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    Eliminating threat or venting rage? The relationship between narcissism and aggression in violent offenders
    LIU Yuping, LI Shanshan, HE Yun, WANG Doudou, YANG Bo
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (3): 244-258.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00244
    Abstract111)   HTML10)    PDF (302KB)(1147)      

    Two studies were conducted to explore the relationship and mechanism between narcissism and aggressive behavior of violent offenders. In study 1, a positive correlation was found between narcissism and aggression by questionnaire (N = 498), trait anger was found to mediate between narcissism and premeditated and impulsive aggression, while psychological entitlement was found to only mediate between narcissism and premeditated aggression. Study 2 conducted behavioral experiments on 90 violent offenders. The results showed that perceived threat and negative emotions played a mediating role between narcissism and aggression, and provoca-tion moderated the mediating role. Grandiose narcissists only showed stronger aggression under provocation, whereas vulnerable narcissists showed stronger aggression under provocation and non-provocation. The study clarifies the relationship between narcis-sism and aggression under different subtypes, highlights the “dark side” of vulnerable narcissism, and provides a reference for the management and prevention of criminals.

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    Processing of visual negation
    Dexian HE, Jinhui LI, Miao ZHOU, Yajue CHEN, Yu CHEN, Xianyou HE
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2018, 50 (11): 1249-1258.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.01249
    Abstract1500)      PDF (252KB)(399)      

    Previous research focused on the processing of verbal negation, while there was very little research in the area of visual negation. In this study, the lexical decision paradigm was used to explore the mental simulation of visual negation processing in early, middle, and late processing stages to reveal the mechanism of visual negation. To achieve this goal, we performed three experiments. In each experiment on each trial subjects first viewed a picture, and then after a interstimulus interval (ISI) that varied by experiment, viewed a word and had to decide if the word was consistent with the picture or not.

    Experiment 1 explored the mental simulation of visual negation in early stage of processing using a short 250ms ISI. Participants reacted more quickly to the negative probes which represented the actual final states, as compared with the affirmative probes which represented the negated states. This implies that, in the early stage of the visual negation processing, the final state has already been simulated in the participants’ representation. Although the results did not confirm the two-step-simulation hypothesis, it supported the suppression / retention hypothesis.

    Experiment 2 examined the mental simulation of visual negation in middle stage of processing using a 750ms ISI. The pattern of results was very similar to Experiment 1: participants reacted more quickly to the negative probes that represented the actual final states, as compared with the affirmative probes that represented the negated states. These results imply that the final state was simulated in the participants’ representation during the middle stage of processing.

    Experiment 3 explored the late stage of processing using a 1500ms ISI. The results pattern replicated those of Experiment 1 and Experiment 2, that is, the reaction time to negative probes was significantly faster than to affirmative probes. The results demonstrated that in the late stage of the visual negation processing, participants simulated the actual final state of the visual negative pictures but not the negated state of the visual negative pictures. Again, it disconfirmed the two-step simulation hypothesis, but supported the suppression / retention hypothesis.

    In sum, taken together the findings from the three experiments, we can draw the following conclusions. The actual state was simulated during the processing of visual negation similarly across the early, middle, and late visual processing stages. These results support the theory that simulation occurs in a single step (the one-step simulation view) rather than the two-step simulation view. Second, the suppression / retention hypothesis for the negated information processing in visual negation has been strongly supported.

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    Neural mechanism underlying the effects of object color on episodic memory
    ZHOU Wenjie, DENG Liqun, DING Jinhong
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (3): 229-243.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00229
    Abstract248)   HTML21)    PDF (909KB)(334)      

    Color diagnosticity is the degree to which a color is associated with or symbolizes a particular object. Typical color is often as-sociated with high color diagnostic objects and activates the visual (perceptual) or semantic (conceptual) knowledge in long-term memory. However, the relationship between different processing levels (perceptual and conceptual) of object color information and episodic memory retrieval components (familiarity and recollection) remains poorly understood. It is hypothesized that color infor-mation can facilitate memory encoding at the perceptual level but inhibit it at the conceptual level. In recognition retrieval, color has a greater impact on familiarity and recollection at the perceptual level, while at the conceptual level, recollection is more affected than familiarity.
    In the present study, event-related potential (ERP) and a study-test paradigm were used to investigate the effects of color consis-tency (visual color input and object color knowledge) on episodic memory encoding and retrieval by using pictures and names of objects with high color diagnosticity. Twenty-seven college students participated in experiment 1. During the study phase, a picture of an object in its diagnostic color (such as a red apple) or non-diagnostic color (such as purple banana) was presented on a white background for 500ms. The participants were asked to determine whether the color of the object in each picture was consistent with its actual (diagnostic) color. During the test phase, participants provided old/new judgments about the objects that had appeared in the study phase and the equal number of new items. Twenty-five college students participated in experiment 2. A similar procedure was used for experiment 2, except that items were the names of the objects in their diagnostic or non-diagnostic color rather than pictures. During both experiments, the participants responded by pressing a mouse button. Their reaction time and EEG (electroencephalo-graphy) were recorded.
    The results of experiment 1 showed that, during the encoding phase, color-inconsistent objects were identified less accurately and more slowly, and this triggered a larger N400 than the color-consistent ones. During the retrieval phase, the color-consistent ob-jects were recalled more quickly and accurately, and this triggered larger FN400 (frontal negativity) values than the color-inconsistent objects. However, the opposite effects were observed in experiment 2. Color-inconsistent object names were identified more quickly and accurately, and they elicited the same ERP wave as the color-consistent names. During the recognition stage, the color had an effect only during the period of late positive components (LPCs).
    In conclusion, color was found to have different effects on encoding and retrieval of episodic memory at both the perceptual and semantic levels. (1) Color had different effects on item coding at the perceptual and semantic levels. Color consistency was found to help the viewer identify objects at the perceptual level, but it hindered object identification at the semantic level. (2) Color congru-ence was here found to promote familiarity and recollection in object retrieval (perceptual level), but it only improved recollection of an object’s name (conceptual level). (3) The consistency effect in the processing of object name recognition showed that color was closely related to object name, and it also affected the semantic representation of objects, which further supported the spreading acti-vation model.

