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Advances in Psychological Science    2020, Vol. 28 Issue (6) : 994-1003     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.00994
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The “watching-eyes effect” in cooperative behavior: Potential mechanisms and limiting factors
WU Qin,CUI Liying()
Department of Psychology, College of Education, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China
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Abstract  

The watching-eyes effect is a phenomenon where an individual’s behavior changes in response to images depicting eyes. Multiple experiments have shown that this effect occurs during cooperative behavior. Several psychological processes can explain the watching-eyes effect, including reputation, the rule mechanism, reward and punishment, as well as various cognitive mechanisms. Additionally, some factors seem to limit the effect, including presence of others, task type, individual public consciousness, group identity, and cue (i.e., eyes image) presentation method. Currently, the stability of the watching-eyes effect remains controversial. Thus, future studies should examine individual or intergroup differences that could potentially influence stability. Notable variables include gender, culture, brain physiology, and social- application value.

Keywords cooperative behavior      watching-eyes effect      watching eyes     
ZTFLH:  B849:C91  
Corresponding Authors: Liying CUI     E-mail: cui720926@163.com
Issue Date: 22 April 2020
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Qin WU
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Qin WU,Liying CUI. The “watching-eyes effect” in cooperative behavior: Potential mechanisms and limiting factors[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2020, 28(6): 994-1003.
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http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1042.2020.00994     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/Y2020/V28/I6/994
  
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