Please wait a minute...
Advances in Psychological Science    2018, Vol. 26 Issue (11) : 2081-2090     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.02081
Regular Articles |
How does culture affect morality? The perspectives of between-culture variations, within-culture variations, and multiculturalism
Xiaomeng HU1,Feng YU2,Kaiping PENG1()
1 Department of Psychology, School of Social Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
2 School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China;
Download: PDF(514 KB)   HTML
Export: BibTeX | EndNote | Reference Manager | ProCite | RefWorks    
Guide   
Abstract  

Moral judgments and behaviors are highly sensitive to culture. The understanding and construction of the exact same moral issues can vary substantially across individuals who come from different cultural backgrounds or possess different levels of multicultural experiences. Social psychologists are increasingly interested in closely looking at human morality through the lens of culture, partly driven by a renaissance of cultural psychology in the 1980s and the broadening and deepening of globalization. Based upon the perspective of cultural psychology, we briefly summarize how particular cultural factors (e.g. geography, ecology, social class) influence individuals’ moral judgments and behaviors from three facets: between-culture variations, within-culture variations, and multiculturalism. Together, it is our hope that this review article will inspire future research to better understand how Chinese people’s moral patterns and value systems have changed and are changing in the context of rapid and deep cultural change in China.

Keywords moral judgments and behaviors      cultural variations      multicultural experiences     
ZTFLH:  B849:C91  
Corresponding Authors: Kaiping PENG     E-mail: pengkp@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn
Issue Date: 26 September 2018
Service
E-mail this article
E-mail Alert
RSS
Articles by authors
Xiaomeng HU
Feng YU
Kaiping PENG
Cite this article:   
Xiaomeng HU,Feng YU,Kaiping PENG. How does culture affect morality? The perspectives of between-culture variations, within-culture variations, and multiculturalism[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2018, 26(11): 2081-2090.
URL:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1042.2018.02081     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/Y2018/V26/I11/2081
[1] 张彦彦, 陈浩 . ( 2009). 西方道德心理学研究新进展: 道德判断的五基准理论. 道德与文明, 6, 28-31.
[2] Arnett, J.J. ( 2003). The Moral Dimensions of Globalization. American Psychologist, 58( 10), 815-816.
url: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/amp/58/10/815b/
[3] Barrett, H. C., Bolyanatz, A., Crittenden, A. N., Fessler, D. M. T., Fitzpatrick, S., Gurven, M., ... Laurence, S. ( 2016). Small-scale societies exhibit fundamental variation in the role of intentions in moral judgment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113( 17), 4688-4693.
url: http://www.pnas.org/lookup/doi/10.1073/pnas.1522070113
[4] Bedford, O., & Hwang, K.K. ( 2003). Guilt and Shame in Chinese Culture: A Cross-cultural Framework from the Perspective of Morality and Identity. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 33( 2), 127-144.
[5] Boer, D., & Fischer, R.( 2013). How and when do personal values guide our attitudes and sociality? Explaining cross- cultural variability in attitude-value linkages. Psychological Bulletin, 139( 5), 1113-1147.
[6] Buchan, N. R., Grimalda, G., Wilson, R., Brewer, M., Fatas, E., & Foddy, M. ( 2009). Globalization and human cooperation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106( 11), 4138-4142.
[7] Buchtel, E. E., Guan, Y., Peng, Q., Su, Y., Sang, B., Chen, S. X., & Bond, M. H. ( 2015). Immorality East and West Are Immoral Behaviors Especially Harmful, or Especially Uncivilized? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 41( 10), 1382-1394.
[8] Cai, H., Kwan, V. S. Y., & Sedikides, C. ( 2012). A sociocultural approach to narcissism: the case of modern China. European Journal of Personality, 26( 5), 529-535.