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    Evolution of Napoleon complex: Relative height disadvantage, mating motivation and men’s risk-taking behavior
    WU Qi, ZHONG Chunyan, XIE Jingyuan
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (1): 95-110.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00095
    Abstract231)   HTML18)    PDF (442KB)(247)      

    Throughout the animal kingdom, larger animals are more likely to attain dominance and thus enhance their ability to acquire mates. In human males, body height is also associated with the success and failure in sexual selection. For example, studies have found that taller men have higher strength or fighting ability, are more likely to have higher overall income and higher social status, and hold greater potential for acquiring mates. However, shorter men are not necessarily doomed with disadvantages. Previous studies have suggested that men have a flexible status psychology that may allow them to exercise behavioral flexibility (e.g., by showing more indirect aggression or feeling more jealousy toward sexual rivals) to compensate for their disadvantage in height. Given the importance of risk-taking behavior in signalizing the quality of ones’ genes, in the present study, we hypothesized that when encountering a taller same-sex rival, shorter men would compensate for their disadvantages in height by showing more risk-taking behavior, and their mating motives would modulate such an effect.
    This hypothesis was tested by four behavioral studies. We measured risk-taking behavior by employing a well-validated and computerized laboratory task (i.e., Balloon Analogue Risk-Taking Task, BART). In Studies 1 and 2, male or female participants (176 participants in Study 1, and 246 participants in Study 2, respectively) were paired with taller or shorter same-sex opponents, and were asked to compete with their opponents in a computerized game (i.e., the BART task). In Study 3 (255 male participants), we further tested our hypothesis by situationally activating the mating motives of male participants (i.e., by watching videos depicting highly attractive females) and paired them with taller or shorter male opponents in the BART task as in Studies 1 and 2. In Study 4 (90 male participants), we further investigated the effects of chronic mating motive and the relative height disadvantage on men's risk-taking by employing the Mate Seeking scale of Fundamental Social Motives Inventory.
    The results showed that: 1) male participants had significantly higher BART scores (i.e., the average numbers of pumps per unexploded balloon) when their opponents were taller; 2) such an effect was caused by the increase in risk-taking propensity when facing a taller opponent; facing a shorter opponent didn’t affect the risk-taking of male participants (also be compared to a no-height-info control); 3) the relative height difference between participants and their opponents did not affect the risk-taking of female participants; 4) situationally activating the mating motives of male participants significantly affected the effects of relative height disadvantage on male risk-taking; after watching the mating prime, male participants were more likely to elevate their risk-propensity to compensate for their disadvantage in height; 5) male participants with higher level of chronic mating motivation were also more likely to elevate their risk-propensity to compensate for the height disadvantage.
    The above results support our hypothesis, suggesting that men may have evolved a behavioral strategy to elevate their risk-taking propensity to compensate for their height disadvantage, and this strategy is driven by motives of intrasexual competition and mating. Our study thus provides further evidence for the evolutionary theory of Napoleon complex.

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    Functional connectivities of the right temporoparietal junction and moral network predict social framing effect: Evidence from resting-state fMRI
    CUI Fang, YANG Jiamiao, GU Ruolei, LIU Jie
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (1): 55-66.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00055
    Abstract67)   HTML5)    PDF (689KB)(188)      

    As an important cognitive bias, the framing effect shows that individuals' decision preferences are sensitive to the verbal description (i.e., frame) of options. The social framing effect could be distinguished from the non-social one according to whether the decision would influence others. The psychological mechanism of the non-social framing effect (e.g., Gain/Loss framing effect) and that of the social one are essentially different. When people make non-social decisions, frames affect their judgment of which option is more beneficial or less risky. When people make social decisions, frames affect their preferences through other-regarding concerns and social norms.
    In the present study, a new paradigm was developed to induce the social framing effect. We asked participants to make a tradeoff between economic benefits and the feelings of others; when participants showed a stronger preference for income maximization, the probability for their partners to receive a painful electrical shock would increase proportionally. This decision was described as either a “harm” to, or simply “not helping” other persons in two frame conditions. 30 participants (age: 20.58 ± 1.91 years old) were enrolled in the experiment and 24 of them were included in the final analysis. The resting-state functional magnetic resonance (rs-fMRI) data was acquired using the Echo Planar Imaging (EPI) sequence from a 3-T Siemens scanner. This scanning acquired 180 volumes with TR = 2 s (lasting 6 min). Rs-fMRI data were processed and analyzed using the DPABI and RESTplus toolbox to calculate the amplitude of low-Frequency Fluctuation (ALFF) and Functional Connectivity (FC).
    At the behavioral level, we found that participants made more prosocial decisions in the Harm frame compared to the Help frame condition, resulting in a significant social framing effect. For the resting fMRI analysis, we first run a whole-brain correlation analysis between ALFF and the behavioral index and found the ALFF of the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) could significantly predict the behavioral index of the social framing effect. Considering the observed social framing effect would result from different levels of moral conflict between Harm and Help frames, we predicted that it would be closely related to the moral network. Therefore, we further localized 12 seeds from a new, meta-analysis of functional MRI studies for moral processing. Seed-based FC analysis showed that the functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and the caudate was significantly associated with the behavioral index of the social framing effect. Multivariate machine learning-based regression analysis further confirmed these results, suggesting the importance of rTPJ and moral network for the observed social framing effect.
    The present study is based on a novel experimental paradigm, using resting functional imaging techniques to explore the brain mechanism of the social framing effect. We found that the ALFF value of the right TPJ and the strength of the functional connectivity value between the medial prefrontal lobe and the caudate within a moral network can effectively predict the social framing effect. This study is the very first one to explore the extent to which individual social decision-making can be influenced by verbal description and its underlying neural mechanisms, which shed light on the further exploration of individual differences in social decision-making.

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    How to facilitate employee green behavior: The joint role of green transformational leadership and green human resource management practice
    PENG Jian, YIN Kui, HOU Nan, ZOU Yanchun, NIE Qi
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (9): 1105-1120.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.01105
    Abstract1342)   HTML10)    PDF (599KB)(161)      

