童回答二级所有权权利问题比回答一级所有权权利问题可能更加困难。未来研究还需要结合行为观察和临床访谈的结果, 对此做进一步的调查。

4 总结与展望

综上所述, 幼儿很早就理解所有权包含不同的权利维度, 但是对不同所有权权利的理解存在发展上的差异。一方面, 他们对某些权利维度(如更改权)的表征与对所有权的表征是分离的。但另一方面, 他们又过分看重所有权权利的某些方面(如使用权)。这为我们理解幼儿的所有权冲突提供了一条思路。此外, 从行为层面, 幼儿还表现出对二级所有权权利一定程度的理解, 他们会积极地维护他人的所有权权利, 并对阻止权利实施的行为进行干预。未来研究, 有以下几个值得考虑的方向。

首先, 幼儿对不同所有权权利的表征出现分化的具体原因是什么, 目前尚不清楚。除了在某些任务中可能需要更多的记忆、注意资源外, 这种分化还可能跟幼儿的直接经验相联系。幼儿经常触碰和使用自己的物品, 却很少对自己的物品进行变更和转移, 所以理解所有物的触碰权和使用权比理解所有物的变更权和转移权更容易。这要求我们进一步检验所有物感知和所有权权利认知之间的关系。另一方面, 这也可能与幼儿基本的社会权力认知有关。在某种程度上, 对不同所有权权利的判断也是将物品的不同支配权力在两个人之间进行分配。而幼儿对社会权力的理解以及将其与不同的社会情境相联系是随着年龄不断发展的(程南华, 李占星, 朱莉琪, 2018)。对所有权权利表征的发展可能受基本社会权力认知的限制, 因而表现出差异和分化的趋势。

其次, 所有权权利的聚合或是分离, 在很大程度上依赖于其是私人物品还是公共物品。前人的研究大多是以私人物品为对象, 而对于公共物品的所有权权利, 幼儿是如何表征的, 我们并不清楚。幼儿能否表征这些物品的所有权权利, 可能取决于三个方面:第一, 幼儿需要具备区分私人物品和公共物品的能力。他们需要知道, 某些物品是可以个人独自占有和使用的, 而另一些物品虽然个人可以使用, 但所有权不属于个人。目前已有研究表明, 随年龄增长, 儿童越来越能对公共物品和私人物品做出区分(Chen, Li, Liu, Chen, & Zhao, 2016; Huh & Friedman, 2017)。第二, 幼儿跟物品之间需要具备一定的互动经验。通过乘坐公共汽车, 以及观察汽车司机的运行, 幼儿可能获知汽车司机仅仅是汽车的使用者, 而非所有者。第三, 外界知识的输入能帮助幼儿理解公共物品的所有权权利。通过跟家长的对话, 幼儿可能逐渐获知, 一些公共物品的使用权和所有权总是分离的, 进而意识到公共物品的所有权权利和私人物品的所有权权利是不一样的。

最后, 幼儿对不同所有权权利的表征是否具有跨文化的一致性?这也是个值得考虑的问题, 因为不同文化对所有权权利的侧重不同。Rudmin (1994)对北美土著人(克里族)和现代人使用占有词汇的分析表明, 北美土著人的所有权概念中更强调想要(want)、需要(need)的作用。在这些土著人看来, 如果一个人有需要, 那么即使他没有征得他人同意, 也可以借走物品, 虽然在他们的文化规范里面也存在征得他人同意的条款。所有物的使用权和转移权似乎出现了分离。东西方对待所有物的态度也存在差别。在东方文化看来, 熟悉的人之间可以在不经同意的情况下使用对方的物品, 这是拿对方当“自己人”的一种体现; 而西方文化更强调独立自我, 即便是与亲近的人相关的事物, 也不会纳入到自我图式之中(Oyserman, Coon, & Markus, 2002)。这种东西方对待所有物之间的差异可能付诸于幼儿的教育中, 在幼儿所有权权利的理解中体现出来。由于以往的研究均是以西方儿童为对象, 未来还需要更多的跨文化实验对该问题进行探究。

