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Advances in Psychological Science    2019, Vol. 27 Issue (9) : 1631-1642     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01631
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Leader humor: Consequences and theoretical explanation
Ting WANG,Fu YANG()
School of Business Administration, Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, Chengdu 611130, China
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Abstract  

As an effective management tool, in recent years, leader humor has received extensive attention from organizational scholars and practitioners. After reviewing leader humor’s conception, consequences, and mechanisms, we summarize several theoretical mechanisms: the relational process, social exchange theory, social information processing theory, relational identification, positive emotion, stress relief, and leadership styles. Future research should explore the consequences of leader humor from the perspective of interaction and structure, and focus on the mechanism of leader humor based on social information processing theory.

Keywords humor      leader humor      theoretical perspective      consequences     
ZTFLH:  B849: C936  
Corresponding Authors: Fu YANG     E-mail: yfu@swufe.edu.cn
Issue Date: 29 August 2019
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Ting WANG
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Cite this article:   
Ting WANG,Fu YANG. Leader humor: Consequences and theoretical explanation[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2019, 27(9): 1631-1642.
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http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01631     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/Y2019/V27/I9/1631
作者(年份) 维度 典型条目 改编后
Thorson和Powell (1993) 创造幽默的能力、幽默应对、幽默欣赏能力、对幽默的态度 I can say things in such a way as to make people laugh.
我说话的方式可以让人们开怀大笑。
I can actually have some control over a group by uses of humor.
实际上, 我可以使用幽默对团队进行一些控制。
My leader says things in a such way as to make people laugh.
我的领导的说话方式可以让人们开怀大笑。
My leader actually has some control over a group by uses of humor.
实际上, 我的领导可以使用幽默对团队进行一些控制。
Martin等(2003) 亲和式幽默、自我增强式幽默、攻击式幽默、自我贬低式幽默 I enjoy making people laugh.
我喜欢逗人们开心。
If someone makes a mistake, I will often tease them about it.
如果有人犯了错误, 我会经常取笑他。
My leader enjoys making people laugh.
我的领导喜欢逗人们开心。
If someone makes a mistake, my leader will often tease them about it.
如果有人犯了错误, 我的领导会经常取笑他。
Avolio等(1999) 单维度 My leader uses humor to take the edge off during stressful periods.
我的领导在压力大的时候会用幽默来缓解。
My leader makes us laugh at ourselves when we are too serious.
当我们紧张时, 领导会让我们自嘲。
Decker和Rotondo (2001) 积极幽默、
消极幽默
My supervisor has good sense of humor.
我的主管很有幽默感。
My supervisor uses sexual humor.
我的主管会开一些黄笑话/荤段子。
Cooper等(2018) 单维度 How frequently does your manager express humor with you at work, overall?
总体来说, 你的经理在工作中是否经常和你开玩笑?
My manager jokes around with me.
我的经理会和我开玩笑。
  
理论视角 理论基础 研究者 研究结果
关系过程 幽默主要通过四种机制影响人际关系质量, 包括情感增强、相似吸引、自我揭露和降低等级差异的显著性(Cooper, 2008)。 Gkorezis等(2014)
Wisse和Rietzschel (2014) Pundt和Herrmann (2015)
领导幽默对领导-下属关系的质量有重要的影响作用。
Robert等(2016) 领导-下属的关系质量在领导幽默与员工工作满意度间关系没有起到中介作用, 领导幽默对工作满意度的影响效果更多的依赖于领导-下属间的关系。也就是说, 领导幽默的关系过程机制仍然受到边界条件的影响。
Kim等(2016) 员工对领导的情感信任在亲和式领导幽默与社会距离的负向相关关系间起着调节作用。
社会交
换理论
领导与下属在社会互动过程中主要进行着两种资源的交换(Cropanzano & Mitchell, 2005):经济性资源(Sparrowe & Liden, 1997)和社会情感性资源(Blau, 1964)。当领导向下属提供了社会情感性资源后, 基于互惠的原则, 下属会产生一种回报的义务感, 主动回馈相应的好处(Blau, 1964)。 Cooper等(2018) 领导成员交换关系在领导幽默与员工组织公民行为间关系起着中介作用。
Gkorezis和Bellou (2016) 自我贬低式领导幽默对员工感知到的领导有效性有积极的影响作用。
社会信息
加工理论
个体所处的社会环境提供了各种影响其态度和行为的信息, 个体对这些信息的解读决定着其随后的态度和行为(Salancik & Pfeffer, 1978)。 Yam等(2018) 感知到的规则违背可接受性(perceived acceptability of norm violation)在领导幽默感与下属越轨行为间关系起着中介作用。
关系认同 个体除了将自己定义为某种社会群体, 还倾向于根据自己与某个特定的人的关系来定义自己, 例如直接领导或者某个同事(Pundt & Herrmann, 2015)。关系认同将关系包含在自我的定义中, 是一种对自我的扩展(self-expansion)。 Pundt和Herrmann (2015) 下属对领导的关系认同在领导的亲和式幽默与领导成员交换间关系起着中介作用。
积极情绪 幽默事件像车轮一样反复、循环的影响着员工的情绪, 使得员工的积极情绪不断的得到累积和增强(Robert & Wilbanks, 2012)。而积极的情绪体验能够拓展下属的意识, 并且帮助下属构建认知的、社会的、心理的资源(Fredrickson, 2001), 例如, 与同事或者管理者建立积极的关系。 Goswami等(2016) 领导者的积极幽默会引起下属的积极情绪体验, 进而提高下属的工作投入水平, 促使下属在工作中展现出色的工作绩效。
Cooper等(2018) 领导幽默能够让下属产生积极的情绪, 这种由领导诱发的情绪体验会拓展下属的意识, 帮助下属建立和维持良好的领导成员交换关系。
压力释放 领导幽默作为一种人际间的社会情感性资源, 可以缓解下属面临的工作压力。 Pundt和Venz (2017) 领导幽默对下属的工作倦怠具有消极的影响作用。
领导风格
类型
有效的领导者通常将幽默作为一种多方面、多功能的资源, 帮助其实现广泛的工作目标, 形成不同的领导风格类型。 Holmes和Marra (2006) 领导幽默不仅有助于形成交易型领导, 还有利于建立变革型领导。
  
  
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