    Faced with the problem of critical environmental pollution, organizations are expected to plan and implement environmental management practices. Employees, as the implementers of environmental management practices, have been considered to play a crucial role in organizational green management. Hence, how to facilitate employee green behavior is of particular importance for contemporary organizations. Employee green behavior is defined as a series of workplace behaviors that contribute to environmental sustainability. Given that employee green behavior is relevant to the sustainable development of the organization, this topic increasingly attracts attention and interest from scholars and practitioners alike. In particular, they have focused on how to facilitate employee green behavior.
    Previous research revealed that green (environmentally specific) transformational leadership and green human resource management practice (HRM) played a crucial role in shaping employee green behavior. However, previous studies took an “either…or…” approach to investigate the effects of green transformational leadership and green HRM (separately), ignoring their joint effects. Recent studies indicated a trend to examine the joint role of leadership and HRM. Accordingly, this study explored the joint role of green transformational leadership and green HRM on employee green behavior in the Chinese context. In particular, we proposed two alternative hypotheses. Drawing on the cue consistency theory, we claimed that green transformational leadership and green HRM positively interacted to shape employee green behavior. Based on the leadership substitute theory, we proposed that green transformational leadership and green HRM negatively interacted to shape employee green behavior. Moreover, we proposed that pro-environmental goal clarity mediated the interactive effect of green transformational leadership and green HRM on employee green behavior.
    We conducted two experiments and one survey study to test our hypotheses. In experiment 1a and 1b (a 2 × 2 between-subject design), the ANOVA results showed that green transformational leadership and green HRM positively interacted to shape individual green behavior, which supported the hypotheses based on cue consistence theory. Specifically, under the condition of high green transformational leadership and high green HRM, individuals were more likely to engage in green behavior. Study 2, a field study based on the survey data from 173 leader-employee dyads, not only replicated the findings of study 1a and 1b but also revealed that the interaction of green HRM and green transformational leadership was positively related to employee green behavior through the mediating role of pro-environmental goal clarity.
    This study contributes to the literature in several ways. First, by revealing the positive interactive effect of green transformational leadership and green HRM on employee green behavior, our findings guide us toward a better understanding of how to facilitate employee green behavior from a comprehensive and balanced perspective. Second, by revealing the mediating role of pro-environmental goal clarity, this study contributes to a detailed understanding of how green HRM and green transformational leadership jointly influence employee green behavior. Finally, for practitioners, our results provide some implications on ways to promote employee green behavior, such as adopting green HRM and simultaneously developing the leaders’ green transformational leadership.

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    Influence of maternal negative parenting, peer victimization and the FKBP5 gene on adolescent depressive symptoms
    TIAN Xiangjuan, CAO Yanmiao, ZHANG Wenxin
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (12): 1407-1420.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.01407
    Abstract120)   HTML16)    PDF (564KB)(159)      

    Depression is one of the most prevalent mental health problems during adolescence. Research has indicated that distal stress and proximal stress as well as their interaction are important predictors of adolescent depressive symptoms. There are two different hypotheses — cumulative stress hypothesis and match-mismatch hypothesis — to understand the interaction between distal stress and proximal stress. It has been suggested that an individual’s genetic susceptibility may determine which of these two hypotheses is relevant, but very little empirical research has considered the impact of genetic predisposition on these issues. Furthermore, recent researchers have paid attention to the cumulative genetic score (CGS) of multiple loci rather than to single polymorphism. The present study was designed to extend prior research by exploring whether the interaction effects of distal maternal negative parenting and proximal peer victimization were consistent with the cumulative stress hypothesis or the match-mismatch hypothesis, for adolescents who carried higher or lower CGS of FKBP5 gene.
    In this study, 970 adolescents (48.8% male) were followed from Grade 6 to Grade 9. At T1 (Mage = 12.31 years, SD = 0.47), adolescent depressive symptoms were assessed using Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI). Mothers reported their negative parenting via the Chinese version of Child-Rearing Practices Report (CRPR). At T2 (Mage = 15.32 years, SD = 0.47), saliva samples of adolescents were collected and genotyped for three FKBP5 gene polymorphisms. Peer victimization and depressive symptoms were tested using Multidimensional Peer Victimization Scale (MPVS) and CDI, respectively. A series of hierarchical regressions and internal replication analyses were conducted to test the three-way interaction among maternal negative parenting, peer victimization and CGS of FKBP5 on depressive symptoms, separately for male and female adolescents.
    The results showed that, after T1 depressive symptoms were controlled for, maternal negative parenting, peer victimization and CGS had a significant three-way interaction on male adolescent depressive symptoms at T2. Specifically, among male adolescents who had higher CGS, maternal negative parenting negatively predicted depressive symptoms in the context of higher peer victimization, which fitted better with the match-mismatch hypothesis. The interaction between negative parenting and peer victimization was not significant among males with lower CGS, but showed a cumulative stress trend. The three-way interaction was not observed among females.
    By examining the interaction effect of maternal negative parenting, peer victimization and CGS on depressive symptoms, the present study highlights the important role of individuals’ genetic susceptibility in understanding the distal and proximal stress interactions during adolescence. This underscores the complex environmental and multiple loci underpinnings of depressive symptoms and lends some support for both the cumulative stress and match-mismatch hypotheses on the etiology of depressive symptoms.

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    Attentional Bias Toward Face-related Words Among Females with Facial Negative Physical Self: Evidence from An Eye-movement Study
    KOU Hui, SU Yanhua, LUO Xiaochun, CHEN Hong
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2015, 47 (10): 1213-1222.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01213
    Abstract2406)      PDF (791KB)(159)      

     Previous studies found cognitive bias toward body-related information among individuals with fat negative physical self. However, little is known about the cognitive bias toward face-related information among individuals with facial negative physical self (FNPS).

    The current study aimed to investigate the attentional bias towards face-related words among females with FNPS. A modified dot probe paradigm was adopted. In the experiment, we used positive and negative face-related words as stimuli. A pair of words was presented in each trial. There were totally four types of word pairing conditions: positive face-related word-neutral word condition (PosNeu), negative face-related word-neutral word condition (NegNeu), positive face-related word-negative face-related word condition (PosNeg), and neutral word -neutral word condition (NeuNeu). We recorded the eye-movement while subjects were viewing the words.
    In NegNeu condition, we found that, compared to controls, females with FNPS were more frequently and faster to direct their initial gazes to negative face-related words. Furthermore, they also showed a longer fixation on the negative word. However, the total gaze durations on both types of words were not significantly different. These results implied an attention vigilance-maintenance pattern for negative face-related words. In contrary, females with FNPS showed a slower rate to direct their gazes to positive words in PosNeu condition. Consistently, in PosNeg condition, females with FNPS showed the same attentional bias toward negative face-related words compared to positive face-related words. Furthermore, behavioral results showed that females with FNPS had difficulty in attention disengagement from negative face-related words, which were evident in both NegNeu and PosNeg condition.

    In conclusion, our results demonstrated that females with FNPS had an attention vigilance-maintenance pattern toward negative face-related words.