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
作者已声明无竞争性利益关系。

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The territorial foundations of human property

Evolution and Human Behavior, 32( 5), 297-304.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Many animal species have morphological and cognitive adaptations for fighting with others to gain resources, but it remains unclear how humans make fighting decisions. Non-human animals adaptively calibrate fighting behavior to ecological variables such as resource quantity and resource distribution. Also, many species reduce fighting costs by resolving disputes based on power asymmetries or conventions. Here we show that humans apply an ownership convention in response to the problem of costly fighting. We designed a virtual environment where participants, acting as avatars, could forage and fight for electronic food items (convertible to cash). In two experimental conditions, resources were distributed uniformly or clustered in patches. In the patchy condition, we observed an ownership convention — the avatar who arrives first is more likely to win — but in the uniform condition, where costly fights are rare, the ownership convention is absent.

Dixon, S. ( 2015).

Gimme! Gimme! Gimme! Object requests, ownership and entitlement in a children's play session

Journal of Pragmatics, 82, 39-51.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

The exchange of objects is a ubiquitous feature of children's play. Yet we know little about how children choose amongst the plethora of strategies at their disposal for getting and maintaining control of objects in the play space. In the present study, the methods of conversation analysis are applied to reveal Aboriginal children in remote Central Australia relying heavily on two ‘toy getting’ strategies: ‘gimme’ requests and grabs. Both strategies carry with them an expectation of compliance. The analysis will reveal that in the play session, this expectation of compliance arises from two situational factors: who owns the toy at the time of the request, and the request-maker's ‘entitlement’ to have the toy. The former can be signalled by various in-turn design features such as assertions of ownership, possessive pronouns and a range of justifications which point to various ownership rights. Entitlement is justified with explicit or tacit reference to ‘rules of the game’.

Friedman, O., &Ross, H . ( 2011).

Twenty-one reasons to care about the psychological basis of ownership

New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 132, 1-8.

URL     PMID:21671337      [本文引用: 2]

The psychological basis of ownership is a neglected area of research; the authors consider twenty-one disparate reasons why it is worth investigating.

Gelman S. A., Manczak E. M., Was A. M., & Noles N. S . ( 2016).

Children Seek Historical Traces of Owned Objects

Child Development, 87( 1), 239-255.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

An object's mental representation includes not just visible attributes but also its nonvisible history. The present studies tested whether preschoolers seek subtle indicators of an object's history, such as a mark acquired during its handling. Five studies with 169 children 3-5 years of age and 97 college students found that children (like adults) searched for concealed traces of object history, invisible traces of object history, and the absence of traces of object history, to successfully identify an owned object. Controls demonstrated that children (like adults) appropriately limit their search for hidden indicators when an owned object is visibly distinct. Altogether, these results demonstrate that concealed and invisible indicators of history are an important component of preschool children's object concepts.

Gelman S. A., Martinez M., Davidson N. S., & Noles N. S . ( 2018).

Developing digital privacy: Children's moral judgments concerning mobile GPS devices

Child Development, 89( 1), 17-26.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

react-text: 69 Attitudes linked to spending and saving are associated with different financial outcomes in adulthood. For example, people who spend more money than they would ideally like ("spendthrifts") carry m…" /react-text react-text: 70 /react-text [more]

Gelman S. A., Noles N. S., & Stilwell S . ( 2014).

Tracking the actions and possessions of agents

Topics in Cognitive Science, 6( 4), 599-614.

URL     PMID:4214137      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract We propose that there is a powerful human disposition to track the actions and possessions of agents. In two experiments, 3-year-olds and adults viewed sets of objects, learned a new fact about one of the objects in each set (either that it belonged to the participant, or that it possessed a particular label), and were queried about either the taught fact or an unrelated dimension (preference) immediately after a spatiotemporal transformation, and after a delay. Adults uniformly tracked object identity under all conditions, whereas children tracked identity more when taught ownership versus labeling information, and only regarding the taught fact (not the unrelated dimension). These findings suggest that the special attention that children and adults pay to agents readily extends to include inanimate objects. That young children track an object's history, despite their reliance on surface features on many cognitive tasks, suggests that unobservable historical features are foundational in human cognition.

