Silent and oral reading are two basic reading models in reading research. In this study, we summarized the differences between silent and oral reading from the following three aspects. First, reading behaviors are different under silent and oral reading. Second, previous studies show that cognitive mechanisms are also different between silent and oral reading. Finally, silent and oral reading could lead to different brain arousing. In addition, we also give some suggestions about the future research. The future research should focus on the specific phase of transforming from oral to silent reading, eye movement differences in the development process of the two different reading modes, influences of the pronunciation and the background music on reading under the two different reading modes, the difference in children’s brain mechanism under the two different reading modes and so on.