[9] Cao, J., Galinsky, A. D., & Maddux, W. W. ( 2014). Does travel broaden the mind? Breadth of foreign experiences increases generalized trust. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 5( 5), 517-525.
url: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1948550613514456
[10] Chen, S. X., Benet-Martinez, V., & Bond, M. H. ( 2008). Bicultural identity, bilingualism, and psychological adjustment in multicultural societies: Immigration-Based and globalization- Based acculturation. Journal of Personality, 76( 4), 803-838
url: http://blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jopy.2008.76.issue-4
[11] Chen, S. X., Lam, B. C. P., Hui, B. P. H., Ng, J. C. K., Mak, W. W. S., Guan, Y., ... Lau, V. C. Y. . ( 2016). Conceptualizing psychological processes in response to globalization: Components, antecedents, and consequences of global orientations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 110( 2), 302-331.
[12] Chesler, P.( 2010). Worldwide trends in honor killings. Middle East Quarterly, 17( 2).
[13] Chiu, C.Y., & Kwan, Y.Y . ( 2016). Globalization and psychology. Current Opinion in Psychology, 8, 44-48.
url: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2352250X15002365
[14] Chiu, C. Y., Dweck, C. S., Tong, J. Y. Y., & Fu, J. H. Y..( 1997). Implicit theories and conceptions of morality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73( 5), 923-940.
[15] Chiu, C. Y., Gries, P., Torelli, C. J., & Cheng, S. Y. Y..( 2011). Toward a social psychology of globalization. Journal of Social Issues, 67( 4), 663-676.
url: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1540-4560.2011.01721.x
[16] Cohen, A.B. ( 2009). Many forms of culture. American Psychologist, 64( 3), 194-204.
[17] Cohen, A.B. ( 2015). Religion’s profound influences on psychology morality, intergroup relations, self-construal, and enculturation. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 24( 1), 77-82.
[18] Cohen, A.B., & Rozin, P.( 2001). Religion and the morality of mentality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81( 4), 697-710.
pmid: 11642355 url: http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/11642355
[19] Cohen, A. B., Wu, M. S., & Miller, J. ( 2016). Religion and Culture Individualism and Collectivism in the East and West. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47( 9), 1236-1249.
[20] C?té, S., Piff, P. K., & Willer, R. ( 2013). For whom do the ends justify the means? Social class and utilitarian moral judgment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104( 3), 490-503.
[21] Cushman, F., Sheketoff, R., Wharton, S., & Carey, S. ( 2013). The development of intent-based moral judgment. Cognition, 127( 1), 6-21.
[22] Davies, C. L., Sibley, C. G., & Liu, J. H. ( 2014). Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Moral Foundations Questionnaire Independent Scale Validation in a New Zealand Sample. Social Psychology, 45(6), 431-436.
url: https://econtent.hogrefe.com/doi/10.1027/1864-9335/a000201
[23] Davis, D. E., Rice, K., Van Tongeren, D. R., Hook, J. N., DeBlaere, C., Worthington Jr, E. L., & Choe, E. ( 2016). The moral foundations hypothesis does not replicate well in Black samples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 110( 4), e23-e30.
[24] Dubois, D., Rucker, D. D., & Galinsky, A. D. ( 2015). Social class, power, and selfishness: When and why upper and lower class individuals behave unethically. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 108(3), 436-449.
url: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/pspi0000008
[25] Fiske, A. P., & Rai, T. S., Pinker, S. (Eds) .( 2014). Virtuous violence:hurting and killing to create, sustain, end, and honor social relationships Cambridge University Press hurting and killing to create, sustain, end, and honor social relationships. Cambridge University Press.
[26] Gelfand, M. J., Lyons, S. L., & Lun, J. ( 2011). Toward a psychological science of globalization. Journal of Social Issues, 67( 4), 841-853.
[27] Gold, N., Colman, A. M., & Pulford, B. D. ( 2014). Cultural differences in responses to real-life and hypothetical trolley problems. Judgment and Decision Making, 9(1), 65-76.
[28] Graham, J., & Haidt, J.( 2010). Beyond beliefs: religions bind individuals into moral communities. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 14( 1), 140-150.
pmid: 20089848 url: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20089848
[29] Graham, J., Haidt, J., & Nosek, B. A. ( 2009). Liberals and conservatives rely on different sets of moral foundations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96( 5), 1029-1046.