Hitch G. J., Halliday S., Schaafstal A. M ., & Schraagen, J. M. C. ( 1988).

Visual working memory in young children

Memory & Cognition, 16( 2), 120-132.

URL     PMID:3352517      [本文引用: 1]

Five experiments investigated immediate memory for drawings of familiar objects in children of different ages. The aims were to demonstrate younger children greater dependence on visual working memory and to explore the nature of this memory system. Experiment 1 showed that visual similarity of drawings impaired recall in young (5-year-old) children but not in older (10-year-old) children. Experiment 2 showed that younger and older children were affected in contrasting ways when the temporal order of recall was manipulated. Experiment 3 explored a recency effect found in backward recall and investigated its sensitivity to the presentation modality of materials used to produce retroactive interference (RI). For younger children, recency was reduced by visual but not by auditory-verbal RI; for older children, recency was more sensitive to auditoryverbal RI. Experiment 4 confirmed the effect of visual RI on visual recency in young children and showed that the same RI had little effect on their recall of spoken words. These results confirm younger children dependence on visual working memory. A final experiment showed that the effects of visual similarity and visual RI are additive, suggesting that they reflect different modes of accessing stored visuospatial information. Implications of these findings for developmental issues and for the nature of visual working memory are discussed.

Hohfeld, W.H. ( 1913).

Some fundamental legal conceptions as applied to judicial reasoning

Yale Law Journal, 23( 1), 16-59.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Bibliographical footnotes.

Hook, J. ( 1993).

Judgments about the right to property from preschool to adulthood

Law and Human Behavior, 17( 1), 135-146.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Legal theorists argue that the constitutional right to property is defined, in part, by the property beliefs of the community, and how they change; yet little is known about these beliefs. In each of the three present studies, subjects aged 4 to 15 years, and adults, rated story characters who refused to return objects to their previous owners. Subjects under 10 did not clearly differentiate loss or destruction of one's own from another's property (study I), or the rights of persons who acquired possession by theft, loan, finding, or gift (study II). Creative labor was considered a more legitimate basis for possession by 15-year-olds than by 10-year-olds or adults (study III). These results support the idea that children understand "own" in the same way as adults understand "on loan".

Huh, M., &Friedman, O . ( 2017).

Young children’s understanding of the limits and benefits of group ownership

Developmental Psychology, 53( 4), 686-697.

URL     PMID:28221050      [本文引用: 1]

Group ownership is ubiquitous-property is owned by countries, corporations, families, and clubs. However, people cannot understand group ownership by simply relying on their conceptions of ownership by individuals, as group ownership is subject to complexities that do not arise when property is individually owned. We report 6 experiments investigating whether children ages 3 to 6 (N = 540) understand group ownership. In Experiments 1 and 2 children were asked who different objects belong to, and they appropriately judged that certain objects are more likely to belong to a group than to individual people. Experiments 3 and 4 investigated whether children understand the limits of group ownership. Children saw vignettes where agents modified or depleted property. Children ages 3 and older understood that individual members of a group should not deplete group-owned property, and children ages 5 and 6 understood that individual members should not modify group-owned property. Finally,

Kanngiesser, P., &Hood, B.M . ( 2014).

Young children's understanding of ownership rights for newly made objects

Cognitive Development, 29, 30-40.

URL     [本文引用: 2]

Young children often use simple rules of thumb to infer ownership of objects, but do they also understand ownership rights? We investigated whether 2- and 3-year-olds would react to violations of ownership rights in the context of newly made objects. In Experiment 1, children protested and made spontaneous reference to ownership when a puppet took away the child's object, but protested little when a third party's objects were at stake. Yet, 3-year-olds attributed ownership to the third party when asked ownership questions. Children's ownership claims were due to the effort invested in making new things, as they rarely used ownership protest after having handled raw materials (Experiment 2). Two- and 3-year-olds thus showed an appreciation of ownership rights for their own newly made objects. While 3-year-olds understood third party ownership, they may have lacked the motivation to intervene in ownership rights violations involving a third party.

