ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B


    30 January 2008, Volume 40 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    The Role of Location and Trajectory Information in the Recovery of Moving Objects
    ZHANG Xue-Min,YAO Lin,LU Xue-Ming
    2008, 40 (01):  1-7. 
    Abstract ( 2158 )  
    In Multiple Object Tracking task, participants can successfully track 4-5 targets even though all the stimuli (typically, 8 objects) disappeared for several hundred milliseconds during the tracking time. One theory by Horowitz, (other authors) states that the relevant information of targets was stored into a so-called off-line memory when the stimuli disappeared. The successful tracking of re-appeared targets is then based on the comparison between the information obtained from the present display and the information that was stored. According to my knowledge, there are few studies to investigate what information was stored. The goal of the present study was to tap into this question by examining the effect of target location and trajectory on the target tracking.
    Eighteen undergraduates in Beijing Normal University participated in this study. They were 18-24 years old. They all reported to have normal or correct-to-normal vision and normal color perception. Two dependent variables, Target Number and Re-appearance Position were manipulated in a within-subject design (see details in the second part of the paper).The experimental procedure was controlled by Multiple Object Tracking program (developed in the lab). Participants pressed one of the two keys to judge the presented stimuli as target or non-target. Response accuracy was recorded by computer. The principle analysis was 4×5 analysis of variances (ANOVAs).
    The results showed a significant main effect of Target Number. Accuracy decreased with the increase of target number. The main effect of Re-appearance Position was also significant. The targets re-appeared in the same location as where it disappeared were easier to track than the targets in the different location were. No significant interaction between Target Number and Target Location was observed.
    The findings of the present study indicated that at least three types of information (target location, target trajectory, and target number) were encoded into the off-line memory. The re-appearance of the stimuli serves as a strong cue to retrieve the stored information. Targets were distinguished from the distractors based on this information then they were successfully tracked after they are re-presented. Furthermore, this information only can be retrieved efficiently when there are less than 2 targets. With the increase of target number, the effects of target location and trajectory became smaller. Further research should be focused on how the target number interacts with target location and trajectory
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    An Evidence for the Effect of Categorical Perception on Color Perception
    LIU Qiang,CHEN An-Tao,WANG Qi,SUN Hong-Jin
    2008, 40 (01):  8-13. 
    Abstract ( 2261 )  
    It has been well documented that color perception exhibits the characteristics of categorical perception such that participants’ performance is better when discriminating stimuli across color category boundaries than within the same color category. However, it is unclear whether the effect of categorical perception on color perception is in fact a perceptual phenomenon. Most of the evidence for the categorical perception of color was derived from tasks that considerably involved working memory; therefore, it is possible that the categorical effect results from the involvement of verbal labeling in working memory rather than being a pure perceptual phenomenon. Thus, it is important to provide tests that separate the perceptual process from verbal memory. The present study extended the research of Franklin (2005) and Gilbert et al. (2006) by incorporating the two experimental paradigms and aimed to identify whether categorical perception of color occurs in the perceptual stage of the task.
    A 2 (interference tasks: no interference vs. verbal interference) × 2 (color stimuli: within category vs. between categories) × 2 (visual field: left visual field vs. right visual field) within-subject design was implemented in the present study. Eighteen participants (19~22 years old) were tested. First, each participant’s blue–green lexical boundary was determined. Subsequently, they were required to perform a target detection task. Each stimulus display consisted of one color square on a different background color. The color square was randomly presented on one of the 12 locations around the fixation point. The participants were required to respond to the stimulus by pressing one of the two keys after detecting whether the color square appeared on the left-hand side or the right-hand side of the stimulus display.
    The result indicated that the reaction times in the between categories condition were much faster than those in the within category condition; this suggested that categorical perception does affect color perception. Moreover, this effect was unaffected by the verbal-interference task. Further, for both the left and right visual fields, there were significant effects of categorical perception; however, there was no significant difference in the magnitude of the effect between left and right visual fields.
    These results suggest that the categorical perception of color occurs during the perceptual stage. Meanwhile, since the effect of categorical perception on color perception was found in both the left and right visual fields and the difference between the effects was not at a significant level, the results are consistent with the notion that there is no significant difference between the left and right hemispheres on color perception.
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    The Dissociation of Egocentric and Allocentric Mental Rotation through an In-Rotation Effect
    TAO Wei-Dong,SUN Hong-Jin,YAN Jing-Jiang,ZHOU Liu
    2008, 40 (01):  14-24. 
