ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 52 ›› Issue (2): 149-161.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.00149

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

3~5岁幼儿权力概念多重隐喻的认知发展

贺晓玲1,2, 陈俊2()   

  1. 1 南昌大学公共管理学院, 南昌 330031
    2 华南师范大学心理学院, 广东省心理健康与认知科学重点实验室, 华南师范大学心理应用研究中心, 广州 510665
  • 收稿日期:2018-06-27 出版日期:2020-02-25 发布日期:2019-12-24
  • 通讯作者: 陈俊 E-mail:chenjunyrh@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    * 2016 年度江西省社会科学规划青年博士基金项目(16BJ23);2017 年度江西省高校人文社会科学研究项目(YY12221);2016 年度教育部人文社会科学重点研究基地重大项目“学生核心价值观形成的心理机制及培养研究”(16JJD190002)

Cognitive development of multiple metaphors of power concepts in 3~5 year-old children

HE Xiaoling1,2, CHEN Jun2()   

  1. 1 School of Public Administration, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, China
    2 School of Psychology, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science, Center for Studies of Psychological Application, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
  • Received:2018-06-27 Online:2020-02-25 Published:2019-12-24
  • Contact: CHEN Jun E-mail:chenjunyrh@163.com

摘要:

为考察3~5岁幼儿“权力”概念的大小、垂直空间和重量多重隐喻的认知发展进程, 研究采用了将权力人物和无权力人物图片放置大圆形或小圆形、垂直空间的上方框或下方框和不平衡跷跷板重端或轻端的图片迫选任务。通过3个实验及综合分析发现:3岁幼儿尚不具备权力隐喻理解能力; 4岁是幼儿权力隐喻理解能力的重要发展时期, 具备正极权力概念的隐喻理解能力, 建立起有权力为“大、高、重”的多重隐喻联结; 5岁幼儿的权力隐喻理解能力进一步增强, 已具备较完整的多重隐喻理解能力, 建立起有权力为“大、高、重”、无权力为“小、下、轻”的多重隐喻联结。3~5岁幼儿“权力”概念的大小、垂直空间和重量多重隐喻理解能力同步发展, 不受隐喻靶域习得时间早晚的影响。系列研究表明, 学龄前幼儿的权力隐喻理解能力发展趋势符合隐喻一致性理论, 隐喻表征的产生并非“有或无”的模式, 而是“渐进”呈现发展。

关键词: 3~5岁幼儿, 权力概念, 多重隐喻, 隐喻一致性理论, 极性编码一致性理论, 认知发展

Abstract:

Conceptual Metaphor Theory assumes that metaphorical mapping represent abstract concepts in terms of concrete ideas. To investigate the cognitive developmental process of multiple metaphors of power concepts in children aged three to five years old, the present study aims to answer three questions: (1) when children’s multiple metaphors of power concepts first develop; (2) whether children can comprehend power concepts through concrete ideas (size, vertical spatial position, and weight) and whether the developmental process is balanced among these three kinds of metaphors; and (3) whether the development of children’s metaphorical perception of power concepts is consistent with metaphor correspondence theory or polarity coding correspondence.

To address the above questions, we conducted three experiments in the present study. A total of 90 preschool children were recruited and divided into three age groups: 3-year-olds, 4-year-olds, and 5-year-olds. Experiment 1 investigated the developmental processing of children’s size metaphor of power concepts, which refers to the perception that a powerful person is large whereas a powerless person is small. The experiment was a 3 (age group: three, four, and five) × 2 (picture type: powerful and powerless) × 2 (size: large and small) mixed design. Participants were requested to place pictures of familiar cartoon figures that exhibited powerful or powerless qualities onto large or small circles. Results revealed that the frequency with which children placed pictures of powerful figures in large circles and those of powerless figures in small circles increased considerably with age. Experiment 2 investigated the developmental processing of children’s vertical spatial metaphor of power concepts, which refers to the perception that a powerful person is spatially up whereas a powerless person is spatially down. The experiment was a 3 (age group: three, four, and five) × 2 (picture type: powerful and powerless) × 2 (spatial position: upper and lower) mixed design. Participants were requested to place pictures of familiar cartoon figures that exhibited powerful or powerless qualities into boxes printed above or below a stick figure. Results revealed that the frequency with which children placed pictures of powerful figures in the upper box and those of powerless figures in the lower box increased considerably with age. Experiment 3 investigated the developmental processing of children’s weight metaphor of power concepts, which refers to the perception that a powerful person is heavy whereas a powerless person is light. The experiment was a 3 (age group: three, four, and five) × 2 (picture type: powerful and powerless) × 2 (weight type: heavy and light) mixed design. Participants were requested to place pictures of familiar cartoon figures that exhibited powerful or powerless qualities into a teeterboard printed with heavy or light sides. Results revealed that the frequency with which children placed pictures of powerful figures in the heavy side and pictures of powerless figures in the light side increased considerably with age.

Taken together, results demonstrated that (1) children aged three have not yet developed metaphors of power concepts. The age of four is an important period for the development of metaphors of power concepts, when the ability of comprehending such metaphors developed. Children aged four could understand positive pole metaphors of power concepts, while children aged five enhanced this capability. In addition, children aged 5 could understand the negative metaphors of power concepts, which means that they developed a comprehensive ability to understand multiple metaphors (size, vertical spatial position, and weight) of power concepts; (2) preschool children had a balanced understanding of multiple metaphors of power concepts; (3) the development of metaphors of power concepts in preschool children is in line with metaphor correspondence theory. Moreover, the development of metaphorical representation does not follow a “with or without” pattern but rather a “gradual” developmental model.

Key words: 3~5 years old children, power concepts, multiple metaphors, Metaphor Correspondence Theory, Polarity Coding Correspondence, cognitive development

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