ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2009, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (07): 580-593.

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  1. (1华南师范大学心理应用研究中心,广州 510631)(2中山大学管理学院,广州 510275)

  • 收稿日期:2008-08-28 修回日期:1900-01-01 出版日期:2009-07-30 发布日期:2009-07-30
  • 通讯作者: 张积家

The Lexical Access of Individual Classifiers in Language Production and Comprehension

ZHANG Ji-Jia;LIU Hong-Yan   

  1. (1 Center for Psychological Application, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China)(2 School of Business, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China)
  • Received:2008-08-28 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2009-07-30 Published:2009-07-30
  • Contact: ZHANG Ji-Jia

摘要: 个体量词是汉语的特色词类,是名词的限定词。关于个体量词的通达,目前主要有两种假说:直接选择假说和间接选择假说。实验1和实验2采用图词干扰范式考察了名词短语和简单名词产生中个体量词的通达。实验3采用启动范式考察了言语理解中个体量词的通达。结果表明,无论是在言语产生中,还是在言语理解中,都存在量词一致性效应:当启动词和目标词量词一致时反应时短,错误率亦低。整个研究表明,个体量词的通达涉及个体名词系统和个体量词系统,涉及双向选择的组合网络。个体量词的通达是直接选择和间接选择的有机结合。个体量词在名词短语产生的早期就得到了通达。

关键词: 个体量词, 词汇通达, 量词一致性效应

Abstract: The individual classifier, a kind of determiner, is a unique grammatical class of Chinese words. There are two theories explaining the lexical access of determiners: direct selection hypothesis and indirect selection hypothesis. Direct selection hypothesis assumes that the selection of determiners is an automatic process, directly retrieved syntactic or semantic information from their own nodes. The indirect selection hypothesis asserts that the selection of determiners is a competitive process, indirectly retrieved syntactic or semantic information from their headwords. This study focused on the lexical access of individual classifiers in language production and comprehension. As the individual classifiers are a kind of the closest determiners of nouns, some of them even have fixed relationships with nouns.
Three experiments investigated the lexical access of individual classifiers during the production of noun phrases, the production of bare nouns, and the comprehension of noun phrases. In Experiment 1 (N = 31), a picture-word interference paradigm was conducted to study the selection of individual classifiers in NP production. On the one hand, utterance onset latencies in NP production were longer when the distractors and the target pictures had different individual classifiers than when they had the same individual classifiers; on the other hand, utterance onset latencies were found longer when the distractors were semantically related to the targets than those were not. It indicated that the picture naming task was inhibited by the semantic relationships between targets and distractors but facilitated by the consistency of their classifiers. In addition, this facilitation can be found even when the SOA was set from 0ms till 100ms. Such a result indicated that the classifiers can be activated in the early stage during NP production and can persist for a short time.
In Experiment 2 (N = 25), the picture-word interference paradigm was again conducted to study the activation of individual classifiers in noun production. It showed the same tendencies as that achieved during bare noun production.
In Experiment 3 (N = 25), the priming paradigm was used with 2(types of noun phrase) × 2(types of classifiers) × 3(SOA) within-subjects design to investigate the lexical access in language comprehension. The results of experiment 3 showed that the reaction time of unmatched classifier noun phrased was longer than the matched ones. It indicated that access of the priming words can activate not only the targets but also the information of classifiers.
According to the achieved results, a theory called “dual-systems and dual-election combination network” of classifier lexical access was proposed. That is, there are two systems in the mental lexicon of Chinese speakers: the system of individual nouns and the system of individual classifiers. Because of the parsimony law in mental process, the indirect route would be chosen under most occasions. This study supplemented the theory of Chinese lexical access theory, and suggested that teaching classifiers with nouns together can expedite learning and help identifying/recalling or using individual classifiers.

Key words: classifiers, lexical access, classifier congruency effect

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