[30] Graham, J., Haidt, J., Koleva, S., Motyl, M., Iyer, R., Wojcik, S. P., & Ditto, P. H. ( 2013). Moral foundations theory: The pragmatic validity of moral pluralism. Advances in experimental social psychology, 47(12), 55-130.
[31] Graham, J., Meindl, P., Beall, E., Johnson, K. M., & Zhang, L. ( 2016). Cultural differences in moral judgment and behavior, across and within societies. Current Opinion in Psychology, 8, 125-130.
[32] Graham, J., Nosek, B. A., Haidt, J., Iyer, R., Koleva, S., & Ditto, P. H. ( 2011). Mapping the moral domain. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101( 2), 366-385.
[33] Gray, K., Young, L., & Waytz, A. ( 2012). Mind perception is the essence of morality. Psychological Inquiry, 23( 2), 101-124.
[34] Haidt, J.( 2007). The new synthesis in moral psychology. Science, 316(5827), 998-1002.
url: http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/doi/10.1126/science.1137651
[35] Haidt, J.( 2016). Why concepts creep to the left. Psychological Inquiry, 27( 1), 40-45.
url: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1047840X.2016.1115713
[36] Haidt, J., & Joseph, C.( 2004). Intuitive ethics: How innately prepared intuitions generate culturally variable virtues. Daedalus, 133( 4), 55-66.
[37] Hong, Y. Y. ( 2009).A dynamic constructivist approach to culture:Moving from describing culture to explaining culture. In R. S. Wyer, C. Y. Chiu. & Y. Y. Hong (Ed.), Understanding culture: Theory, research and application (pp. 3-23). New York: New York Press.
[38] Hong, Y. Y., Morris, M. W., Chiu, C. Y., & Benet-martínez, V. ( 2000). Multicultural minds: a dynamic constructivist approach to culture and cognition. American Psychologist, 55( 7), 709-720.
url: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/0003-066X.55.7.709
[39] Hu, X.M. ( 2017). Global orientations and moral foundations: A cross-cultural examination among American domestic, Chinese domestic, and Chinese international students. ( Unpublished doctorial dissertation). Rutgers University- New Brunswick, New Brunswick, NJ.
[40] Hunter, J.D. ( 1991). Culture wars: The struggle to define America. New York: Basic Books.
[41] Inglehart, R., & Baker, W.E. ( 2000). Modernization, cultural change, and the persistence of traditional values. American Sociological Review, 65( 1)19-51.
url: http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2000-07420-001
[42] Janoff-Bulman, R.( 2009). To provide or protect: Motivational bases of political liberalism and conservatism. Psychological Inquiry, 20( 2-3), 120-128.
[43] Kim, K. R., Kang, J. S., & Yun, S. ( 2012). Moral intuitions and political orientation: Similarities and differences between South Korea and the United States. Psychological Reports: Sociocultural Issues in Psychology, 111( 1), 173-185
[44] Kraus, M. W., Piff, P. K., & Keltner, D. ( 2011). Social class as culture the convergence of resources and rank in the social realm. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20( 4), 246-250.
url: http://psycnet.apa.org/record/2011-17853-007
[45] Lehman, D. R., Chiu, C., & Schaller, M. ( 2004). Psychology and culture. Annual Review of Psychology, 55( 1), 689-714.
[46] Leung, A. K.Y., & Cohen, D.( 2011). Within- and between-culture variation: Individual differences and the cultural logics of honor, face, and dignity cultures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(3), 507-526.
url: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/a0022151
[47] Leung, A. K. Y., Maddux, W. W., Galinsky, A. D., & Chiu, C. Y. ( 2008). Multicultural experience enhances creativity: The when and how. American Psychologist, 63( 3), 169-181.
[48] Leung, A. K. Y.,Qiu, L., & Chiu, C. Y. ( 2014). The psychological science of globalization. In D. Gray (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural identity:Basic and applied perspectives, (pp. 181-201). Oxford University Press.
