ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理科学进展 ›› 2010, Vol. 18 ›› Issue (01): 91-96.

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诺布效应及其理论解释

杜晓晓; 郑全全   

  1. 浙江大学心理与行为科学系, 杭州 310028
  • 收稿日期:2009-05-31 修回日期:1900-01-01 出版日期:2010-01-15 发布日期:2010-01-15
  • 通讯作者: 郑全全

A Brief Review of the Knobe Effect

DU Xiao-Xiao; ZHENG Quan-Quan   

  1. School of Psychology and Behavior Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028, China
  • Received:2009-05-31 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2010-01-15 Published:2010-01-15
  • Contact: ZHENG Quan-Quan

摘要: 诺布效应(Knobe effect)是指副作用的道德效价影响行为意图判断的现象——当副作用是好的时候, 人们认为行为实施者是无意图地引发该副作用; 当副作用是不好的时候, 人们则认为行为实施者是有意图的。Knobe等人认为现象的产生是由于人们的道德考虑影响了行为意图的判断; 其他的研究者则从心理偏见、意图语言的实用意义、主要目的与副作用间的利益-损失权衡等角度来解释该效应。通过对各研究的总结可以发现, 诺布效应以归因过程为基础, 显示了道德判断对心理理论的影响, 其潜在的机制很可能就是人们自动无意识加工的结果在之后有意识的理性加工过程中发挥了作用。意图直觉判断会影响道德判断, 而道德判断的直觉也会影响理性的意图分析过程。

关键词: 诺布效应, 副作用, 意图判断, 道德判断

Abstract: The Knobe effect is the phenomenon that the moral evaluations of the side-effect influence people’s judgment of intentionality. When the side-effect is morally good, people tend to judge the agent bring about it unintentionally. However, when the side-effect is morally bad, people tend to judge the agent as intentionally. Knobe ascribes the effect to moral considerations, while the other researchers explain the effect in terms of psychological biases, language pragmatics or the cost and profit trade-off between main aim and the side-effect. This paper proposes that the judgment basically is an attribution process and the Knobe effect shows the effects of moral judgments on mind theory. The possible mechanism under it is the autonomous and unconscious processes—— people can process all the information quickly and roughly, and the results play a role in the rational processes after.

Key words: Knobe effect, side-effect, judgment of intentionality, moral judgment