    Abstract ( 1153 )  
    Mental rotation involves the spatial transformation of the mental image of a physical stimulus. The following two mental rotation tasks have been employed in the literature: (1) left–right or normal-mirror judgment task and (2) the same–different judgment task. The time taken in making these judgments as well as the errors made often increase with the angular difference in orientation between the stimuli, or the difference between imagined and normalized orientation.
    Further, mental rotation can be classified into two categories based on the reference frame adopted: egocentric and allocentric. The stimuli representing bodies or body parts such as hands are often considered as a special class of stimuli; this is because when they are used as stimuli in mental rotation tasks, they tend to induce egocentric mental rotation. However, there is no conclusive evidence demonstrating that material of body parts in fact draws forth egocentric mental rotation; more importantly, there has been no evidence demonstrating that the images of body parts can also elicit allocentric mental rotation.
    In the current study, using two experimental paradigms (left–right judgment task and same–different judgment task), we explored the possibility of the dissociation of these two processing mechanisms using a special stimulus (hand), which may induce a mental transformation of either the viewer’s own body (hand) or the visual display. The stimuli comprised images of the back of the human hands created by a 3D graphics software. Each picture of the hand was presented at an orientation rotated in the medial (in-rotation) or lateral (out-rotation) direction from the upright orientation.
    In experiment 1, each participant completed a left or right hand judgment task (LR task) when the picture of either a left or right hand was presented. Three factors were manipulated: hands (left hand vs. right hand), the direction of rotation (in-rotation vs. out-rotation), and the magnitude of rotation (45°, 90°, and 135°). All possible combinations of the different levels of the hands, direction of rotation, and degree of rotation were tested in a within-subject 2 x 2 x 3 completely randomized factorial design. In experiment 2, each participant completed a same or different judgment task (SD task) when the pictures of two hands were presented. In addition to the 3 factors used in experiment 1, there was an additional factor: the match (match vs. no-match). For both experiments, the dependent variables were the reaction time and the errors in the judgment.
    For both experiments, the results indicated that the degree of rotation did have an effect, i.e., the performance decreased as the degree of rotation increased. In addition, for the LR task, for the same magnitude of rotation, the hand when rotated medially (in-rotation) was recognized more quickly and accurately than when rotated laterally (out-rotation). Such an effect of the direction of rotation (we termed it the “in-rotation effect”) was not seen for the SD task. This suggests that the processing of mental rotation in the LR task was limited by the biomechanical constraints of the corresponding physical rotation. Thus, the subjects might have used the egocentric frame of reference in mental rotation for the LR task but the allocentric frame of reference in the SD task. Therefore, the hand stimuli can elicit either egocentric or allocentric mental rotation depending on the experimental task.
    These results suggest that participants use different spatial transformation mechanisms in LR (egocentric) and SD (object-centric) tasks. It appears that both the material of the body parts and the paradigms of mental rotation determine the reference frame that the participants adopt; further, we can state that the in-rotation effect might serve as an indicator of the dissociation of egocentric and allocentric mental rotation. Further, the result provided a good method for clarifying the disputation of unitary and multiple-systems models in egocentric and allocentric mental rotation.
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    The Impact of Attentional Control and Short-term Storage
    on Phonemic and Semantic Fluency
    LU Aai-Tao,ZHANG Ji-Jia,MO Lei
    2008, 40 (01):  25-36. 
    Abstract ( 1614 )  
    Recently, Rende explored the role of set shifting in verbal fluency, which is a subfunction of the central executive system. However, the central executive system contains more than one subfunction, including inhibition. During the verbal fluency tasks, participants were required to produce words in a certain time period (one minute); further, they were not permitted to repeat the words that they had just produced. Thus, it is reasonable that verbal fluency might employ the inhibition function. One of the aims of the present study is to explore the impact of short-term storage resource and attentional resource on verbal fluency. This was based on Engle’s model, which proposed that working memory was equal to short-term storage plus attention controlling.
