ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (6): 787-796.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00787

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

初中青少年自尊发展趋势及影响因素的追踪分析

潘颖秋   

  1. (厦门大学公共政策研究院心理学研究所, 厦门 361005)
  • 收稿日期:2014-02-12 出版日期:2015-06-25 发布日期:2015-06-25
  • 通讯作者: 潘颖秋, E-mail: ypan001@xmu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    教育部人文社科基金(09YJCXLX014), 厦门大学繁荣哲学社会科学项目成果。

Development of Young Adolescents' Self-esteem and Influencing Factors: A Longitudinal Analysis

PAN Yingqiu   

  1. (Institute of Psychology, School of Public Policy, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China)
  • Received:2014-02-12 Online:2015-06-25 Published:2015-06-25
  • Contact: PAN Yingqiu, E-mail: ypan001@xmu.edu.cn

摘要:

本研究采用纵向追踪设计, 从整合的视角考察了亲子关系、师生关系、学业压力以及认知自主对初中青少年自尊发展水平和趋势的影响。结果发现:(1)从初一到初三, 青少年的自尊水平和认知自主水平呈现显著的上升趋势, 师生关系亲密度呈现显著的下降趋势, 亲子关系和学业压力没有明显变化; (2)亲子关系和认知自主对初中青少年的自尊发展有着显著的促进作用, 学业压力对初中青少年的自尊发展有着明显的抑制作用, 师生关系对初中青少年的自尊发展没有明显影响。

关键词: 自尊, 亲子关系, 师生关系, 学业压力, 认知自主

Abstract:

The concept of “contingent self-esteem” emphasizes that self-esteem derives from living up to external standards, such as interpersonal expectations and achievement in a perceived important field. The concept of “true self-esteem” argues that self-esteem derives from the satisfaction of fundamental human needs, such as autonomy and relatedness. To understand how external factors and internal needs work together and shape the development of self-esteem among Chinese young adolescents, a three-year longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the role of external factors, including adolescents’ perceived parent-child relationship, teacher- student relationship, and academic pressure, and the internal need of cognitive autonomy in the development of adolescents’ self-esteem. A total of 321 seventh-grade adolescents were recruited from three public middle schools and participated in the study. 258 adolescents (128 females and 130 males) participated in three consecutive years..The average age for the adolescents was 13.26 years (SD = 0.55). Sample attrition was primarily because students were not available at the time when the questionnaires were administered. To check whether the attrition was selective and affected the results, mean differences in adolescents’ perceived parent-child relationship, teacher-student relationship, academic pressure, cognitive autonomy, and self-esteem were examined between the attrition sample and the longitudinal sample. No significant differences were found. Participants who attended all the three waves of data collection were included in the further data analysis. Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance was used to examine the developmental patterns of independent variables of adolescents’ perceived parent-child relationship, teacher-student relationship, academic pressure, cognitive autonomy, and the dependent variable of self-esteem. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) was used to analyze the prediction of independent variables (e.g., perceived parent-child relationship) to the dependent variable of self-esteem. Results showed that adolescents’ perceived parent-child relationship and academic pressure were overall stable across the three years of middle school and showed a positive and negative prediction to the development of self-esteem, respectively. Adolescents’ perceived teacher-student relationship declined with grade and had no impact on the development of self-esteem. Adolescents’ self-esteem and cognitive autonomy significantly increased with grade and cognitive autonomy had a significant and positive prediction to the development of self-esteem. No gender difference was found in the development of self-esteem. The findings of the present study provided empirical support for both the concept of “contingent self-esteem” and “true self-esteem”. Self-esteem is not only contingent on the external factors of adolescents’ perceived parent-child relationship and academic pressure but also dependent on satisfactions of internal psychological needs, such as cognitive autonomy. Specifically, the internal need of cognitive autonomy stabilizes and promotes the development of young adolescents’ self-esteem while the external factors of adolescents’ perceived parent-child relationship and academic pressure play a role of facilitator and inhibitor in the process, respectively.

Key words: self-esteem, parent-child relationship, teacher-student relationship, academic pressure, cognitive autonomy