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    The brain mechanism of explicit and implicit processing of affective prosodies: An fNIRS study
    LEI Zhen, BI Rong, MO Licheng, YU Wenwen, ZHANG Dandan
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (1): 15-25.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00015
    Abstract125)   HTML15)    PDF (1112KB)(158)      

    Emotional expressions of others embedded in speech prosodies are important for social interactions. Affective prosody refers to a way to express and convey emotions through the dynamic changes of various acoustic cues such as pitch, intensity, stress, and intonation in speech, without relying on vocabulary and grammatical structure. Previous studies have shown that STC, IFG, OFC, and other cerebral cortex and subcortical structures are involved in affective prosody processing, and gradually formed a hierarchical model. However, existing studies on the neural mechanism of affective prosody processing mostly focus on the difference between non-neutral affective prosody and neutral prosody, while the comparison between various non-neutral affective prosody is less investigated. Besides, the differences involved in brain regions of affective prosody processing under explicit and implicit tasks are still not clear. Furthermore, it is necessary to further accumulate experimental evidence based on noise-free brain imaging technology such as fNIRS, which has a noise-free feature and is especially suitable for speech processing research.

    This study used functional near-infrared spectroscopy to investigate how speech prosodies of different emotional categories are processed in the cortex under different task conditions. A group of 25 college students participated in this study with a 3 (emotion: angry vs. fearful vs. happy) í 2 (task focus: explicit vs. implicit) within-participant factorial design. We manipulated task focus by adopting two different tasks, with emotional discrimination task as explicit condition and sex discrimination task as implicit condition. Ten phonological materials for each of angry, fearful, and happy prosody were selected from the Chinese Speech Emotion Database and consisted of the corresponding affective prosodies and neutral prosodies. The emotional explicit task was to count the affective and neutral sentences contained in each 10-second speech, and the affective implicit task was to count the sentences played by two women in each 10-second speech. A multi-channel fNIRS system was used to record brain activity in a continuous waveform. According to existing literature, the brain regions observed in this study are the bilateral frontal and temporal lobes. Therefore, we used 13 emitters and 15 detectors to form 37 effective observation channels.

    We first adopted NirSpark-2442 software to preprocess the data, and then conducted general linear model analyses to calculate the cortical activation related to the task. The results showed that the brain activation was significantly higher when angry prosody was contrasted to fearful and happy ones in left frontal pole / orbitofrontal cortex, when happy prosody was contrasted to fearful and angry ones in left inferior frontal gyrus, and when fearful prosody was contrasted to angry and happy ones in right supramarginal gyrus. Importantly, there was an interaction between emotion and task. In the explicit task, cortex activity in the right supramarginal gyrus was more sensitive to fearful prosody than to angry and happy ones. But no similar results were found under angry and happy prosody. In addition, the brain activation in temporopolar, superior temporal gyrus, and middle temporal gyrus in the explicit task was greater than that in the implicit task.

    The present study demonstrated the specific brain regions for processing angry, fearful and happy prosody were left frontal pole / orbitofrontal cortex, right supramarginal gyrus, and left inferior frontal gyrus, respectively, and revealed the important role of right superior temporal gyrus and right supramarginal gyrus in emotional explicit task. These findings partially support the hierarchical model of affective prosody and question the third level of the model.

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    The multiple phonological activation in Chinese spoken word production: An ERP study in a word translation task
    ZHANG Qingfang, QIAN Zongyu, ZHU Xuebing
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (1): 1-14.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00001
    Abstract244)   HTML24)    PDF (1655KB)(152)      

    A debatable issue regarding serial discrete models and interactive models is whether non-target lemmas activate their phonological words in spoken word production. Serial discrete models assume that only target lemma activates its corresponding phonological node to articulation, whereas interactive models assume that the semantic and phonological nodes linked to multiple candidates are co-activated during the retrieval of target word. Multiple phonological activation has been supported by evidences from alphabetic languages, but it remains unknown whether this finding can be generalized to non-alphabetic languages. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate whether the not-to-be named pictures activate their phonological nodes in Chinese spoken word production.
    Using electrophysiological measures, the present study employed a word translation task in native Chinese speakers with a high level of English proficiency. Thirty-two participants (13 males, average 22.94 years) were presented with an English probe word and a context picture (semantically related or unrelated, phonologically related or unrelated to target word) simultaneously. Eighty-six English probe words from CELEX database and forty-three black and white line pictures from a standardized picture database in Chinese were chosen as stimuli. Participants were asked to translate English probe words into Chinese as accurately and quickly as possible while ignoring context pictures presented simultaneously.
    Behavioral results showed a typical semantic facilitation effect, with faster translation latencies in the semantically related condition than in the semantically unrelated condition. More importantly, phonological overlap, which generally elicits priming in Indo-European languages, resulted in a null finding for Chinese production. Electrophysiological results revealed that semantic relatedness induced significant ERPs effects after stimuli presentation: a widely distributed positivity in the 400- to 600-ms interval, while marginally significant effects were observed for phonological relatedness in the time interval of 600-700 ms in the right middle region. Furthermore, a negative correlation between the difference of translation latencies (semantically related minus semantically unrelated) and the difference of mean amplitudes (semantically related minus semantically unrelated) approached significance in the 400-600 ms time window in the middle posterior region, suggesting that more positive mean amplitudes were associated with shorter translation latencies.
    Although speakers present a weak but reliable neural activation, we suggest that phonological overlap between context pictures and target words had no impact on the translation processing in behavioral results. That is, the non-target lemma did not activate its phonological node, and multiple phonological activation was absent in Chinese spoken production. Meanwhile, the semantic information of context pictures was indeed activated, and according to the temporal course of word translation, the time window of 400-600 ms was estimated to reflect conceptual preparation when Chinese-English bilinguals completed a word translation task, although this activation was not transmitted from semantic level to phonological level. Overall, the present findings support a serial discrete model rather than an interactive model in Chinese spoken word production.

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    The word frequency effect of fovea and its effect on the preview effect of parafovea in Tibetan reading
    GAO Xiaolei, LI Xiaowei, SUN Min, BAI Xuejun, GAO Lei
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (10): 1143-1155.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.01143
    Abstract408)   HTML39)    PDF (305KB)(150)      

    In the process of reading, readers mainly obtain information through the foveal region—in particular, the parafovea plays an important role in information acquisition. Readers can obtain certain information from the parafovea through preview processing, thus promoting the improvement of reading efficiency, which is called the “preview effect”. The effect of the processing load of the fovea on the preview effect of parafovea has become a popular research focus in recent years. For example, studies based on alphabetic writing have found that the preview effect of the parafovea is greater for high-frequency and short words than for low-frequency and long words. While Tibetan is an analphabetic language, it also belongs to the Sino-Tibetan language family and has many similarities with Chinese. However, it is still largely unclear how to reflect the above role in the process of Tibetan reading. Will it only show the common characteristics of alphabetic languages or will it show some Chinese characteristics? The present study aimed to provide experimental evidence for these research questions.