Kim, S., &Kalish, C.W . ( 2009).

Children's ascriptions of property rights with changes of ownership

Cognitive Development, 24( 3), 322-336.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Ownership is not a “natural” property of objects, but is determined by human intentions. Facts about who owns what may be altered by appropriate decisions. However, young children often deny the efficacy of transfer decisions, asserting that original owners retain rights to their property. In Experiment 1, 4–5-year-old and 7–8-year-old children and adults were asked to resolve disputes between initial owners and various types of receivers (finders, borrowers, buyers). Experiment 2 involved disputes both before and after transfers of ownership. At all ages participants privileged owners over non-owners and accepted the effectiveness of property transfers. Overall, children's intuitions about property rights were similar to those of adults. Observed differences may reflect older participants’ willingness to segregate property rights from other considerations in assessing the acceptability of actions.

McEwan S., Pesowski M. L., & Friedman O . ( 2016).

Identical but not interchangeable: Preschoolers view owned objects as non-fungible

Cognition, 146, 16-21.

URL     PMID:26398861      [本文引用: 1]

Owned objects are typically viewed as non-fungible—they cannot be freely interchanged. We report three experiments (totalN=312) demonstrating this intuition in preschool-aged children. In Experiment 1, children considered an agent who takes one of two identical objects and leaves the other for a peer. Children viewed this as acceptable when the agent took his own item, but not when he took his peer’s item. In Experiment 2, children considered scenarios where one agent took property from another. Children said the victim could take back her own property from the perpetrator, but that she could not take an identical object belonging to the perpetrator. Finally, in Experiment 3A and 3B, children considered scenarios where a teacher could give a child either of two objects to play with—an object that the child had recently played with, or another object that looked the same. Children were more likely to say that the teacher should give the object recently played with when it belonged to the child, compared with when it belonged to the teacher. These findings are informative about the basis of judgments that property is non-fungible, and about young children’s representation of ownership rights. They show that children’s representation of ownership rights is not limited to principles protecting owners from being deprived. Our findings instead suggest that ownership rights are viewed as pertaining to individual objects.

Merrill, T.W. ( 1998).

Property and the right to exclude

Nebraska Law Review, 77( 4), 730-755.

[本文引用: 3]

Nancekivell, S.E., &Friedman, O . ( 2014).

Mine, yours, no one’s: Children’s understanding of how ownership affects object use

Developmental Psychology, 50( 7), 1845-1853.

Nancekivell, S.E., &Friedman, O . ( 2017).

"Because it's hers": When preschoolers use ownership in their explanations

Cognitive Science, 41( 3), 827-843.

URL     PMID:26936795      [本文引用: 2]

Abstract Young children show competence in reasoning about how ownership affects object use. In the present experiments, we investigate how influential ownership is for young children by examining their explanations. In three experiments, we asked 3- to 5-year-olds ( N =0002323) to explain why it was acceptable (Experiments 10900093) or unacceptable (Experiment 2 and 3) for a person to use an object. In Experiments 1 and 2, older preschoolers referenced ownership more than alternative considerations when explaining why it was acceptable or unacceptable for a person to use an object, even though ownership was not mentioned to them. In Experiment 3, ownership was0002mentioned to children. Here, younger preschoolers frequently referenced ownership when explaining unacceptability of using an object, but not when explaining why using it was acceptable. These findings suggest that ownership is influential in preschoolers' explanations about the acceptability of using objects, but that the scope of its influence increases with age.

Nancekivell S. E., Millar C. J., Summers P. C., & Friedman O . ( 2016).

Ownership rights

In J. Sytsma & W. Buckwalter (Eds.), A Companion to Experimental Philosophy. Blackwell: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

[本文引用: 1]

Nancekivell S. E., Van de Vondervoort, J. W., & Friedman O . ( 2013).