[49] Lu, J. G., Hafenbrack, A. C., Eastwick, P. W., Wang, D. J., Maddux, W. W., & Galinsky, A. D. ( 2017). “Going Out” of the box: Close intercultural friendships and romantic relationships spark creativity, workplace innovation, and entrepreneurship. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102( 7), 1091-1108.
url: http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/apl0000212
[50] Lu, J. G., Martin, A., Usova, A., & Galinsky, A. D.( 2017) .Creativity and humor across cultures:Where Aha meets Haha In S R Luria, J Baer, & J C Kaufman (Eds), Explorations in creativity research San Diego, CA: Academic Press Where Aha meets Haha. In S. R. Luria, J. Baer, & J. C. Kaufman (Eds.), Explorations in creativity research San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
[51] Lu, J. G., Quoidbach, J., Gino, F., Chakroff, A., Maddux, W. W., & Galinsky, A. D. ( 2017). The dark side of going abroad: how broad foreign experiences increase immoral behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 112( 1), 1-16.
[52] Marsella, A.( 2012). Psychology and globalization: Understanding a complex relationship. Journal of Social Issues, 68( 3), 454-472.
[53] Miller, J.G., & Bersoff, D.M . ( 1992). Culture and moral judgment: how are conflicts between justice and interpersonal responsibilities resolved? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62( 4), 541-554.
[54] Miller, J.G., & Bersoff, D.M . ( 1994). Cultural influences on the moral status of reciprocity and the discounting of endogenous motivation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20( 5), 592-602.
[55] Morris, M. W., Chiu, C. Y., & Liu, Z. ( 2015). Polycultural psychology. Annual Review of Psychology, 66( 1), 631-659.
[56] Morris, M. W., Mok, A., & Mor, S. ( 2011). Cultural identity threat: The role of cultural identifications in moderating closure responses to foreign cultural inflow. Journal of Social Issues, 67( 4), 760-773.
[57] Narvaez, D., & Hill, P.L. ( 2010). The relation of multicultural experiences to moral judgment and mindsets. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 3( 1), 43-55.
[58] Nilsson, A., & Erlandsson, A.( 2015). The Moral Foundations taxonomy: Structural validity and relation to political ideology in Sweden. Personality and Individual Differences, 76, 28-32.
[59] Nisbett, R. E., Peng, K., Choi, I., & Norenzayan, A. ( 2001). Culture and systems of thought: holistic versus analytic cognition. Psychological Review, 108( 2), 291-310.
[60] Oishi, S.( 2014). Socioecological Psychology. Annual Review of Psychology. 65( 1), 581-609.
[61] Oishi, S.,Graham, J.( 2010). Social ecology: Lost and found in psychological science. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5( 4):356-377.
[62] Oyserman, D., & Sorensen, N .( 2009). Understanding cultural syndrome effects on what and how we think:A Situated Cognition Model. In R S Wyer, CY Chiu, & Y Y Hong (Eds), Understanding culture: Theory, Research, and Application (pp 25-52) New York, NY: Psychology Press A Situated Cognition Model. (pp. 25-52). New York, NY: Psychology Press.
url: http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2008-17689-002
[63] Peng, K., & Nisbett, R.E. ( 1999). Culture, dialectics, and reasoning about contradiction. American Psychologist, 54( 9), 741-754.
[64] Piff, P. K., Kraus, M. W., C?té, S., Cheng, B. H., & Keltner, D. ( 2010). Having less, giving more: the influence of social class on prosocial behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 99( 5), 771-784.
[65] Piff, P. K., Stancato, D. M., C?té, S., Mendoza-Denton, R., & Keltner, D. ( 2012). Higher social class predicts increased unethical behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109( 11), 4086-4091.
[66] Reimers, E.( 2007). Representations of an honor killing: Intersections of discourses on culture, gender, equality, social class, and nationality. Feminist Media Studies, 7( 3), 239-255.
[67] Sch?fer, M., Haun, D. B. M., & Tomasello, M. ( 2015). Fair is not fair everywhere. Psychological Science, 26( 8), 1252-1260.
