ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (6): 797-806.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.00797

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

先入观念对情绪感染力的调节——以教学活动为例

张奇勇1;卢家楣2   

  1. (1扬州大学教育科学学院, 扬州 225002) (2上海师范大学教育学院, 上海 200234)
  • 收稿日期:2014-03-31 出版日期:2015-06-25 发布日期:2015-06-25
  • 通讯作者: 张奇勇, E-mail: tsinyong@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    扬州大学2013年度教学改革课题(YZUJX2013-5B), 扬州大学2014年度人文社科基金项目(2015/01/07/06), 江苏省教育科学“十二五”规划项目青年专项(C-a/2011/01/01), 国家社科基金青年项目(13CXW046)。

The Regulation Effect of Antecedent View on Emotional Contagion: With Examples of Teaching Activities

ZHANG Qiyong1; LU Jiamei2   

  1. (1 The College of Educational Science, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225002, China) (2 Education College, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China)
  • Received:2014-03-31 Online:2015-06-25 Published:2015-06-25
  • Contact: ZHANG Qiyong, E-mail: tsinyong@163.com

摘要:

从以往意识性情绪感染的研究中可以推断出, 情绪感染可以被后继的“观念”所调节, 这种观念可以被无意识提取, 那么情绪感染能不能被“先入观念”所调节呢, 即观念先于情绪感染而存在并对情绪感染的最终效果产生影响。实验情境以教学活动为例, 采用被试内设计, 通过实验前的指导语引导学生树立两种教师评价——“权威”教师(积极的先入观念)和“新手”教师(消极的先入观念), 然后给学生播放两位教师的三类教学视频——中性情绪、积极情绪、消极情绪的朗诵视频, 使用BioNeuro八通道生物反馈仪记录学生在观看视频时的生理指标, 每段视频播放后, 要求学生完成《教师课堂情绪感染力评价问卷(学生用)》。实验结果表明, 学生在观看“权威”教师视频时, 其注意力水平不受教师情绪效价的影响, 学生对“权威”教师均能保持较高的“专注”状态, 从而提高了“权威”教师的积极情绪感染力(易感性调节), 而对“新手”教师的“专注”程度较低, 从而削弱了“新手”教师的积极情绪感染力(免疫性调节)。“新手”教师的消极情绪感染力(倦怠)比“权威”教师的消极情绪感染力更强, 这与学生对“权威”教师的消极情绪进行“合理化”解释有关, 从而免疫了“权威”教师的消极情绪感染力。问卷调查结果也表明, 学生对“权威”教师的情绪感染力评价(无论是中性、积极或消极视频)要极其显著好于对“新手”教师的评价。由此说明, 先入观念对情绪感染的调节方式有两种:“专注”和“合理化”, 调节的结果也有两种:“易感性”与“免疫性”。

关键词: 先入观念, 情绪感染, 易感性调节, 免疫性调节

Abstract:

Past research on conscious emotional contagion has implied that emotional contagion can be regulated by subsequent perception, which can be retrieved by unconsciousness. Similarly, can emotional contagion be regulated by antecedent view or not? That is, perception exists before emotional contagion and regulates the final effect of emotional contagion. In the research, the experiment condition was classroom activities. We adopted within-subjects design. We guided students to set up two antecedent views through pre-experimental instruction: authoritative teacher and novice teacher, and then we played three kinds of videos to students, namely neutral emotional, positive emotional, and negative emotional teaching videos. The students’ physiological data were recorded by eight-channel biofeedback instrument when students watched videos. After the experiment, each student was required to finish a questionnaire, i.e., the evaluation scale of teaching’s emotional contagion in class (for students). The experimental results demonstrated that students could maintain a high level of attention and could not transfer when they were watching the authoritative teacher’s videos. As a result, students’ high level of attention improved the effect of authoritative teacher’s positive emotional contagion, i.e., munity regulation, for it was connected with the more attention that students paid to the authoritative teacher. Students’ maintained a low level of attention while watching the novice teacher’s videos, therefore, the effect of novice teacher’s positive emotional contagion was less than that of authoritative teacher’s. we name this is immunity regulation. Students’ attention was lower under exposure to the novice teacher’s negative emotion than to that of the authoritative teacher’s. Students always pay high-powered attention to the authoritative teacher no matter what emotion the authoritative teacher appeared. In other words emotional contagion was modulated by the focus of attention. The novice teacher had a stronger negative emotional (i.e., burnout) contagion than the authoritative teacher, which was due to students’ rationalization to the authoritative teacher’s negative emotion, thus immunizing the authoritative teacher’s negative emotion. Furthermore, Surveying with a questionnaire the evaluation scale of teaching’s emotional contagion in class, we gained an important result that students made more positive evaluations of the authoritative teacher than that of the novice teacher regardless of watching both teachers’ neutral, positive, or negative teaching videos. As shown in Table 9, there existed significant differences between the evaluation to the authoritative teacher and that to the novice teacher (p < 0.01). Thus, when individuals felt a certain emotion (e.g., joy), memories and judgments consistent with that emotion were stimulated. When applied to teacher-student relationship, this conclusion suggested that when a teacher expresses positive emotions, students would feel more positive (through mood contagion), and be more likely to make more positive evaluations to the teacher. It is especially true of the authoritative teacher, because students’ positive antecedent view to the authoritative teacher improved their evaluations to him. For the novice teacher, students’ negative antecedent view lowered their evaluations. These results indicated that student’s antecedent view could regulate teacher’s effect of EC. A teacher’s effect of EC was weakened when students could not reasonably explain the cause of his/her emotional expression. When students perceived the authoritative teacher's emotional display as a need for teaching, it could maintain students’ high evaluations to him/her. Therefore the authoritative teacher’s negative emotional contagion was less likely to occur. However, students would interpret the novice teacher’s negative emotional display as incompetence, thus his/her negative emotional contagion was more likely to take place. Hence, two conclusions could be drawn: (1) there are two methods of antecedent view regulating emotional contagion: concentration and rationalization. (2) there exist two results of antecedent view regulating emotional contagion: munity and immunity.

Key words: antecedent view, emotional contagion, munity regulation, immunity regulation