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ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

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    25 March 2021, Volume 53 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue

    Reports of Empirical Studies
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    Reports of Empirical Studies
    Neural mechanism underlying the effects of object color on episodic memory
    ZHOU Wenjie, DENG Liqun, DING Jinhong
    2021, 53 (3):  229-243.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00229
    Abstract ( 248 )   HTML ( 21 )  
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    Color diagnosticity is the degree to which a color is associated with or symbolizes a particular object. Typical color is often as-sociated with high color diagnostic objects and activates the visual (perceptual) or semantic (conceptual) knowledge in long-term memory. However, the relationship between different processing levels (perceptual and conceptual) of object color information and episodic memory retrieval components (familiarity and recollection) remains poorly understood. It is hypothesized that color infor-mation can facilitate memory encoding at the perceptual level but inhibit it at the conceptual level. In recognition retrieval, color has a greater impact on familiarity and recollection at the perceptual level, while at the conceptual level, recollection is more affected than familiarity.
    In the present study, event-related potential (ERP) and a study-test paradigm were used to investigate the effects of color consis-tency (visual color input and object color knowledge) on episodic memory encoding and retrieval by using pictures and names of objects with high color diagnosticity. Twenty-seven college students participated in experiment 1. During the study phase, a picture of an object in its diagnostic color (such as a red apple) or non-diagnostic color (such as purple banana) was presented on a white background for 500ms. The participants were asked to determine whether the color of the object in each picture was consistent with its actual (diagnostic) color. During the test phase, participants provided old/new judgments about the objects that had appeared in the study phase and the equal number of new items. Twenty-five college students participated in experiment 2. A similar procedure was used for experiment 2, except that items were the names of the objects in their diagnostic or non-diagnostic color rather than pictures. During both experiments, the participants responded by pressing a mouse button. Their reaction time and EEG (electroencephalo-graphy) were recorded.
    The results of experiment 1 showed that, during the encoding phase, color-inconsistent objects were identified less accurately and more slowly, and this triggered a larger N400 than the color-consistent ones. During the retrieval phase, the color-consistent ob-jects were recalled more quickly and accurately, and this triggered larger FN400 (frontal negativity) values than the color-inconsistent objects. However, the opposite effects were observed in experiment 2. Color-inconsistent object names were identified more quickly and accurately, and they elicited the same ERP wave as the color-consistent names. During the recognition stage, the color had an effect only during the period of late positive components (LPCs).
    In conclusion, color was found to have different effects on encoding and retrieval of episodic memory at both the perceptual and semantic levels. (1) Color had different effects on item coding at the perceptual and semantic levels. Color consistency was found to help the viewer identify objects at the perceptual level, but it hindered object identification at the semantic level. (2) Color congru-ence was here found to promote familiarity and recollection in object retrieval (perceptual level), but it only improved recollection of an object’s name (conceptual level). (3) The consistency effect in the processing of object name recognition showed that color was closely related to object name, and it also affected the semantic representation of objects, which further supported the spreading acti-vation model.

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    Eliminating threat or venting rage? The relationship between narcissism and aggression in violent offenders
    LIU Yuping, LI Shanshan, HE Yun, WANG Doudou, YANG Bo
    2021, 53 (3):  244-258.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00244
    Abstract ( 111 )   HTML ( 10 )  
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    Two studies were conducted to explore the relationship and mechanism between narcissism and aggressive behavior of violent offenders. In study 1, a positive correlation was found between narcissism and aggression by questionnaire (N = 498), trait anger was found to mediate between narcissism and premeditated and impulsive aggression, while psychological entitlement was found to only mediate between narcissism and premeditated aggression. Study 2 conducted behavioral experiments on 90 violent offenders. The results showed that perceived threat and negative emotions played a mediating role between narcissism and aggression, and provoca-tion moderated the mediating role. Grandiose narcissists only showed stronger aggression under provocation, whereas vulnerable narcissists showed stronger aggression under provocation and non-provocation. The study clarifies the relationship between narcis-sism and aggression under different subtypes, highlights the “dark side” of vulnerable narcissism, and provides a reference for the management and prevention of criminals.