Young children’s understanding of ownership

Child Development Perspectives, 7( 4), 243-247.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Ownership influences the permissibility of people's use of objects. Understanding ownership is therefore necessary for socially appropriate behavior and is an important part of children's social-cognitive development. Children are sophisticated in their reasoning about ownership early in development. They make a variety of judgments about ownership, including judgments about how ownership is acquired, who owns what, and ownership rights. Understanding how children reason about ownership can also inform broader questions about the nature and origins of ownership.

Neary, K.R., &Friedman, O . ( 2014).

Young children give priority to ownership when judging who should use an object

Child Development, 85( 1), 326-337.

URL     PMID:23638945      [本文引用: 2]

This study provides evidence that children give priority to ownership when judging who should use an object. Children (N = 269) and adults (N = 154) considered disputes over objects. In disputes between a character using an object and the owner of the object, children, as young as 3 years and as old as 7 years, sided with the owner, and did so more than adults. However, children aged 4 and older disregarded owners' rights in dilemmas where these were pitted against the need to prevent harm. These findings suggest that ownership is central in children's judgments about object use and constrain developmental accounts of how children acquire an appreciation of ownership.

Noles, N.S., &Gelman, S.A . ( 2014).

You can’t always want what you get: Children’s intuitions about ownership and desire

Cognitive Development, 31, 59-68.

URL     PMID:25018586      [本文引用: 1]

Ownership is a central element of human experience. The present experiments were designed to examine the influence of psychological state on ownership judgments. In three experiments, 4-year-olds were asked to make ownership attributions about owners and non-owners who either desired or did not desire a gift. Despite exhibiting a clear sensitivity to the desires of others, children made accurate ownership attributions independent of individuals desires. At the same time, there are subtle influences of desires on children's ownership judgments, as well as subtle influences of ownership on children's desire judgments. Thus, the two factors are largely but not wholly distinct in young children's thinking.

Oyserman D., Coon H. M., & Markus K . ( 2002).

Rethinking individualism and collectivism: Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses

Psychological Bulletin, 128( 1), 3-72.

URL     PMID:11843547      [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Are Americans more individualistic and less collectivistic than members of other groups? The authors summarize plausible psychological implications of individualism-collectivism (IND-COL), meta-analyze cross-national and within-United States IND-COL differences, and review evidence for effects of IND-COL on self-concept, well-being, cognition, and relationality. European Americans were found to be both more individualistic-valuing personal independence more-and less collectivistic-feeling duty to in-groups less-than others. However, European Americans were not more individualistic than African Americans, or Latinos, and not less collectivistic than Japanese or Koreans. Among Asians, only Chinese showed large effects, being both less individualistic and more collectivistic. Moderate IND-COL effects were found on self-concept and relationality, and large effects were found on attribution and cognitive style.

Pesowski, M.L., &Friedman, O . ( 2018).

Using versus liking: Young children use ownership to predict actions but not to infer preferences

Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 169, 19-29.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Three experiments show that young children ( N 62=62384) use ownership to predict actions but not to infer preferences. In Experiment 1, 3- to 6-year-olds considered ownership when predicting actions but did not expect it to trump preferences. In Experiment 2, 4- and 5-year-olds, but not 3-year-olds, used ownership to predict actions, and 5-year-olds grasped that an agent would use his or her own property despite preferring someone else’s. This experiment also showed that relating an agent to an object interfered with 3- and 4-year-olds’ judgments that a more attractive object is preferred. Finally, Experiment 3 found that 3- and 4-year-olds do not believe that owning an object increases regard for it. These findings are informative about the kinds of information children use to predict actions and the inferences they make from ownership. The findings also reveal specificity in how children use ownership to make judgments about others, and suggest that children more closely relate ownership to people’s actions than to their desires.

Riedl K., Jensen K., Call J., & Tomasello M . ( 2015).

Restorative justice in children

Current Biology, 25( 13), 1731-1735.

