ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2017, Vol. 49 ›› Issue (7): 953-965.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2017.00953

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 拖延行为的干预: 计划行为理论和实施意向的影响

林琳   

  1.  (中央财经大学商学院, 北京 100081)
  • 收稿日期:2016-06-14 出版日期:2017-07-25 发布日期:2017-05-26
  • 通讯作者: 林琳, E-mail: linlin@cufe.edu.cn E-mail: E-mail: linlin@cufe.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
     国家自然科学基金青年项目(71101156); 教育部人文社科青年基金项目(10YJC630138)资助。

 Integratin the theory of planned behavior and implementation intention to overcome procrastination

 LIN Lin   

  1.  (Business School, Central University of Finance and Economics, Beijing 100081, China)
  • Received:2016-06-14 Online:2017-07-25 Published:2017-05-26
  • Contact: LIN Lin, E-mail: linlin@cufe.edu.cn E-mail: E-mail: linlin@cufe.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
     

摘要:  本研究以计划行为理论为理论框架, 通过实验操纵实施意向, 采用日记法进行为期5天的纵向追踪, 考察计划行为理论的4个核心变量和实施意向如何影响拖延行为的程度及其动态过程。134名大学生在前一周末共列举了接下来5个工作日内拟完成的668项学习相关任务, 随后每天报告当天的任务完成情况。多层线性模型分析结果表明: (1)行为意向中介态度和行为控制感对拖延程度的影响, 主观规范影响拖延程度的直接效应显著, 但经由行为意向的间接效应不显著; (2)形成实施意向能显著降低拖延程度; (3)行为控制感和实施意向加速任务完成进程, 行为控制感越强, 或形成实施意向, 均显著加快任务完成速度。研究结果对于如何进行拖延行为的干预有一定启示和借鉴。

关键词:  拖延行为, 实施意向, 计划行为理论, 准实验设计, 日记法

Abstract:  Procrastination represents a behavioral tendency to delay beginning or completing a goal-directed action, which results in a gap between intention and behavior. While extant literature has predominately adopted cross-sectional designs to examine the antecedents of procrastination, the current study conducted a quasi- experiment to explore strategies to overcome procrastination by integrating the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and implementation intention. Furthermore, the study employed a daily dairy design to examine how these factors might influence the dynamic process of procrastination over time. One hundred and thirty-four undergraduate students participated in this two-stage study. All participants firstly filled in a general questionnaire to capture their demographic information and individual traits. One week later, on Sunday evening, they were asked to list five academic-related tasks that were assumed to be finished by the end of the upcoming week. Implementation intention was manipulated in which half of the participants were randomly assigned to experimental condition and were instructed to form implementation intention. The other half received no such instruction and served as the control group. In the following week, they were asked to report how much each task was achieved by the end of each day for five consecutive working days. Given the multilevel nature of the data where daily task completion (Level 1) was nested within task (Level 2), and task was further nested within individual (Level 3), hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used for hypothesis testing. Results of series of HLM models indicated that a) all the TPB variables were significantly related to academic procrastination. Specifically, participants procrastinated to a less extent when they had more positive attitude, perceived higher behavioral control, felt stronger subjective norm, and held stronger behavioral intention toward the completion of the task; b) behavioral intention mediated the effects of attitude and perceived behavioral control, but not subjective norm, on procrastination; c) implementation intention mitigated the degree of procrastination such that those instructed to form implementation intention completed higher percentage of planned tasks than their counterparts; d) both perceived behavioral control and implementation intention accelerated the process of task completion in that participants who had higher behavioral control or were instructed to explicitly form action plan were in a higher speed toward task completion. The current study provided empirical evidence that implementation intention manipulation may serve as an effective strategy to overcome procrastination. Specifically, forming implementation intention was effective not only in mitigating the degree of procrastination, but also in accelerating the rate of achieving goals. The potential mediating mechanisms through which implementation intention mitigated behavioral procrastination and accelerated the process of task completion were discussed.

Key words:  procrastination, implementation intention, the theory of planned behavior, quasi-experiment design, daily dairy method

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