    Two experiments were carried out on 119 Tibetan undergraduate students. More specifically, participants were asked to read Tibetan sentences and their eye movements during reading were recorded using a SR Research EyeLink 1000Plus eye tracker (sampling rate = 1000 Hz). Experiment 1 manipulated the foveal word frequency (i.e., high vs. low frequency) to investigate the word frequency effect and word frequency delay effect of foveal words in Tibetan reading. The results showed a word frequency effect and a word frequency delay effect in Tibetan reading. Experiment 2 manipulated both foveal word frequency and parafoveal preview word types with the aid of boundary paradigm to investigate the preview effect of parafovea and the effect of foveal word frequency on the preview effect of parafovea in Tibetan reading. The results showed a preview effect of parafovea in Tibetan reading and that, when compared with low-frequency foveal words, high-frequency foveal words had a greater promoting effect on the preview effect of parafovea.

    The primary findings can be summarized as follows: (1) significant word frequency effect exists in Tibetan reading, which is reflected in the whole process of vocabulary processing; (2) there is a significant word frequency delay effect in Tibetan reading, which runs through the whole process of vocabulary processing; (3) there is a significant preview effect of parafovea in Tibetan reading, through which the reader can extract phonology and font information; and (4) in Tibetan reading, foveal word frequency affects the size of the preview effect of parafovea—moreover, word frequency only affects the extraction of font preview information in the early stage of lexical processing; that is, the preview effect of high-frequency words is greater under the condition of font preview.

    In conclusion, the effect of the processing load of fovea on the preview effect of parafovea shows the common characteristics of alphabetic writing in Tibetan reading. In addition, this study found that reading Tibetan involves the word frequency delay effect and the preview effect of parafovea. These findings support theory of parafovea sequence processing in the E-Z reader model.

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    Testosterone and aggressive behavior in juvenile offenders with antisocial tendency: The mediation effect of hostile attention bias and the moderation effect of cortisol
    REN Zhihong, ZHAO Ziyi, YU Xianglian, ZHAO Chunxiao, ZHANG Lin, LIN Yuzhong, ZHANG Wei
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (11): 1288-1300.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.01288
    Abstract93)   HTML18)    PDF (339KB)(145)      

    Juvenile crime, as an important factor of public security, has extensively concerned the whole society. Although juvenile offenders with antisocial tendency exhibit unique behavior patterns and development characteristics, few studies have investigated the potential mechanism of aggressive behaviors in juvenile offenders. Based on the dual-hormone hypothesis and social information processing theory, It is plausible to argue that biological hormones and the social information processing process related to hostile might play an fundamental role in shaping aggressive behaviors of juvenile offenders. Therefore, the present study proposes a moderated mediating model and examined the prediction of testosterone for aggressive behaviors in juvenile offenders that is mediated by hostile attention bias and moderated cortisol. Drawing on both biological hormone and social cognition perspectives, the present study attempts to answer the questions of “how” testosterone affects aggressive behavior and “when” the effect will be present, which provides implications for further developing interventions against aggressive behaviors in juvenile offenders with antisocial tendency.
    This study included 84 juvenile offenders (average age: 17.55, standard deviations: 0.52) as participants. Their aggressive behavior was measured using the Chinese version of the Buss-Perry Attack Scale (AQCV). Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was utilized to measure the salivary testosterone and cortisol levels of the participants. Moreover, the participants’ attention biases toward hostile aggressive phrases and hostile facial expressions were evaluated using an adopted eStroop and the dot-probe paradigm, respectively. Both traditional and trail-level attention bias scores were calculated to reflect the participants’ attention bias statically and dynamically.
    Results showed that (1) attention bias toward hostile stimuli (TLBS-Variability, Peak TL-BSnegative) played a complete mediation role in the relationship between testosterone and aggressive behavior (i.e. variability played a complete mediation role in the prediction of AQCV total score, physical aggression subscale score, and anger subscale score. Peak TL-BSnegative played a complete mediation role in the prediction of verbal aggression subscale score by testosterone). (2) Cortisol moderated the relationship between testosterone and attention bias toward hostile stimuli. More specifically, at a high cortisol level, testosterone positively predicted individual attention avoidance (Peak TL-BSnegative) and variability (TLBS-Variability), thereby reducing the aggression level. However, the mediation effect of attention bias toward hostile stimuli was not significant at a low cortisol level.
    Based on the dual-hormone hypothesis and social information processing theory, the present study examined a moderated mediating model in a sample of juvenile offenders with antisocial tendency using the perspectives of biological hormone and social information processing in aggressive behaviors. The present study revealed a potential development mechanism of aggressive behaviors in juvenile offenders and thus provides an empirical foundation for hormone-based interventions against aggressive behaviors in juvenile offenders. Finally, on the basis of the mediation and moderation effects of biological hormones on aggressive behavior, the present study indicates that increasing attention avoidance and the cortisol level for juvenile offenders with antisocial tendency might help reduce their aggressive violence.

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    The relationship between musical training and inhibitory control: An ERPs study
    CHEN Jiejia, ZHOU Yi, CHEN Jie
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (12): 1365-1376.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.01365
    Abstract272)   HTML57)    PDF (728KB)(144)      