[本文引用: 2]

Ross H., Friedman O., & Field A . ( 2015).

Toddlers assert and acknowledge ownership rights

Social Development, 24( 2), 341-356.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Two studies compared toddler owners and non-owners of toys. Children of 24 and 30 months were supplied with toys and told that they were owners. In play with friends, owners were more likely than non-owners to maintain possession, claim toys verbally (‘mine’), and non-verbally, by attempting to regain their own toys in their friends' possession. Children communicated their ownership early in each episode and in preference to other information about the toys. Toddlers in both studies identified toys belonging to their friends and acknowledged their friends' ownership with possessive statements (‘yours’), and in Study 2, recognized the relationship between owners and their property by offering toys that their friends owned. In these ways, toddlers' actions were consistent with accepted ownership rights.

Ross, H.S. ( 1996).

Negotiating principles of entitlement in sibling property disputes

Developmental Psychology, 32( 1), 90-101.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract Sibling property disputes were observed in 40 families, each with a 2- and a 4-year-old child, to study the application of principles of entitlement. Conflict outcomes, parent support, and justifying arguments were each analyzed in disputes involving ownership, possession, sharing, and property damage. Ownership and possession each influenced the conduct and outcomes of disputes, with ownership taking precedence over possession in children's arguments and in dispute outcomes. Parents did not clearly support either principle on its own and were as likely to argue in terms of possession as ownership rights. Parents supported children's sharing and prohibited property damage, but conflict outcomes upheld these principles only when parents intervened. Analyses revealed the strong influence of young children who argued, with increasing differentiation and sophistication, for principles of entitlement that were not strongly endorsed by their parents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Ross, H.S. ( 2013).

Effects of ownership rights on conflicts between toddler peers

Infancy, 18( 2), 256-275.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

This study examined property conflicts in thirty-two 20- and 30-month-old peer dyads during eighteen 40-min play sessions. Ownership influenced conflicts. Both 20- and 30-month-old owners claimed ownership (090008mine090009) and instigated and won property conflicts more often than non-owners. At 30 months, owners also resisted peers090005 instigations more often than non-owners. Mothers090005 interventions supported non-owners more often than owners, in part because owners initiated conflict more frequently. Children who received mothers090005 support tended to win disputes. Finally, mothers090005 support of owners and children090005s adherence to ownership rights led to decreased conflict as relationships developed, supporting predictions based on theories concerning the social utility of ownership rights.

Ross H. S. , & Conant, C. L.(1992) .

The social structure of early conflict: Interaction, relationships and alliances In C U Shantz & W W Hartup (Eds), Conflict in child and adolescent development

(pp 153-185). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

[本文引用: 1]

Rossano F., Rakoczy H., & Tomasello M . ( 2011).

Young children's understanding of violations of property rights

Cognition, 121( 2), 219-227.

[本文引用: 2]

Rudmin, F.W. ( 1994).

Cross-cultural psycholinguistic field research: Verbs of ownership and possession

Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 25( 1), 114-132.

[本文引用: 1]

Ruff, H.A., &Lawson, K.R . ( 1990).

Development of sustained, focused attention in young children during free play

Developmental Psychology, 26( 1), 85-93.

URL     [本文引用: 1]

Abstract The purpose of this project was to investigate the maintenance of focused attention in the first 5 years. In Study 1, 67 children were seen at 1, 2, and 3.5 years of age in free play with a number of age-appropriate toys. The duration of focused attention increased significantly over the ages studied. At 1 year, the children's focused attention showed a decline within the session; at the 2 older ages, however, focused attention neither decreased nor increased. In Study 2, children at 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5 years were also seen in free play. The results replicated the significant increase in focused attention over age and the lack of change within the session. Older children focused attention significantly more on construction and problem solving than did younger children, and manifested less inattention by physical movement away from the toys. The observed development in focused attention, therefore, is probably related both to the increased variety and complexity of the child's activities and to increasing inhibitory control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)

Schmidt M. F. H., Rakoczy H., & Tomasello M . ( 2013).

