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Advances in Psychological Science    2013, Vol. 21 Issue (9) : 1696-1710     DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01696
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The Theory of Challenge and Threat States in Athletes and Self-Control in Competition
LI Yang;ZHANG Liwei;ZHANG Liancheng
(1 Sport Sciences College, Beijing Sport University, Beijing 100084, China) (2 Department of health and Exercise Science, Tianjin Institute of Physical Education, Tianjin 300381, China)
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Abstract  The Theory of Challenge and Threat States in Athletes (TCTSA) believes that athletes in challenge state would show higher self-efficacy and sense of control, set more approach achievement goals, experience more positive emotions, occasionally feel negative ones but in an effective way, competitive performances are improved with more positive emotions and biological reactions. However, athletes in threat state would show lower self-efficacy and sense of control, set more avoidance achievement goals, competitive performances are damaged with more negative emotions and biological reactions. Sufficient evidences support that self-control can be influenced by self-efficacy and motivation, therefore, athletes’ self-control ability might be enhanced in challenge state, but impaired by threat state. Research in the future needs to examine the influence of challenge and threat states on self-control and explore how to effectively activate challenge state before a competition, in order to enhance athletes’ self-control ability and performances.
Keywords Theory of Challenge and Threat States in Athletes      self-efficacy      self-control      competitive performance     
Corresponding Authors: ZHANG Liwei   
Issue Date: 15 September 2013
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LI Yang
ZHANG Liwei
ZHANG Liancheng
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LI Yang,ZHANG Liwei,ZHANG Liancheng. The Theory of Challenge and Threat States in Athletes and Self-Control in Competition[J]. Advances in Psychological Science, 2013, 21(9): 1696-1710.
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http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/10.3724/SP.J.1042.2013.01696     OR     http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/EN/Y2013/V21/I9/1696
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