    Exp. 1 used set calculation and mouse operation (pasting a sentence in Microsoft Word) as the secondary tasks to explore the impact of the central executive system (shifting and inhibition) on verbal fluency. Forty undergraduates (20 women and 20 men) participated in this experiment. Of the total participants, half of them (10 women and 10 men) participated in set calculation task, while the other half joined in the mouse operation task. The oral speed of all participants was estimated. Subsequently, the participants were given a familiar topic, such as “my college life,” and were required to talk on the subject for one minute. Moreover, they were required to assess their Chinese language level based on a 5-point scale. The scores of all participants were equal to or higher than 3. Those who had participated in the mouse operation secondary task were required to estimate their computer operation level. All of them had spent more than 2 hours per day on a computer and were familiar with mouse operation. We employed a two-factor within-subject design, 2 (phonemic and semantic fluency) × 2 (single- and dual- task conditions), for this experiment.
    Exp. 2 employed (1) equation judgment (demanding both storage and attentional resources), (2) odd/even judgment (demanding attentional resource but not storage resource), and (3) pressing keys randomly (demanding neither storage nor attentional resources) as secondary tasks to investigate the role of two different kinds of resources in verbal fluency. Another sixty subjects (30 women and 30 men) participated in Exp 2. The subject selection procedure was the same as that used in Exp.1, with the exception of computer assessment. Similar to Exp. 1, we employed a two-factor mixed design, 2 (phonemic and semantic fluency) × 3 (three different kinds of secondary tasks) in this experiment. The fluency tasks were a within-subject design, while the secondary tasks were a between-subject design.
    The results of Exp. 1 indicated that the central executive system had a substantial impact on verbal fluency. When the secondary task was set calculation, the participants produced more words during the semantic fluency task than during the phonemic fluency task; however, they produced fewer words in the dual-task condition than in the single-task condition. Further, the reduction of words in the semantic fluency task was only marginally more than that in the phonemic fluency task under the dual-task condition. The cluster size in the semantic fluency task was significantly larger than that in the phonemic fluency task. Further, the decreasing pattern of the cluster size was the same as words’. The participants generated more switches during the semantic fluency task than during the phonemic fluency task; however, they generated fewer switches in the dual-task condition than in the single-task condition. In addition, the decreasing pattern of switches was also the same as words’. When the secondary task was mouse operation, the patterns of the results for the three different indexes (total words, cluster size, and switches) were exactly the same as that when the secondary task was set calculation.
    The results of Exp. 2 indicated that short-term storage and attentional resource had a substantial impact on verbal fluency. In the semantic fluency task, the number of words in the pressings key randomly condition was almost the same as that in the odd/even judgment condition; further, the number of words in the abovementioned two conditions was significantly more than that in the equation judgment condition. With regard to the phonemic fluency task, the number of words in the odd/even judgment condition was almost the same as that in the equation judgment condition; moreover, the number of words in both conditions was significantly less than that in the pressing keys randomly condition. The cluster size in the semantic fluency task was larger than that in the phonemic fluency task. For the semantic fluency task, the number of switches in the pressing keys randomly condition was almost the same as that in the odd/even judgment condition; the switches in the abovementioned two conditions were significantly more than those in the equation judgment condition. For the phonemic fluency task, the difference between the number of switches in the odd/even judgment condition and that in equation judgment condition was not significant; further, the switches in the abovementioned two conditions were both significantly less than that in the pressing keys randomly condition.
    These results suggest that: (1) The role of the subfunctions of set shifting and inhibition in both the verbal fluency tasks was quite similar. (2) Semantic fluency relied more on storage resource than phonemic fluency did; conversely, phonemic fluency depended more on attentional resource than semantic fluency did.
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    Influence of the Coexistence of Dimensions in Feature Predicting when the Categories are Uncertain
    LIU Zhi-Ya
    2008, 40 (01):  37-46. 
    Abstract ( 2109 )  
    In this paper, we study the influence of the coexistence of two dimensions (Target Feature and Prediction Feature) in feature predicting under uncertain categorizing circumstances. Experiments 1 and 2 explore whether the coexistence of the two dimensions within the non-target categories promotes the use of the non-target category information. On the other hand, Experiment 3 explores whether the coexistence of the two dimensions within the target categories promotes the use of non-target category information.
    Anderson (1991) provided a Bayesian analysis of feature predicting; if an object contains feature F and belongs to category k, one can predict a novel feature j by using the following formula: . This is one method for calculating how likely the object is to be in each category k and how likely that category is to contain the property. Thus, one should consider all the categories in order to make the prediction. In short, the analysis suggests that people use multiple categories to make predictions when categorizing is uncertain.