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    “You were what you eat”: Food-gender stereotypes and their impact on evaluation of impression
    ZUO Bin, DAI Yuee, WEN Fangfang, GAO Jia, XIE Zhijie, HE Saifei
    2021, 53 (3):  259-272.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00259
    Abstract ( 124 )   HTML ( 17 )  
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    Food plays an important role in social life, endowed with cultural and gender connotations. We used two studies to explore ex-plicit and implicit food-gender stereotypes and their influence on person evaluation (i.e., perceived warmth and competence). Study 1 examined the presence of explicit and implicit food-gender stereotypes using nomination, self-reports, and semantic priming para-digms. The results demonstrated participants held explicit food-gender stereotypes that the male preferred masculine food, and the female preferred feminine food, and female participants hold implicit food-gender stereotypes. In Study 2, we used situational ex-periment and implicit relational assessment procedure to measure participants’ evaluation of the stereotype-(in)consistent targets’ warmth and competence. Results showed that participants implicitly elevated the warmth trait of the stereotype-inconsistent male target.

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    The relationship between social media use and fear of missing out: A meta-analysis
    ZHANG Yali, LI Sen, YU Guoliang
    2021, 53 (3):  273-290.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00273
    Abstract ( 161 )   HTML ( 14 )  
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    Social media use and fear of missing out are both common phenomena in our daily life. Numerous studies have discussed the relationship between these two variables, but the results were mixed. Theoretically, there are two main arguments about the relationship between social media use and fear of missing out. To be specific, the social cognitive theory of mass communication suggested that there was a significant positive correlation between the two variables, while the digital goldilocks hypothesis argued that there may be a U-shaped relationship instead of a significant linear correlation between the two. Empirically, the effect sizes of this relationship reported in the existing literature were far from consistent, with r values ranging from 0 to 0.75. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to explore the strength and moderators of the relationship between social media use and fear of missing out.
    Through literature retrieval, 65 studies consisting of 70 independent effect sizes that met the inclusion criteria were selected. In addition, a random-effects model was selected to conduct the meta-analysis in Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 3.3 software, aiming at testing our hypotheses. The heterogeneity test illustrated that there was significant heterogeneity among 70 independent effect sizes, indicating that the random-effects model was appropriate for subsequent meta-analyses. Based on the funnel plot and Egger's test of regression to the intercept, no significant publication bias was found in the included studies.
    The main effect analysis indicated a significant positive correlation between social media use and fear of missing out (r = 0.38). The moderation analyses revealed that the relationship between social media use and fear of missing out was moderated by the indicator of social media use, as well as the type of social media. Specifically, compared with the frequency, the time as well as the intensity of social media use, social media use addiction had the strongest correlation with fear of missing out; compared with Snapchat and Facebook, Instagram had the strongest correlation with fear of missing out. Other moderators such as gender, age, measurement tools of fear of missing out as well as individualism index did not moderate the relation between these two constructs. The results supported the media effect model, which suggested that social media use, especially social media use addiction may be an important risk factor for individuals’ fear of missing out. Longitudinal studies are needed in the future to explore the dynamic relationship between social media use and fear of missing out.

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    “Will I be judged harshly after trying to help but causing more troubles?” A misprediction about help recipients
    SHANG Xuesong, CHEN Zhuo, LU Jingyi
    2021, 53 (3):  291-305.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00291
    Abstract ( 107 )   HTML ( 13 )  
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    In many cases, people intend to offer help but unfortunately cause more troubles to help recipients. After doing so, helpers often expect negative evaluations from help recipients and therefore may be reluctant to offer help again. Is this prediction accurate? Across six studies (N = 1763), by comparing helpers’ predictions of help recipients’ reactions with help recipients’ actual reactions, the present research revealed a misprediction: helpers overestimated the negative impacts (underestimated the positive impacts) of their behaviors on help recipients when they tried to help but caused more troubles. The reason for this misprediction was that in contrast to helpers’ predictions about help recipients, help recipients paid more attention to helpers’ warmth and less attention to helpers’ competence.

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    Multidimensional psychology of filial piety (xiao): Differences in orientation and changes from ancient to modern times
    GE Xiaoyu
    2021, 53 (3):  306-321.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00306
    Abstract ( 76 )   HTML ( 5 )  
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    Filial piety (xiao) refers to the proper way to treat parents, an important concept in Chinese culture. Past research in the realm of filial piety has had some limitations, such as unsatisfactory reliability and validity, confounding of subjective researcher intent, and omissions of important factors. Here, I have tested an operational conceptualization of filial piety. Specifically, in the pilot study, items were generated in two ways. First, 50 items were adapted from four Chinese philosophical classics. Second, 56 participants were then recruited to list 5–10 characteristics of filial piety, with a total of 337 individually generated descriptors that I collected, which were then grouped into 48 categories. In Study 1, I used exploratory factor analysis to construct a measure of filial piety (N = 633). In Study 2, I used confirmatory factor analysis and tested the correlations of each dimension of filial piety and criterion vari-ables (N = 396 and 206). The results demonstrated that filial piety is composed of nine factors: respecting and pleasing parents, obey-ing parents, being kind and pleasant to parents, adhering to principles without letting parents feel humiliated, accompanying parents, making a name for oneself and letting parents feel honored, yearning for parents, not interfering with parents, and dissuading parents. The nine-factor structure has good reliability, convergent validity, discriminant validity, criterion-related validity, and content validity. Different factors have different patterns of correlations with criterion variables. These findings help to understand the internal struc-ture of filial piety and differentiate its good side from its dark side.