    Inhibitory control, a fundamental component of executive function, refers to the ability to control one’s attention and suppress internal and external interferences effectively to achieve the setting targets. It plays a crucial role in allowing us to adapt to the environment and serves as a basis of other cognitive functions, such as reasoning, planning and learning. Moreover, several psychiatric disorders, such as addictions, attention deficit hyperactivity and obsessive-compulsive disorder have been shown to involve deficits in inhibitory control. Thus, establishing ways in which inhibitory control can be improved constitutes an important issue for psychologists and medical scientists. In recent years, musical training has been suggested to be associated with improved executive functions, such as inhibitory control. However, the overall findings in these studies have been mixed. While some studies indicated a positive relationship between musical training and inhibitory control, other studies showed no facilitative effect of musical training. Importantly, however, inhibitory control is not a single function, but can be divided into response inhibition and interference control. Previous studies that assessed the relationship between musical training and inhibitory control failed to investigate these two separate components within the same experiment. Furthermore, its underlying neural mechanism remains elusive. Based on these considerations, the present study aimed to examine the relationship between musical training and inhibitory control through the Go/No-go (response inhibition) and Stroop (interference control) tasks by using the event-related potentials (ERPs).
    Experiments were carried out in an acoustically and electrically shielded room, and lasted approximately 40 minutes. In the Go/No-go task, participants had to press a keyboard button in response to white shapes (Go trials, 75%), while they had to inhibit responding to purple shapes (No-go trials, 25%). Each stimulus was presented for 500 ms with an interstimulus interval of 1000 ms. The experiment consisted of 320 trials, which were presented in a random order. The performance was evaluated using a Signal Detection approach by calculating perceptual sensitivity via: d’ = z(No-go hit rate) - z(Go false alarm rate). Higher d’ values indicate better response inhibition. In the Stroop task, participants were presented with Chinese color words (red, green, blue, yellow), printed in different colors. Stimuli were divided into word-color consistent trails (congruent, 50%) and word-color inconsistent trails (incongruent, 50%). A stimulus was presented for 1000 ms with a random interstimulus interval of 1000~1500 ms. Participants had to name the color in which the word was presented without paying attention to the word’s meaning. The experiment consisted of 240 trials, presented in a random order. The difference between accuracy in the congruent and the incongruent conditions is referred to as the Stroop interference effect. Smaller effects are indicative of better interference control. The experimental sequence was balanced between participants.
    The behavioral results showed that the music group had a smaller interference effect than the control group in the Stroop task, while both groups performed similarly in the Go/No-go task. As for the ERP results, in Go/No-go task, the amplitudes of the N2 (N2d) and P3 difference waves, contrasting No-go and Go trials, were larger in music group than in control group. In the Stroop task, the amplitude of the N450 (N450d) difference wave, contrasting congruent and incongruent trials, were also larger in music group than in control group. However, the amplitude of the SP (SPd) difference wave, which serves as an index of conflict resolution, was similar between the two groups.
    The aim of the present study was to explore the influence of music training on the cognitive and neural mechanisms governing inhibitory control. The present results supported the hypothesis that individuals that received music training had stronger conflict monitoring and motor inhibition abilities when completing the response inhibition task, as well as a better conflict monitoring ability when completing the interference control task. This indicates a potential association between music training and inhibitory control.

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    Can negative emotion of task-irrelevant working memory representation affect its attentional capture? A study of eye movements
    HUANG Yuesheng, ZHANG Bao, FAN Xinhua, HUANG Jie
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (1): 26-37.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00026
    Abstract113)   HTML14)    PDF (445KB)(132)      

    Task-irrelevant negative emotional stimuli can divert attention away from the current task, thus resulting in lower performance on the current task. This attentional bias to task-irrelevant emotional stimuli was explained by the hypothesis in the aspects of the automatic processing of emotional information, the attentional biased competition, or the perceptual load. Despite increasing studies showed that attention could be caught by task-irrelevant representations maintained in working memory (i.e., memory-driven attentional capture), there have been few, if any, studies specifically examining attentional capture by representations of negative emotional stimuli in working memory. Such an issue is helpful for better understanding the mechanism of visual attentional capture of unwanted memory (such as intrusive memory), which has important clinical implications for individuals with traumatic experiences or emotional disorders.
    In this study, a dual-task paradigm consisting of a working memory task and a visual search task was performed with emotional pictures as stimuli. Beyond the end-of-search manual reaction times, the first fixation proportion was used to investigate the effects of the representations of task-irrelevant negative emotional stimuli on attentional selection at the early stage of the visual search task. In Experiment 1, the effects of the valence (negative vs. neutral) of task-irrelevant emotional stimuli on attentional capture were investigated. In Experiment 2, neutral emotional stimuli were used as the target in order to eliminate the competitive priority for emotional targets over the distractors. In addition, such manipulation could get an opportunity to compare the difference in attentional capture induced by negative emotional distractors between perceptual level and working memory level.
    The results showed that (1) negative emotional distractors elicit stronger attentional capture than neutral ones when no memory-matched distractor was included in the visual search display; (2) memory-matched distractors caught more attention than those that do not match the representations in working memory, indicating memory-driven attentional capture; (3) the memory-driven attentional capture was not affected by the emotional valence of representations in working memory; and (4) as indicated by the dwell time of the first fixation, after being caught by the memory-matched distractors, attention was accelerated to disengage from those distractors, so that the attentional capture effect indicated by the reaction time was suppressed (in Experiment 1) and even reversed (in Experiment 2).
    It can be concluded that (1) in the early attentional selection stage, memory-driven attentional capture is not affected by the valence of task-irrelevant emotional stimuli in working memory; and (2) after the early attentional capture stage, cognitive control prompts attention to quickly disengage from the memory-matched distractors, and its effect is modulated by the emotional valence of the target.

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    The cross-level double-edged-sword effect of boundary-spanning behavior on creativity
    ZHU Jinqiang, XU Shiyong, ZHOU Jinyi, ZHANG Bainan, XU Fangfang, ZONG Boqiang
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (11): 1340-1351.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.01340
    Abstract84)   HTML21)    PDF (326KB)(130)      

    Boundary-spanning behavior has attracted considerable interest in recent years. Studies on this type of behavior have focused on its positive outcomes from the perspective of social networks. For decades, research has consistently demonstrated that the boundary-spanning behavior produces a wide array of positive results for teams and organizations. However, scholars have found that such behavior has negative outcomes for individuals. Using the conservation of resources theory (COR), we examined the double-edged-sword effect of boundary- spanning behavior on creativity at different levels, as well as its mediating mechanism and boundary conditions.
    To test the proposed theoretical model, we applied multi-wave and multi-source research design. The data were collected from dyads of employees and supervisors in a company. At time 1, the boundary-spanning behavior, role stress, and role breadth self-efficacy were measured. These variables were rated by the employees. Approximately a month later, we asked the supervisors to rate the employees’ creativity. These variables were assessed by mature scales. A total of 536 employees (90.32%) and 111 leaders (82.22%) responded to our survey. Confirmatory factor analyses and average variance extracted were conducted to assess the discriminant validity and convergence validity of the key variables. Multilevel structural equation modeling was used to validate the hypothesis, and Monte Carlo simulation procedures using open-source software R were conducted to test mediation effects.
    Results showed that at the team level, boundary-spanning behavior had a significantly positive effect on team creativity (β = 0.18, p < 0.05). However, at the individual level, boundary-spanning behavior had a significantly negative effect on employees’ creativity (β = -0.02, p < 0.05). At the individual level, boundary-spanning behavior had a significantly positive effect on role stress (β = 0.05, p < 0.01) and role stress had a significantly negative effect on creativity (β = -0.34, p < 0.001). The mediation effect of role stress was significant (β = -0.02, p < 0.05, Monte Carlo = 20000, 95% CI = -0.03, -0.006). This evidence would indicate that the boundary-spanning behavior had a negative effect on individual creativity via role stress. Results also showed that the product term between the boundary-spanning behavior and role-breadth self-efficacy was significant (β = -0.08, p < 0.01). The role-breadth self-efficacy moderated the relationship so that the mediating effect of role stress was stronger for employees with low role-breadth self-efficacy.
    The study illustrated the double-edged-sword effect of boundary-spanning behavior on creativity at different levels as well as the mediating mechanism and boundary conditions regarding the negative effect of boundary- spanning behavior on individual creativity, thereby enriching the literature on boundary-spanning behavior. Furthermore, this study identified the boundary conditions of COR, which broadens the scope of research on this theory.