    Murphy & Ross (1994) suggested that people make feature predictions on the basis of a single category when categorization is uncertain. They found that even if the participants gave a fairly low rating of confidence in categorizing, they did not use multiple category information to make predictions.
    Wang Moyun & Mo Lei (2005) presented another viewpoint—feature predicting is based on overall conditional probability instead of the probability of categorizing.
    Molei & Zhao Haiyan (2002) found that the association or separation of the two dimensions would influence feature predicting under uncertain categorizing circumstances. The results suggested that the proportion of the association of the object and the feature (Ak) be incorporated into the Bayesian formula: .
    However, we found that most previous experimental data were significantly higher than the value of the two-formula theory. We revised the formula as follows: . In addition, we manipulated one factor to test the new formula.
    The results in Experiments 1 and 2 show that when the two feature dimensions are not in conjunction with non-target categories, raising the proportion of the coexistence of the dimensions within the non-target categories will not enhance the feature prediction probability. When two feature dimensions are in conjunction in non-target categories, raising the proportion will enhance the feature prediction probability. The results are not consistent with Murphy & Ross’s single-category viewpoint and Anderson’s Bayesian Rule.
    Accordingly, this study introduces the proportion of conjunction of the two feature dimensions as a multiplicative variable into the formula of the Bayesian rule. The result of Experiment 3 is consistent with that of the study and shows that raising the proportion of the coexistence of the two feature dimensions within the target category will not improve the probability of feature prediction.
    The experimental outcomes are consistent and a better fit with our new, revised Bayesian rule. The coexistence of the two dimensions within the non-target categories promotes the use of non-target category information; the coexistence of the two dimensions within the target categories promotes the use of non-target category information.
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    Training on Shortcut Strategy and Its Delayed Result
    LIU Dian-Zhi,HUANG Xi-Ting
    2008, 40 (01):  47-53. 
    Abstract ( 1555 )  
    Strategic problem solving is a very effective approach for children to acquire cognitive ability. Siegler (1983) has revealed four basic addition strategies: counting fingers, fingers, verbal counting, and retrieving. However, his studies merely focus on strategies involving children’s natural acquisition and self-discovery mechanisms. Furthermore, these calculation strategies are limited to single-digit addition and subtraction.
    Participants included 171 Chinese children in three fourth-grade classes at a Chinese Experimental Elementary School, composed of 88 boys and 83 girls. In the pretest of the study, all the three classes were equivalent with respect to the students’ arithmetic level and the instructors’ teaching capacity. From the three classes, two were randomly selected to serve experimental groups and one as the control group. During the strategies training period, the three groups were instructed by their original teachers. The two experimental groups were trained using the teaching models designed by researchers—one group used the expositive model and the other, the exploratory model. On the other hand, the control group was taught using the teacher’s original method. The independent variables constituted the different teaching methods, and the dependent variable was the level of the students’ arithmetic. This paper discusses the following three main aspects. First, it compares the effects of the researchers’ methods and the teacher’s original method on students’ calculating performance in the posttest. Second, it compares the effectiveness of the expositive and exploratory methods by analyzing the posttest results. Finally, it explores the students’ utilization deficiency by evaluating the effects of the training strategies in the delayed posttest that took place 45 days after the completion of the training.
    By comparing the experimental groups with the control group, this study showed that in the experimental groups, students’ calculating performance, calculating speed, and learning interest were raised significantly through the shortcut strategy training. In the delayed posttest, the result reveals no obvious difference between the test papers containing clues to prompt students to use strategies and the test papers without such clues. This indicates that utilization deficiency can be avoided as long as the training method is appropriate. Finally, there is little difference between the effect of the exploratory and expositive teaching methods used in this study. This is probably because Chinese students have been accustomed to the latter style. They may need time to adapt to the exploratory teaching method.
    Based on this study, we can conclude that the level of the students’ arithmetic ability, their calculating speed, and learning interest can be raised significantly through the specialized training strategy described in the paper; strategy utilization deficiency can be avoided as long as the training method is appropriate
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    Differential Reactions toward People with AIDS (PWA) in China
    CAI Hua-Jian,WU Qiu-Ping,DENG Ci-Ping
    2008, 40 (01):  54-63. 