Young children understand and defend the entitlements of others

Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 116( 4), 930-944.

URL     PMID:24094684      [本文引用: 2]

Human social life is structured by social norms creating both obligations and entitlements. Recent research has found that young children enforce simple obligations against norm violators by protesting. It is not known, however, whether they understand entitlements in the sense that they will actively object to a second party attempting to interfere in something that a third party is entitled to do—what we call counter-protest. In two studies, we found that 3-year-old children understand when a person is entitled to do something, and so they actively defend this person’s entitlement against unjustified interference from second parties. In some cases, they even enforce second-order entitlements, for example, in the case of ownership where an owner is entitled to entitle others to use the owner’s property.

Searle J. R. ( 2010).

Making the social world

Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

[本文引用: 1]

Shaw A., Li V., & Olson K. R . ( 2012).

Children apply principles of physical ownership to ideas

Cognitive Science, 36( 8), 1383-1403.

URL     PMID:22946443      [本文引用: 1]

Adults apply ownership not only to objects but also to ideas. But do people come to apply principles of ownership to ideas because of being taught about intellectual property and copyrights? Here, we investigate whether children apply rules from physical property ownership to ideas. Studies 1a and 1b show that children (60900098 years old) determine ownership of both objects and ideas based on who first establishes possession of the object or idea. Study 2 shows that children use another principle of object ownership, control of permission090000an ability to restrict others090005 access to the entity in question090000to determine idea ownership. In Study 3, we replicate these findings with different idea types. In Study 4, we determine that children will not apply ownership to every entity, demonstrating that they do not apply ownership to a common word. Taken together, these results suggest that, like adults, children as young as 6 years old apply rules from ownership not only to objects but to ideas as well.

Sheridan K. M., Konopasky A. W., Kirkwood S., & Defeyter M. A . ( 2016).

The effects of environment and ownership on children’s innovation of tools and too material selection

Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society of London, 371 ( 1690), 1-7.

URL     PMID:26926281      [本文引用: 1]

Research indicates that in experimental settings, young children of 3–7 years old are unlikely to devise a simple tool to solve a problem. This series of exploratory studies done in museums in the US and UK explores how environment and ownership of materials may improve children's ability and inclination for (i) tool material selection and (ii) innovation. The first study takes place in a children's museum, an environment where children can use tools and materials freely. We replicated a tool innovation task in this environment and found that while 3–4 year olds showed the predicted low levels of innovation rates, 4–7 year olds showed higher rates of innovation than the younger children and than reported in prior studies. The second study explores the effect of whether the experimental materials are owned by the experimenter or the child on tool selection and innovation. Results showed that 5–6 year olds and 6–7 year olds were more likely to select tool material they owned compared to tool material owned by the experimenter, although ownership had no effect on tool innovation. We argue that learning environments supporting tool exploration and invention and conveying ownership over materials may encourage successful tool innovation at earlier ages.

Snare, F. ( 1972).

The concept of property

American Philosophical Quarterly, 9( 2), 200-206.

[本文引用: 1]

Stake, J.E. ( 2004).

The property 'instinct'

Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 359( 1451), 1763-1774.

[本文引用: 1]

Tahej P. K., Ferrel-Chapus C., Olivier I., Ginhac D., & Rolland J. P . ( 2012).

Multiple representations and mechanisms for visuomotor adaptation in young children

Human Movement Science, 31( 6), 1425-1435.

URL     PMID:22704964      [本文引用: 1]

In this study, we utilized transformed spatial mappings to perturb visuomotor integration in 5-yr-old children and adults. The participants were asked to perform pointing movements under five different conditions of visuomotor rotation (from 0 to 180 ), which were designed to reveal explicit vs. implicit representations as well as the mechanisms underlying the visual-motor mapping. Several tests allowed us to separately evaluate sensorimotor (i.e., the dynamic dimension of movement) and cognitive (i.e., the explicit representations of target position and the strategies used by the participants) representations of visuo-proprioceptive distortion. Our results indicate that children do not establish representations in the same manner as adults and that children exhibit multiple visuomotor representations. Sensorimotor representations were relatively precise, presumably due to the recovery of proprioceptive information and efferent copy. Furthermore, a bidirectional mechanism was used to re-map visual and motor spaces. In contrast, cognitive representations were supplied with visual information and followed a unidirectional visual-motor mapping. Therefore, it appears that sensorimotor mechanisms develop before the use of explicit strategies during development, and young children showed impaired visuomotor adaptation when confronted with large distortions.