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    Two-level mediated moderation models with single level data and new measures of effect sizes
    LIU Hongyun, YUAN Ke-Hai, GAN Kaiyu
    2021, 53 (3):  322-338.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00322
    Abstract ( 56 )  
    Mediation and moderation analyses are commonly used methods for studying the relationship between an independent variable (X) and a dependent variable (Y) in conducting empirical research. To better understand the relationships among variables, there is an increasing demand for a more general theoretical framework that combines moderation and mediation analyses. Recently, statistical analysis of mediated moderation (meMO) effects has become a powerful tool for scientists to investigate complex processes. However, the traditional meMO model is formulated based on the homoscedasticity assumption, which is most likely to be violated when moderation effects exist. In addition, routinely reporting effect sizes has been recommended as the primary solution to the issue of overemphasis on significance testing. Appropriate effect sizes (ES) for measuring meMO effects are very important in reporting and interpreting inferential results. However, there does not exist an effective measure that allows us to answer the question regarding the extent to which a variable Z moderates the effect of X on Y via the mediator variable (M) in the meMO model.
    The article is organized as follows. First, the two-level moderated regression model proposed by Yuan, Cheng, & Maxwell (2014) was extended to a two-level mediated moderation (2meMO) model with single-level data, the statistical path diagram was structured according to the conceptual model and the equations. Second, several effect sizes were developed for the 2meMO effect by decomposing the total variance of the moderation effect. Third, to estimate the parameters of the 2meMO model and the ES measures of the meMO effects, we developed a Bayesian estimation method to estimate the parameters of the 2meMO model. Fourth, a Monte Carlo simulation study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the 2meMO model and the proposed ES measures against those with the meMO model. Finally, we illustrate the application of the new model and measures with a real data example.
    The simulation results indicate that the size of bias and MSE for parameter estimates are small under both meMO and 2meMO models whether the homoscedasticity assumption hold or not. The results of the coverage rate of the 95% CI for difmoME following 2meMO is comparable to those following meMO when the variance of moderation error is zero, which is the assumption the meMO model is based. However, when the moderation-error variance is nonzero, 2meMO yields more accurate estimates for difmoMO. than meMO does, the advantages of 2meMO over meMO become more obvious as the moderation-error variance increases. The results of Type I error rate indicate that 2meMO controls Type I error rather well, and the rates are close to 0.05 or below 0.05 under all the conditions. However, the Type I error rates of meMO tend to be higher than 0.05 when the moderation-error variance is nonzero. The power rates following the meMO and 2meMO models are comparable for the medium or large sample size, or when there is a large difference in meMO effects. While the value of power following 2meMO is slightly lower than that following meMO at small sample se, this result is mostly due to the inflated Type I error rate of meMO, and larger sample sizes and the smaller moderation-error variances correspond to more accurate estimates of $\phi_{me MO}^{(f)} $. The results also indicate that, when the homoscedasticity assumption of the meMO model is satisfied, the effect size estimates following the two models are about the same. However, when the moderation-error variance is not zero, the results following 2meMO are more accurate than those following meMO.
    In summary, the article developed a 2meMO model with single-level data and proposed several measures to evaluate the size of the meMO effect explained by moderator variables in total, directly, or indirectly. The performance of the 2meMO model is compared against that of the traditional meMO model via Monte Carlo simulations. Results indicate that, when the assumption of homoscedasticity holds, 2meMO yields comparable results with those under meMO. When the homoscedasticity assumption is violated, estimates under 2meMO are more accurate than those under meMO. More importantly, the measures of the size of the meMO effect proposed in this article can be used as a supplement to the test of meMO effects and will meet the needs for reporting ES in practice. Consequently, the 2meMO model is recommended for the analysis of mediated moderation, and the effect sizes (ESs) for the interpretation of the effect according to the questions of interest are better reported.
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