    Abstract ( 2295 )  
    Since its first disclosure in China in 1985, AIDS has been spreading rapidly. Chinese government has done a lot in AIDS prevention and control. Currently, prejudice and discrimination toward PWA is the greatest barrier for AIDS prevention and treatment in China. Undoubtedly, knowing more about people’s reactions and attitudes toward PWA would contribute to AIDS prevention and control. The present study for the first time examined people’s differential reactions toward PWA who contracted AIDS via different routes, including controllable ones (i.e. sex and drug uses) and uncontrollable ones (i.e., blood transfusion and mother-fetus). We also examined the mediating role of affective reactions in producing negative attitudes toward PWA.
    The sample was composed of 188 college students (males: 73; Females: 115). Each of the participants was paid 10 Chinese Yuan for their participation. Four scenarios about a young man who has been recently diagnosed as an AIDS patient were designed and used to elicit participants’ reactions toward PWA. All scenarios were identical except for the routes of AIDS contraction. Specifically, the routes included inappropriate sex behaviors, drug uses, transfusion, and mother-fetus. Participants completed the experiment on computer in separate rooms. After providing their demographical information, they were randomly assigned to one of the four scenarios. After reading the scenarios, they finished a series of scales about the PWA described in the scenarios. The scales measure affective feelings (e. g., angry, disgust, fear, and sympathy) and attitudes toward the described PWA (e. g., thermometer feeling scale, perceived responsibility, support of coercive policies, and intent to contact).
    Results showed that (1) on one hand, all subjects showed pronounced negative affective feelings toward PWA regardless of the contracting routes, suggesting apparent instrumental fear of AIDS; on the other hand, strong sympathy was also found among college students; (2) by comparing with those who has contracted AIDS by controllable routes such as inappropriate sexual behaviors and drug uses, college students expressed less angry, less disgust, and less fear toward PWA contracted via transfusion and mother-fetus; they were also less likely to support coercive policies upon them, to have contacts with them, and to attribute the responsibility of contracting AIDS to them; (3) no gender differences were found except that females showed less willingness to contact with PWA; and (4) mediation analyses revealed that affective feelings toward PWA partially mediated the effects of transmission routes on attitudes toward PWA, angry, disgust, and fear increasing negative attitude whereas sympathy increasing positive one.
    In summary, the present study demonstrated that (1) both instrumental and symbolic concerns contribute to negative attitude; (2) different transmission routes would lead to different reactions; (3) affective reactions partially mediated the differential reactions toward PWA. The findings suggest possible effective ways to control and prevent the AIDS epidemic in China, which are to eliminate inappropriate sexual behaviors and drug uses and to reduce fear of AIDS by disseminating AIDS related knowledge and arousing people’s sympathy for PWA.
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    Preemployment Beliefs, Organizational Inducement, and Psychological Contract Change: A Longitudinal Study
    LIU Xiao-Yu,LIU Jun,YU Guang-Tao
    2008, 40 (01):  64-73. 
    Abstract ( 2270 )  
    Psychological contract (PC) is a key aspect in the employee-employer relationship, which develops over time in an organizational context. Few longitudinal studies exist regarding the nature of the employee PC and the causes of its change. A decade ago, three studies suggested that PC obligations would change in the first two years of employment (Robinson, Kraatz and Rousseau, 1994; Robinson, 1996; Thomas and Anderson, 1998). Despite the fact that certain changes in employees’ obligations to their employers have already been demonstrated, some important issues still remain to be addressed. The present study examined the change in the PCs of new entry-level college graduates in a Chinese organizational context. The study investigated how individual and contextual factors contributed to PC change over two time intervals. Specifically, the study examined the role played by individual preemployment beliefs concerning employment relations and organizational inducement in influencing changes in employee obligations. The following are the three major hypotheses proposed in this study: (1) initial changes in newcomer PCs will be in the direction of their existing beliefs; (2) organizational inducement including job rewards (JR) and organizational support (OS) will promote changes in employee obligations; specifically, JR is closely related to the transactional components of a PC, whereas OS is closely related to the relational components of a PC; (3) organizational inducement will moderate the relationship between the preemployment beliefs of new recruits and their PCs; specifically, JR will promote a positive relationship between short-term beliefs and changes in the transactional components of a PC change, whereas OS will enhance a positive relationship between long-term beliefs and the relational components of a PC.