Van de Vondervoort, J.W ., &Friedman, O . ( 2015).

Parallels in preschoolers' and adults' judgments about ownership rights and bodily rights

Cognitive Science, 39( 1), 184-198.

URL     PMID:25066448      [本文引用: 2]

Abstract Top of page Abstract 1Introduction 2Experiment 1 3Experiment 2 4General discussion 5Acknowledgments References Understanding ownership rights is necessary for socially appropriate behavior. We provide evidence that preschoolers' and adults' judgments of ownership rights are related to their judgments of bodily rights. Four-year-olds ( n =70) and adults ( n =89) evaluated the acceptability of harmless actions targeting owned property and body parts. At both ages, evaluations did not vary for owned property or body parts. Instead, evaluations were influenced by two other manipulations hether the target belonged to the agent or another person, and whether that other person approved of the action. Moreover, these manipulations influenced judgments for owned objects and body parts in the same way: When the other person approved of the action, participants' judgments were positive regardless of who the target belonged to. In contrast, when that person disapproved, judgments depended on who the target belonged to. These findings show that young children grasp the importance of approval or consent for ownership rights and bodily rights, and likewise suggest that people's notions of ownership rights are related to their appreciation of bodily rights.

Van de Vondervoort, J. W., &Hamlin, J.K . ( 2015).

Young children remedy second- and third-party ownership violations

Trends in Cognitive Science, 19( 9), 490-491.

URL     PMID:26250861     

When responding to ownership violations, children can focus on the victim's needs, the perpetrator's punishment, or both. Recent studies show that 3- and 5-year-olds are equally likely to respond to second- and third-party violations, and 3-year-olds return objects to their rightful owners. Children's interventions are consistent with justice for victims.

Van de Vondervoort, J. W., Meinz P., & Friedman O . ( 2017).

Children's judgments about ownership rights and body rights: Evidence for a common basis

Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 155, 1-11.

URL     PMID:27888693      [本文引用: 1]

We report two experiments which support the theory that children’s understanding of ownership rights is related to their notions of body rights. Experiment 1 investigated 4- to 7-year-olds’ (N = 123) developing sensitivity to physical contact in their judgments about the acceptability of behaving in relation to owned objects and body parts. Experiment 2 used a simpler design to investigate this in 3- and 4-year-olds (N = 112). Findings confirmed two predictions of the theory. First, in both experiments, children’s judgments about ownership and body rights were similarly affected by physical contact. Second, judgments about both kinds of rights were yoked in development; age-related changes in judgments about ownership rights were paralleled by changes in judgments about body rights. Our findings have additional import for theories of ownership rights because they suggest that physical contact may be a crucial factor in whether behaviors targeting property are judged to be permissible.

Wellman H. M., Fang F. X., Liu D., Zhu L. Q., & Liu G. X . ( 2006).

Scaling of theory-of-mind understandings in Chinese children

Psychological Science, 17( 12), 1075-1081.

URL     PMID:17201790      [本文引用: 1]

ABSTRACT090000 Prior research demonstrates that understanding of theory of mind develops at different paces in children raised in different cultures. Are these differences simply differences in timing, or do they represent different patterns of cultural learning? That is, to what extent are sequences of theory-of-mind understanding universal, and to what extent are they culture-specific? We addressed these questions by using a theory-of-mind scale to examine performance of 140 Chinese children living in Beijing and to compare their performance with that of 135 English-speaking children living in the United States and Australia. Results reveal a common sequence of understanding, as well as sociocultural differences in children's developing theories of mind.

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