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心理科学进展  2019, Vol. 27 Issue (6): 1123-1140    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01123
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积极领导的消极效应:研究主题、分析视角和理论机制
王震1,龙昱帆1,彭坚2()
1 中央财经大学商学院, 北京 100081
2 广州大学工商管理学院, 广州 51006
The dark side of positive leadership: A review and prospect
WANG Zhen1,LONG Yufan1,PENG Jian2()
1 Business School, Central University of Finance and Economics, Beijing 100081, China
2 School of Management, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China
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摘要 

在领导力研究领域, 积极领导力通常被视为提升组织、团队和下属产出的关键因素之一。近年来, 上述观点却不断受到质疑。在此背景下, 积极领导力潜在的消极效应日益引起关注, 并逐渐演变成为一个前沿课题。从现有的41项实证研究来看:(1)在研究主题上, 现有研究主要考察了变革、授权、道德、包容和仁慈等行为导向和领导-下属交换等关系导向领导风格的消极效应, 涉及对下属、团队和领导自身三类主体的消极作用; (2)在分析视角上, 主要包括两大类——构建兼具“积极效应”和“消极效应”的模型和单纯只考虑某一领导风格潜在的“消极效应”, 前者可以细分为三类双刃剑效应和两类非线性效应; (3)在理论机制上, 积极领导风格的消极效应可以用社会认定、社会交换、精神分析、认知加工和资源相关理论进行解释。未来研究可着重: (1)形成一个系统解释积极领导消极效应的整合性理论、框架或模型; (2)从领导类型、消极效应表现和作用机制方面进一步进行实证探讨; (3)挖掘积极领导消极效应的边界条件和破解因素, 为实践应用提供启示; (4)开展跨群体和针对特定群体的探讨。

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关键词 积极领导风格消极效应双刃剑效应过犹不及效应    
Abstract

Previous leadership research has primarily concentrated on the bright side of positive leadership styles, while paying less attention to their possible dark side. Although the recent years have witnessed an increasing number of these inquiries, there is still a lack of a clear understanding of the dark side of positive leadership. A review of 41 empirical journal articles illustrates the scientific status of this research area. In general, research has illustrated the dark side of behavior-oriented leadership (i.e., transformational, ethical, empowering, inclusive, and benevolent leadership) as well as relationship-oriented leadership (i.e., leader-member exchange) in terms of their negative effects on leaders, followers, and teams. Besides the research that solely examined the negative effect, there is a body of research that investigated the double-edged sword effects and nonlinear effect of positive leadership. Social identity theory, social exchange theory, psychoanalysis theory, social information processing theory, and resource-based theories were primarily used to account for the dark side of positive leadership. Future research should develop an integrated theoretical framework underlying the dark side of positive leadership, extend existing literature by examining the dark side of other leadership styles, and identify the boundary conditions that alleviate these dark side effects. Group differences (e.g., cultures, generation, and gender) should also be considered as boundary conditions of the dark side of positive leadership.

Key wordspositive leadership styles    dark side    double-edged sword effect    too-much-of-a-good-thing effect
收稿日期: 2018-05-17      出版日期: 2019-04-22
ZTFLH:  B849  
  C93  
基金资助:国家自然科学基金项目(71772193);中央财经大学研究生科研创新基金项目(201713)
通讯作者: 彭坚     E-mail: pengjiannut@163.com
引用本文:   
王震,龙昱帆,彭坚. (2019). 积极领导的消极效应:研究主题、分析视角和理论机制. 心理科学进展, 27(6), 1123-1140.
WANG Zhen,LONG Yufan,PENG Jian. (2019). The dark side of positive leadership: A review and prospect. Advances in Psychological Science, 27(6), 1123-1140.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1042.2019.01123      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlkxjz/CN/Y2019/V27/I6/1123
作用
对象
变革型领导(18) 授权型领导(8) 道德型领导(8) 包容型
领导(1)
仁慈
领导(1)
领导-下属交换(6)
下属 依赖性(Eisenbeß等, 2013; Kark等, 2003; Kollmann等, 2013)
压力(Diebig等, 2016; Franke等, 2011; 蔡亚华等, 2015)
角色模糊(Diebig等, 2016)
任务绩效(Chen等, 2018)
创造力(Eisenbeß等, 2013; Kollmann等, 2013; 蔡亚华等, 2015)
亲社会违规行为(石冠峰等, 2015; 杨梦园, 2016)
亲组织/领导不道德行为(Effelsberg等, 2014; 王晓辰等, 2018; 颜爱民等, 2018)
因病缺勤(Nielsen等, 2016)
顾客导向工作价值观(Mullins等, 2014)
压力(Cheong等, 2016)
工作绩效(Cheong等, 2016; Hao等, 2017; Humborstad等, 2014; Lee等, 2016; 尹奎等, 2016)
创新绩效(Hao等, 2017)
亲社会违规行为(何燕珍等, 2016; 颜爱民等, 2017)
组织公民行为(Stouten等, 2013)
内在动机、创造力(Feng等, 2018)
亲组织不道德行为(Kalshoven等, 2016; Miao等, 2013; 李根强, 2016; 张永军等, 2017)
依赖性、创造力(古银华等, 2017) / 工作要求(Jiang 等, 2014)
情绪耗竭(Jiang等, 2014; 陆欣欣等, 2016)
压力(Harris等, 2006)
职场被嫉妒和被排斥(Wang等, 2018)
亲组织/领导不道德行为(林英晖等, 2016; 颜爱民等, 2018)
团队/
组织
团队创新(Eisenbeß等, 2010)
组织合作创新(宋晶等, 2013)
/ 团队创造力(Mo等, 2019) / 团队过程/绩效(Li等, 2018) /
领导 情绪耗竭(Lin等, in press; Zwingmann等, 2016)
离职意愿(Lin等, in press)
放任领导行为、领导有效性(Wong等, 2018) 道德积分/证书、自我控制、辱虐行为(Lin等, 2016) / / /
  积极领导消极效应的研究主题
分析视角类别 分析视角 具体的分析视角 示例
同时考察积极和消极效应 双刃剑
效应
不同维度的不同作用 Diebig等(2016)
直接与间接效应的不同作用 Eisenbeß等(2013)
不同中介带来的不同作用 Cheong等(2016)
非线性
效应
过犹不及效应 Stouten等(2013)
居中不良效应 Humborstad等(2014)
只考虑消极效应 消极效应 直接或单一的间接负面效应 Lin等(2016)
  积极领导消极效应的分析视角
使用的理论机制 变革型
领导
授权型
领导
道德型
领导
领导-下属交换 其他领导风格
社会认定理论 5 3
社会交换理论 2 1 3 4
精神分析理论 3 1
社会信息加工理论 1 3
资源相关理论 2 2 1 1 1
  解释积极领导消极效应的主要理论机制
  积极领导消极效应的理论机制整合模型
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