    A longitudinal sample of college graduates was used to test the abovementioned hypotheses. Time 1 data were collected from graduates who had already secured full-time employment from various enterprises. Questionnaires were administered to 1,500 potential respondents in a leading domestic university; 854 questionnaires were returned. One year later, the second wave survey was conducted on the 854 time 1 respondents; a total of 219 questionnaires were returned. By matching the two waves, the study employed 189 data points to test the hypotheses. Among the major measures, employee obligations were developed and validated in a Chinese organizational context, JRs were adopted from the Rusbult and Farrel (1983) study and the OS scale utilized was originally developed by Eisenberger et al. (1986) and later refined by Settoon et al. (1996). Cronbach’s alphas for these measures were from 0.70 to 0.83, indicating acceptable measurement reliabilities.
    Hierarchical regression modeling (HRM) results indicated the following: (1) preemployment beliefs did not manifest direct effects on changes in employee obligations; (2) OS manifested positive impacts on both transactional and relational obligation change, and its impact on relational obligations was stronger than that on transactional obligations; and (3) the relationship between preemployment beliefs and changes in employee obligations was moderated by organizational inducement, which included OS and JR. Specifically, OS showed highly positive relationship with relational obligations when individuals held long-term beliefs. JR promoted both relational and transactional obligations of individuals who “did not” have long-term beliefs, whereas it had no impact on the obligations of individuals who had long-term beliefs.
    The above mentioned findings suggested the following. First, in comparison with economic exchange, relational exchange was more likely to be valued by Chinese employees. Hence, organizations operating in China should offer employees supportive working environments and emotional investment in order to achieve strong obligations from their employees and maintain the positive effect of long-term beliefs. Second, a moderate level of JR is necessary for organizations to maintain the obligations of employees with short-term beliefs. Limitations of the study and possible future investigation with regard to PC change were also discussed
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    The Impact of the Emotional Intelligence of Employees and
    Their Manager on the Job Performance of Employees
    YU Qiong,YUAN Deng-Hua
    2008, 40 (01):  74-83. 
    Abstract ( 3334 )  
    Previous research concerning the influences upon employee job performance reported from the perspective of personality and intelligence. After Mayer demonstrated both theoretically and empirically that emotional intelligence meets with the standards of intelligence, there have been some studies that tried to establish a relationship between emotional intelligence and job performance. The present paper will attempt to incorporate previous findings about emotional intelligence, but then go further to creatively explore the impact of emotional intelligence of employees and their manager on employees’ job performance and how the manager’s emotional intelligence affects an employee’s job performance.
    218 Managers and 640 employees from thirty manufacturing enterprises in China participated in the present study. The enterprises were mainly in Dongguan City, Tianjin City, and Chengdu City. 218 managers completed questionnaires of their emotional intelligence (MEI) and evaluated one to three of their subordinates’ task performance (TP) respectively. In addition, 640 employees completed the questionnaires about their emotional intelligence (EEI), leader-member exchange (LMX) and their contextual performance (CP). Path analysis and Structural Equation Modeling were used for the data analysis.
    The results show a significant correlation between the employees’ emotional intelligence and their manager’s emotional intelligence and the employees’ task and contextual performance. Correlations were: r=0.371(p<0.01) for EEI with TP; r=0.615(p<0.01) for EEI with CP; r=0.310(p<0.01) for MEI with TP; and r=0.304(p<0.01) for MEI with CP. Furthermore, Path analysis tested our hypothesis. Structural Equation Modeling suggests that leader-member exchange perceived by the employees partly plays a role as a mediator in the impact of emotional intelligence of manager on the task performance and contextual performance of their employees. Though through leader-member exchange perceived by the employees, the manager’s emotional intelligence exerts a comparatively weak effect on task performance of the employees indirectly. The research supports the initial hypotheses.
    The result shows that LMX can partially mediate the relationship between managers’ emotional intelligence and employees’ job performance. The results indicate that employees’ emotional intelligence can positively influence both their task performance and contextual performance. Furthermore, the results indicate that emotional intelligence improves social exchange, and also confirms other concepts as well. The research suggests to the leaders of companies that they should incorporate measures of emotional intelligence into the employee selection process; and also that they should provide their employees and managers with training that can enhance emotional intelligence levels. Finally, the study suggests that the companies promote the quality of the leader-member exchange in the interest of improving individual job performance and overall organizational performance.
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    The Relationship between Job Performance and Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Goal Orientation
    HAN Yi
    2008, 40 (01):  84-91. 