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    Changes in the network of posttraumatic stress disorder among children after the Wenchuan earthquake: A four-year longitudinal study
    LIANG Yiming, ZHENG Hao, LIU Zhengkui
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (11): 1301-1312.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.01301
    Abstract67)   HTML19)    PDF (1014KB)(125)      
    Previous studies have found temporal differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) development. Clinical workers and researchers have also demonstrated that symptoms of PTSD differ by stage after traumatic events. Recently, the symptom network perspective has contributed substantially to the development of psychopathology due to its important advantage in understanding the role of psychological symptoms in mental disorders. An increasing number of analyses adopting the network approach to study PTSD symptoms have also provided novel insights into PTSD symptomatology. However, changes in children’s long-term PTSD symptomatology are poorly understood. The current study aims to identify changes in the network of PTSD symptoms among children through the network approach.
    A four-year longitudinal study was conducted from 4 months after the Wenchuan earthquake. Four assessments were conducted at four (T1; September 2008), 29 (T2; October 2010), 40 (T3; September 2011) and 52 (T4; September 2012) months following the earthquake. Ultimately, 197 children completed assessments at each time point. The children were in grades four and six at T1 and attended two primary schools located in Beichuan County. Symptoms of PTSD were assessed by the University of California at Los Angeles PTSD Reaction Index based on the DSM-IV. Network analysis was implemented with the qgraph package in R following the standard guidelines by Epskamp and Fried.
    Flashbacks exhibited relatively high centrality at all time points, while other symptoms with high centrality varied across time points. Emotional cue reactivity exhibited high centrality at 4 months, and its centrality decreased over time. Foreshortened future exhibited high centrality at 4, 29 and 40 months, but its centrality decreased to a low level at 52 months. Intrusive thoughts exhibited low centrality at 4 months, but the centrality of this symptom increased to a high level at 29 months. Physiological cue reactivity exhibited low centrality at 4 months, and its centrality increased over time. These findings indicated the distinct temporal variability in the centrality of some PTSD symptoms. The global connectivity of the network increased from 4 to 40 months and then decreased at 52 months.
    The current study enhanced the knowledge of child PTSD symptomatology. Flashbacks might play a key role in the evolution of PTSD symptoms. In addition, different core symptoms might contribute to early and chronic PTSD structures. Emotional cue reactivity and foreshortened future might play key roles in early PTSD structures and then recover in later stages following disasters. Physiological cue reactivity and intrusive thoughts might be core symptoms in chronic PTSD structures. The phenomenon of the increased connectivity of the PTSD symptom network at 40 months may be one reason why previous trauma leads to vulnerability to PTSD. Overall, our study highlighted temporal differences in PTSD symptoms. Different core symptoms in early and chronic PTSD structures should be treated as targets at different stages following disasters in clinical practice.
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    Mediating roles of gratitude, social support and posttraumatic growth in the relation between empathy and prosocial behavior among adolescents after the Ya’an earthquake
    Wenchao WANG, Xinchun WU
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (3): 307-316.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00307
    Abstract8344)      PDF (787KB)(121)      

    Empathy refers to the traits, or tendencies, of a person to affectively experience emotions of concern at the suffering of others and to cognitively adopt another person’s perspective. Possession of empathy has been assumed to encourage prosocial behavior. The mechanisms by which empathy affects prosocial behavior for adolescent survivors of disaster, however, are unclear. Posttraumatic growth (PTG) was considered a common positive change following trauma events and was identified as having a high prevalence rate in various trauma types. After experiencing natural disasters, individuals with high empathy are more vulnerable to their adverse environment and the traumatic situations of others. This results in more psychological pressure and fear, and these pressures and negative emotions force individuals to think about the meaning of trauma, thus promoting the generation of PTG. The emergence of PTG brings positive behavioral change among survivors after the disaster. Therefore, it was suggested that empathy may exert indirect effects on prosocial behavior through PTG.
    According to current theories, empathy has different emotional and cognitive components. When individuals empathize with others, these components are activated, which may lead to gratitude and, in turn, result in prosocial behavior. As a moral barometer, gratitude informs the beneficiary that a benefactor has bestowed a gift. The prosocial behavior of a benefactor toward a beneficiary is thought to produce gratitude within the beneficiary. This then stimulates the beneficiary’s prosocial behavior, further strengthening the benefactor’s own prosocial behavior.
    Furthermore, traumatized survivors with greater empathy may improve communication with others, increase the sense of intimacy, and perceive more support from others—meaning that empathy may lead individuals to have more social support. Social support refers to an individual’s perception of the support provided by others. That perception can be influenced by gratitude. Adolescents with low social support are more likely to interpret other people’s ambiguous actions as aggressive. Thus, stable social relationships seem to promote PTG and prosocial behavior. Taken together, it is possible that empathy can promote prosocial behavior through gratitude, social support, and PTG in post-disaster contexts. The utility of these predictions, however, was unclear.
    To examine the relation between empathy, gratitude, social support, PTG and prosocial behavior, this study used an interpersonal reactivity index scale, gratitude questionnaire, social support questionnaire, posttraumatic growth inventory and prosocial behavior questionnaire to assess 542 adolescents following Ya’an earthquake. The results indicated that after controlling the trauma exposure, empathy have a positive association with prosocial behavior through the following routes: three one-mediator paths of gratitude, social support and PTG, respectively; three two-mediator paths of gratitude via PTG, social support via PTG and gratitude via social support, and one three-mediator path from gratitude to PTG via social support. These findings suggested that following a natural disaster, adolescent survivors’ empathy may have an indirect and positive relation with prosocial behavior by gratitude, social support and PTG.

