ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2012, Vol. 44 ›› Issue (9): 1138-1148.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2012.01138

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

阈下知觉的加工水平及其发生条件—— 基于视觉掩蔽启动范式的视角


  1. 上海师范大学教育学院心理学系, 上海 200234
  • 收稿日期:2011-10-13 出版日期:2012-09-28 发布日期:2012-09-28
  • 通讯作者: 王沛
  • 基金资助:

    教育部新世纪人才项目(2011); 上海市2008年度哲学社会科学一般项目(BW0818); 上海市2008年度曙光计划项目(CW0908); 上海师范大学校级重点学科项目资助。

Processing Levels and Its Prerequisite During Subliminal Perception: Evidences Based on Visual Masking Priming

WANG Pei;HUO Peng-Fei;WANG Ling-Hui   

  1. Department of Psychology, the School of Education, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China
  • Received:2011-10-13 Online:2012-09-28 Published:2012-09-28
  • Contact: WANG Pei

摘要: Dehaene等(1998)和Greenwald等(1996)的研究通过在方法上的完善, 为阈下知觉的存在提供了确凿的证据。但是阈下知觉可以达到什么样的深度这一问题尚仍然存在争议, 有研究者认为阈下知觉可以达到语义加工的水平, 而有的研究者认为阈下知觉只是对刺激视觉特征的一种浅层加工, 并形成了一些非语义加工的假说。在以往研究的基础上, 本研究通过完善实验范式, 分别采用图片、字词作为实验材料对阈下知觉的深度和影响因素进行探讨。实验1和实验2立据于阈下非语义加工的各种理论, 为阈下语义加工的存在提供了证据。同时实验2表明, 阈下知觉达到的水平取决于靶子集的大小, 更确切的说取决于被试对靶刺激进行了何种水平的加工。

关键词: 阈下知觉, 掩蔽启动范式, 语义加工

Abstract: Dehaene, et al. (1998) and Greenwald, et al. (1996) have brought substantial evidence on the existence of subliminal perception. But there are still controversies about which level can subliminal perception reach. While some researcher argued the subliminal stimuli can be processed semantically, other researcher argued it was a shallow processing based on the visual characteristic of stimuli. Both sides have empirical evidences to support their views. Several theories object the subliminal semantic process, such as direct motor specification hypothesis, target stimuli activation theory and action trigger theory. Van Opstal and his colleagues (2005) believed that even not all of the experiments can be explained by action trigger theory, at least under some masking conditions, real semantic prime occurred. In order to explore whether and why semantic process exists in the subliminal process, two experiments were designed in this study. Based on previous researches, the present paper explored the depth and potential moderators of priming effects with picture and Chinese words as stimuli. 26 college students (age ranged from 20 to 26 years old (14 female, average ages was 22.3) ) participated in the experiment1. The masked priming paradigm and category classification task were adopted in the experiment1. Both indirect and direct measurements were tested on participants to make sure that the priming stimuli were operated unconsciously. At the mean time, big categories such as “animal” and “non-animal” were used to prevent the interpretation of action trigger. In the experiment2, 28 college students participated in the exp2. Two participants were excluded due to their slow reaction. The final sample was constituted by 26 participants (16 female, average ages was 19.2). Priming stimuli and target stimuli were presented by different form, such as word characters and pictures, to prevent the potential stimuli—response connection. Moreover, the size of target category was manipulated to examine their effect on subliminal process. The main results are as follows: when using pictures as materials, there is no interaction between priming stimuli and target stimuli. The fact that priming effect could still be seen in a big category classification task provides further evidence of subliminal semantic process. Meanwhile, subliminal semantic process also can be seen by using pictures as priming stimuli and Chinese characters as target stimuli, since there are no interactions between them. In addition, the depth of subliminal perception is decided by which level of process participants’ use on target stimuli. If participants process the target stimuli on a low level, the subliminal stimuli would be processed in the perceptive level. If participants process the target stimuli on a deep level, the subliminal stimuli would also be processed in the semantic level. The present study has important implications in the area of subliminal perception. Not only does this study provide further evidence of the existence of semantic subliminal perception, but also indicates that the task context could determine whether stimuli will be processed semantically or nonsemantically, which in turn can influence priming effect.

Key words: subliminal perception, masked priming paradigm, semantic processing