    Abstract ( 1773 )  
    Job performance is the most widely studied criterion variable in the literature pertaining to organizational behavior and human resource management. However, most studies on job performance are limited in that they focus on the dimensions of work behavior that lie in what has traditionally been included in the scope of a specific task itself. The objective of the present study was to explore the domain of job performance. The present study also aimed to determine which of the above three variables would have the strongest effects on job performance.
    By applying structural equation modeling analysis and using a sample of 1066 employees across 12 firms, the present study examined whether job satisfaction and organizational commitment mediate the relationship between goal orientation and employee job performance and its outcomes.
    The research results indicated that job performance was empirically distinguished from task, contextual, learning, and innovative performances. On the other hand, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and goal orientation are significantly not uniform in influencing every sub-job performance dimension. In particular, job satisfaction had significant positive effects on the different dimensions of task, contextual, learning, and innovation performances. Organizational commitment had significant positive effects on the dimensions of task, contextual, and learning performances and negative effects on the dimension of innovation performance. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment was not found to mediate the relationship between goal orientation and every dimension of job performance; however, it directly affected job performance (task, contextual, learning, and innovation performances).
    Some implications can be drawn from this study. First, the four dimensions of the job performance model have been examined using a structural equation modeling analysis. Second, consistent with previous studies, the present study also suggests that job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and goal orientation influence job performance in different domains. Finally, the paper is summarized and some directions for future research are presented, for example, integrating organizational forms into the relationship between job performance and the independent variables (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and goal orientation)
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    The Use of Multilevel Item Response Theory Modeling in Test Development
    LIU Hong-Yun,LUO Fang
    2008, 40 (01):  92-100. 
    Abstract ( 1664 )  
    Both item response theory (IRT) and a multilevel model are used in a variety of social science research applications. The use of IRT allows researchers to link the observed categorical responses provided by students with an underlying unobservable trait, such as ability or attitude. A multilevel model allows the natural multilevel structure that is widely present in social science data to be represented formally in data analysis. In some cases, researchers may wish to study the effects of the covariates on the latent trait. These covariates may include information pertaining to responses as well as contextual information. Traditionally, manifest variables are used in a multilevel analysis as fixed and known entities. An important deficiency is that the measurement error associated with the test scores is ignored. In general, the use of unreliable test scores leads to a biased estimation of the regression coefficients; consequently, the resulting statistical inference can be rather misleading.
    In this paper, a multilevel IRT model is presented where some of the variables cannot be observed directly but are measured using tests or questionnaires. A two-level model can be defined using a two-level formulation in which level 1 is the item-level model and level 2 is the person-level model. In such a model, the latent ability and item parameters can be estimated simultaneously. Further, we can consider the effects of the person-level covariates on the person-level ability. Similar to a traditional two-level model, the two-level IRT model can be expanded to a three-level model, which includes a higher site level. The three-level IRT model proposed in this paper yields the additional benefit of being able to accommodate data that are collected in a hierarchical setting. This expansion of multilevel IRT models to three levels allows not only the dependency typically found in hierarchical data to be accommodated but also the estimation of latent traits at different levels as well as the estimation of relationships between predictor variables and latent traits at different levels.
    The purpose of this paper is to provide both a theoretic description and a practical application of the multilevel IRT model. First, we demonstrate the algebraic equivalence between the parameterizations of an IRT model and the multilevel IRT model. Second, we illustrate the method, using an application that involves students’ achievements on a mathematics test and test results regarding the characteristics of students and schools. Third, we expand the multilevel IRT model to the identification of differential item functioning (DIF). Finally, we present a discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of using multilevel IRT models in applied research and provide the scope for future research
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    Methodology of Equating Based on Probability Distribution and Its Applications
    DING Shu-Liang,WU Rui,ZHANG Jie-Lan,XIONG Jian-Hua
    2008, 40 (01):  101-108. 
    Abstract ( 1458 )  
    This paper, divided into two parts, discusses the following two issues: (1) the methodology of developing a new test equating criterion and (2) the behavior of a new test equating method, referred to as cosine criterion.
    Under the item response theory (IRT) and in light of the probability distribution of an examinee’s response to some item, the first part of this paper proposes the methodology derived from the published literature on some test equating criteria. Moreover, some test equating criteria could be regarded as certain functions of probability distributions. Based on this, a series of test equating approaches, such as the Haebara item characteristic curve equating method (Hcrit), Stocking-Lord test characteristic curve equating method (SLcrit), logcontract equating method, SQRT method, and weighted Haebara method, could be clearly illustrated. Further, the relationship between Hcrit and SLcrit was identified: if the mutual compensation of the responses to the anchor items is evident, then SLcrit is suitable, and if not, then Hcrit is more appropriate.
