ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2019, Vol. 51 ›› Issue (8): 857-868.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00857

• 研究报告 •    下一篇

汉字形声字识别中义符和声符的家族效应

王娟1, 马雪梅1, 李兵兵1, 张积家2()   

  1. 1 江苏师范大学教育科学学院, 徐州 221116
    2 中国人民大学心理学系、国家民委民族语言文化心理重点研究基地、教育部民族教育发展中心民族心理与教育重点研究基地, 北京 100872
  • 收稿日期:2018-09-19 出版日期:2019-08-25 发布日期:2019-06-24
  • 通讯作者: 张积家 E-mail:Zhangjj1955@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    * 江苏省自然科学基金青年项目(BK20170234);江苏省自然科学基金青年项目(BK20181008);国家民委民族研究重点项目"少数民族学生双语学习认知规律研究"(2017-GMA-004);江苏高校优势学科建设工程资助项目成果

The neighborhood effect of semantic and phonetic radicals in phonogram recognition

WANG Juan1, MA Xuemei1, LI Bingbing1, ZHANG Jijia2()   

  1. 1 School of Education Science, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, China
    2 Department of Psychology, Renmin University of China, The State Ethnic Affairs Commission Key Research Center for National Language Cultural Psychology, Ethnic Education Development Research Center of Ministry of Education, Beijing 100872, China
  • Received:2018-09-19 Online:2019-08-25 Published:2019-06-24
  • Contact: ZHANG Jijia E-mail:Zhangjj1955@163.com

摘要:

采用词汇判断任务和ERP技术, 操纵义符和声符的家族大小, 考察形声字识别中义符和声符的家族效应。结果发现:(1)当义符为大家族时, 大家族声符字比小家族声符字诱发了更小的P200波幅; 当义符为小家族时, 大家族声符字和小家族声符字诱发的P200波幅差异不显著。(2)大家族声符字比小家族声符字诱发了更大的N400波幅, 但当义符为大家族时, 大、小家族声符字之间的差异比义符为小家族时更加显著。这说明, 义符和声符的家族大小共同影响形声字的识别, 声符的家族效应受义符的家族大小调节。研究表明, 在词汇识别的不同阶段, 义符和声符对资源的获取处于变化状态, 这取决于两者的呈现率差异。整个研究表明, 在形声字的识别中, 义符与声符的作用存在着博弈, 二者作用的此消彼长与加工阶段和家族大小有关。

关键词: 声符, 义符, 家族大小, 形声字识别

Abstract:

Phonograms are comprised of a semantic radical and a phonetic radical. The semantic radical usually implies the meaning of a character, while the phonetic radical offers a phonetic clue for the pronunciation of a character. Prior research has indicated that semantic and phonetic radicals each play an important role in phonogram cognition. However, the way in which the 2 kinds of radicals combine to influence both phonogram recognition and the activation process remains a controversial topic. Neighborhood size is one of the most important characteristics of radicals. The differences induced by the neighborhood size of radicals are called neighborhood effects. Prior studies employed various methods to investigate the roles of semantic and phonetic radicals on phonogram recognition and discovered that phonetic radicals have an advantage in phonogram processing. They also found that the neighborhood size of semantic radicals regulated the relative contributions of semantic and phonetic radicals. However, most of these researchers investigated the roles of semantic and phonetic radicals respectively. Only a few investigators have focused on the comprehensive role of semantic and phonetic radicals in character processing. This study attempted to investigate the comprehensive effect of semantic and phonetic radicals on phonogram recognition.


Participants’ brain responses were recorded using event-related brain potentials. Four types of characters were selected: HH (phonogram comprised of a high-frequency semantic radical and a high-frequency phonetic radical), HL (phonogram comprised of a high-frequency semantic radical and a low-frequency phonetic radical), LL (phonogram comprised of a low-frequency semantic radical and a low-frequency phonetic radical), and LH (phonogram comprised of a low-frequency semantic radical and a high-frequency phonetic radical). A lexical decision task was adopted; the frequency of the entire character and the number of strokes were equivalent for all groups.


The results showed that, for characters with high-frequency semantic radicals (HH and HL), the characters with high-frequency phonetic radicals (HH) elicited a larger P200 waveform component than the characters with low-frequency phonetic radicals (HL). However, for characters with low-frequency semantic radicals (LH and LL), there was no significant difference between the characters with high-frequency phonetic radicals (LH) and those with low-frequency phonetic radicals (LL). Characters with high-frequency phonetic radicals (HH and LH) elicited a larger N400 component than those with low-frequency phonetic radicals (HL and LL), and the N400 differences induced by the neighborhood size of phonetic radicals with high-frequency semantic radicals (HH and HL) were larger than those induced by characters with low-frequency semantic radicals (LH and LL). These results indicate that in the early stage of phonogram recognition, the neighborhood effect of phonetic radicals is regulated by the neighborhood size of semantic radicals. In the late stage of phonogram recognition, the higher the frequency of phonetic radicals, the stronger the semantic activation degree of the character. In general, the neighborhood size of phonetic radicals was found to affect vocabulary accessibility. However, the effect of the neighborhood size of phonetic radicals is regulated by the neighborhood size of semantic radicals.

Key words: semantic radical, phonetic radical, meighborhood size, pictographic recognition

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