[68] Shariff, A. F., Piazza, J., & Kramer, S. R. ( 2014). Morality and the religious mind: why theists and nontheists differ. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 18( 9), 439-441.
[69] Shariff, A. F., Willard, A. K., Andersen, T., & Norenzayan, A. ( 2016). Religious priming a meta-analysis with a focus on prosociality. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 20( 1), 27-48.
[70] Shweder, R.A., & Haidt, J.( 1993). The future of moral psychology: Truth, intuition, and the pluralist way. Psychological Science, 4( 6), 360-365.
url: http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/1995-97181-019
[71] Shweder, R. A., Mahapatra, M., & Miller, J. G.( 1987). Culture and moral development. In J. Kagan & S. Lamb (Eds.). The emergence of morality in young children (pp. 1-83). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
[72] Stephens, N. M., Markus, H. R., & Townsend, S. S. M.( 2007). Choice as an act of meaning: the case of social class. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93( 5), 814-30.
[73] Tadmor, C. T., Hong, Y. Y., Chao, M. M., Wiruchnipawan, F., & Wang, W. ( 2012). Multicultural experiences reduce intergroup bias through epistemic unfreezing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103( 5), 750-772.
[74] Talhelm, T., Haidt, J., Oishi, S., Zhang, X., Miao, F. F., & Chen, S. ( 2015). Liberals think more analytically (more “WEIRD”) than conservatives. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 41( 2), 250-267.
pmid: 25540328 url: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/25540328
[75] Talhelm, T., Zhang, X., Oishi, S., Shimin, C., Duan, D., Lan, X., & Kitayama, S. ( 2014). Large-scale psychological differences within China explained by rice versus wheat agriculture. Science, 344( 6184), 603-608.
pmid: 24812395 url: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/reference/ADS?id=2014Sci...344..603T
[76] Tetlock, P. E., Kristel, O. V., Elson, S. B., Green, M. C., & Lerner, J. S. ( 2000). The psychology of the unthinkable: taboo trade-offs, forbidden base rates, and heretical counterfactuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78( 5), 853-870.
[77] Turiel, E. ( 1983).The development of social knowledge:Morality and convention. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
[78] Vauclair, C.M., & Fischer, R.( 2011). Do cultural values predict individuals' moral attitudes? A cross-cultural multilevel approach. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41( 5), 645-657.
[79] Wei, W., Lu, J. G., Galinsky, A. D., Wu, H., Gosling, S. D., Rentfrow, P. J., … Wang, L. ( 2017). Regional ambient temperature is associated with human personality. Nature Human Behaviour, 1(12), 890-895
[80] Yamawaki, N.( 2012). Within-culture variations of collectivism in Japan. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 43( 8), 1191-1204.
[81] Yang, D. Y. J., Chiu, C. Y., Chen, X., Cheng, S. Y. Y., Kwan, L. Y. Y., Tam, K. P., & Yeh, K. H. ( 2011). Lay psychology of globalization and its social impact. Journal of Social Issues, 67( 4), 677-695.
[82] Yilmaz, O., Harma, M., Bahcekapili, H. G., & Cesur, S. ( 2016). Validation of the Moral Foundations Questionnaire in Turkey and its relation to cultural schemas of individualism and collectivism. Personality and Individual Differences, 99, 149-154.
[83] Young, L., & Saxe, R.( 2011). The role of intent for distinct moral domains. Cognition, 120( 2), 202-214.
[84] Yu, F., Peng, T., Peng, K. P., Tang, S., Chen, C. S., Qian, X. J., ... Chai, F. Y. ( 2016). Cultural value shifting in pronoun use. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 47( 2), 310-316.
[1] YANG Xiao-Li; LIU Li; ZHANG Xiao-Xiao. Cultural Frame Switching Amongst Biculturals: Its Influencing Factors and Outcomes[J]. , 2010, 18(05): 840-848.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed   
Copyright © Advances in Psychological Science
Support by Beijing Magtech