    In the second part of the paper, a new test equating criterion, known as cosine criterion (COScrit) was discussed as an example of the application of this methodology of the equating criteria. The results of the Monte Carlo study show that the behavior of the new criterion is better than that of Hcrit and SLcrit; this is evident when the data is fit to the generalized partial credit model (GPCM) in the sense that the root mean squared deviations (RMSDs) corresponding to the three criteria are compared. Further, the RMSD to COScrit is smaller and statistically significant. When the data is fit to the 2-parameter logistic model 2PLM, or the graded response model (GRM), COScrit is comparable to SLcrit; in fact, it is considerably better than SLcrit, provided that the equating coefficient A is not smaller than 1.2. If, however, coefficient A is smaller than 1.2, an inverse result is observed. Nevertheless, COScrit is inferior to Hcrit in both the cases. The findings suggest that the behavior of a test equating criterion is related to the domain of coefficient A, particularly to the item response function (IRF) .
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    Performance of Fit Indices in Different Conditions and the Selection of Cut-off Values
    GUO Qing-Ke,LI Fang,CHEN Xue-Xia,WANG Wei-Li,MENG Qing-Mao
    2008, 40 (01):  109-118. 
    Abstract ( 1692 )  
    In this simulation study we designed 6 sample-size conditions, 6 factor-loading conditions, 4 rating-category conditions, and 2 distribution conditions. To each data-set in the conditions a correct model and a mis-specified model are fitted. In the correct model there are 15 items and 3 factors, each factor is measured by 5 items. While in the mis-specified model the factors are measured by 6, 4, and 5 items, we call the mis-specified model wrong-parameterized model, which is different from those studied by former researchers.
    The results are: 1. Sample size, loading size, rating category and distribution form all have influence on the values of fit indices. And the influence of distribution form is the largest. The values of NNFI&#65380;IFI are most stable across all conditions, values of CFI&#65380;RMSEA and SRMR are less stable, but their variations are rather small, these 5 indices should be recommended. 2. In normal distribution conditions, when sample size≥1000, model right-wrong judgment based on NNFI&#65380;IFI&#65380;CFI&#65380;RMSEA&#65380;SRMR all have low two type error (α+β) rate. But distribution forms are non-normal and when sample size<1000, α+β error rate cannot be reduced to satisfactory level. 3. 2-indices strategy recommended by Hu & Bentler(1999) cannot reduce α+β error rate significantly in many conditions. 4. Since model judgment is difficult when samples are small and distributions are non-normal, we present 2-cutoff-value strategy. 2-cutoff-value strategy means, when the value of a model is lower than the low bound cut-off of the recommended indices, the model can be judged as wrong, when the value of a model is higher than the upper bound cut-off of the recommended indices, the model can be judged as right, when the value of a model fall between lower and upper bound of the recommended indices, the model cannot be judged as right or wrong. When a model cannot be judged as right or wrong, larger sample size and cross-validation of the model are needed before a clear conclusion can be drawn.
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    Cutoff Values for Testing: How Great the Difference between the True and False Makes Them Distinguishable?
    WEN Zhong-Lin,HAU Kit-Tai
    2008, 40 (01):  119-124. 
    Abstract ( 2049 )  
    Subsequent to Hu and Bentler’s (1998, 1999) simulation studies and proposed cutoff criteria for goodness of fit indices in structural equation analyses, several critiques have been published challenging their research design and results. No more new cutoff criteria for fit indices have been proposed since then. However, the recent paper in this journal titled “Performance of fit indices in different conditions and the selection of cut-off values” (in Chinese) imitated Hu and Bentler’s procedures in search for new cut-off values for goodness of fit indices. The purpose of this paper is to explain why this kind of research design is wrong. By using the simple Z-test analogy, we showed that the cutoff values for testing should never be determined through simulation studies. Classifications were proposed for the various misspecified models against a certain true model in structural equation analyses to demonstrate the variety of differences between the true model and the misspecified models. It is obvious that the cutoff values obtained through simulation studies depend on the magnitude of the difference between the true and the misspecified models being chosen, ignoring the variety of the differences involved. The rationales of statistical testing and cutoff value setting were discussed. Guidelines on testing and evaluating a fitted model or alternative models were deliberated.
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