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    Reciprocal relations between relative deprivation and psychological adjustment among single-parent children in China: A longitudinal study
    XIONG Meng, LIU Ruojin, YE Yiduo
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (1): 67-80.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00067
    Abstract203)   HTML19)    PDF (252KB)(120)      

    Increasing divorce rates in China have led to greater numbers of children growing up in single-parent homes. Previous studies have indicated that such single-parent children reported greater senses of relative deprivation and more psychological adjustment problems than their counterparts in undivided families. However, few studies have yet examined associations between relative deprivation and psychological adjustment and their directions. We thus explored characteristics of relative deprivation, psychological adjustment, and associations among them over 1.5 years beginning March, 2017. A sample of 273 single-parent children (50.5% boys) was recruited from two primary schools and two junior high schools in Hubei, China. Attrition was relatively minor; namely, 93.4% of participants completed all surveys during three assessment waves.

    Participants provided self-report data on individual and group cognitive and individual and group affective relative deprivation, and depression, loneliness, social anxiety, and self-esteem, as well as demographic variables (i.e., gender, academic period, and family economic status). All the measures had good reliability and validity. Results indicated that the relative deprivation of single-parent children was not obvious, and psychological adjustment was generally good. Boys reported higher levels of depression and loneliness than girls. Moreover, single-parent children with poor family economic status reported higher levels of relative deprivation, depression, and loneliness, as well as lower levels of self-esteem than their counterparts.

    To explore the possible reciprocal relations between relative deprivation and psychological adjustment, as well as to separate between-person effects from within-person effects, we analyzed data by using the random intercepts cross-lagged panel model (RI-CLPM). Results showed that there were reciprocal relations between relative deprivation and psychological adjustment at the within-person level when controlling for between-person effects and key demographic variables. Specifically, initial relative deprivation significantly negatively predicted psychological adjustment at Time 2, which in turn negatively predicted relative deprivation at Time 3. Moreover, relative deprivation at Time 2 also negatively predicted psychological adjustment at Time 3. These reciprocal relations between relative deprivation and psychological adjustment did not differ by gender and academic period (i.e., primary or secondary school). However, the association between psychological adjustment and relative deprivation was stronger for single-parent children with poor family economic status than for those with good family economic status.

    These observations expand the understanding of the complex relations between relative deprivation and psychological adjustment among single-parent children in China. Additionally, they have important implications for intervention and improvement of mental health for vulnerable groups, especially single-parent children. For instance, programs that aim to improve the mental health of single-parent children and to reduce the levels of relative deprivation among this vulnerable group may be helpful in breaking the detrimental cycle between relative deprivation and psychological adjustment.

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    A meta-analysis of the effect of crowding on consumers’ emotional reactions and shopping-related behavioral reactions
    LIU Wumei, MA Zengguang, WEI Xuhua
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2020, 52 (10): 1237-1252.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.01237
    Abstract776)   HTML10)    PDF (650KB)(119)      

    In the last few years, marketing scholars have been showing increasing interest in examining how crowding affects consumers’ emotions and behaviors. As a result, empirical literature on crowding has been growing rapidly. However, the crowding literature in Marketing has reported many inconsistent findings which need to be reconciled. The current meta-analysis paper aims to find out the reasons for heterogeneity in the findings of previous studies on crowding.

    In this meta-analysis, the authors analyzed 149 effect sizes from 38 Eastern and Western empirical studies and 81 samples. Each author independently coded the data and discrepancies were resolved through discussion. Based on the measures of crowding used in each individual empirical paper, the authors coded two types of crowding, namely social crowding and spatial crowding. First, the authors analyzed the effects of social crowding and spatial crowding on consumers’ emotional reactions and shopping reactions. Next, the authors examined the potential moderation effects of several contextual and methodological factors, including types of shopping environment, the reality of research context, and sources of research samples (western countries vs. eastern countries, students vs. non-students).

    This meta-analysis work obtained many interesting findings. First, this paper documented that social crowding significantly increased consumers’ negative emotions, but dramatically decreased consumers’ dominance. Social crowding was found to be positively correlated with the approach-related shopping responses (ρ = 0.208, N = 28624), and negatively correlated with consumer attitudes and willingness to shop (ρ = -0.135, N = 10094). Second, this paper documented that spatial crowding had a significant negative effect on avoidance-related shopping responses (ρ = -0.409, N = 3223), but had no significant influence on the approach- related shopping responses. Furthermore, moderation analyses showed that some of the aforementioned main effects were significantly moderated by types of shopping environment (utilitarian vs. hedonic), the reality of the context (virtual vs. real), and sources of research samples (western countries vs. eastern countries, students vs. non-students).

    To summarize, this paper makes several important theoretical advances. First, drawing on several psychological theories on individuals’ reactions to the crowding environment, this paper builds a relatively unified research framework on consumers’ reactions to crowding. More importantly, this paper also tests this framework via meta-analyzing the effects of social crowding and those of spatial crowding on consumers’ emotional reactions and shopping-related behavioral responses, respectively. The results suggest that the overall influence of crowding on individuals’ emotion and behavior is not as large as that reported in previous studies. Second, by examining the moderation effects of several situational and methodology-related factors, this paper is able to explain why prior literature on crowding has reported inconsistent findings. Finally, this meta-analysis work also puts forth several intriguing and testable future research hypothese. In addition to advancing theory, the current paper’s findings also have practical implications. Companies and managers should consider reducing consumers’ spatial crowding perceptions of the shopping environment. However, it is not wise for firms to universally adopt a policy of decreasing consumers’ perceptions of pedestrian volume.

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    The effects of employee mindfulness on spouse family satisfaction and work engagement
    NI Dan, LIU Chenlin, ZHENG Xiaoming
    Acta Psychologica Sinica    2021, 53 (2): 199-214.   DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00199
    Abstract94)   HTML11)    PDF (313KB)(117)      

    Based on the conservation of resources (COR) theory, the data of 114 employees of a commercial bank and their spouses were collected by experience sampling methodology. The results showed that, at the within-person level, employee mindfulness was positively related to their spouse family satisfaction and work engagement the next morning via employee strategic emotional connecting display. Spouse family negative emotional expression at the between-person level moderated the relationship between employee mindfulness and employee strategic emotional connecting display, and the mediating effect of employee strategic emotional connecting display; that is, the higher level the spouse family negative emotional expression, the weaker the effects of employee mindfulness on employee strategic emotional connecting display and the mediating effect of employee strategic emotional connecting display.

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