ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2023, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (5): 781-791.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.00781

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇


王悦1, 王晓玉1, 宋莹2, 李莹1()   

  1. 1郑州大学教育学院, 郑州 450001
    2山西省榆次区第十中学, 晋中 030602
  • 收稿日期:2022-07-08 发布日期:2023-02-14 出版日期:2023-05-25
  • 通讯作者: 李莹, E-mail:
  • 基金资助:

The effect of temporal focus on implicit space-time mapping in a life history strategy framework

WANG Yue1, WANG Xiaoyu1, SONG Ying2, LI Ying1()   

  1. 1School of Education, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China
    2Number 10 Middle School of Yuci District, Jingzhong 030602, China
  • Received:2022-07-08 Online:2023-02-14 Published:2023-05-25


时间焦点是塑造内隐时空映射的关键因素, 但不同生命史策略个体的时间取向差异是否影响时间焦点和内隐时空映射以及二者如何交互影响内隐时空映射尚不清晰。本文通过3个研究考察不同生命史策略个体的时间焦点和内隐时空映射偏好, 并进一步探讨生命史策略和时间焦点如何对内隐时空映射起作用。研究1发现快生命史策略个体不存在时间焦点偏好, 慢生命史策略个体偏好未来焦点。研究2发现快生命史策略个体的内隐时空映射方向没有明显偏好, 而慢生命史策略个体偏好“未来在前”的内隐时空映射。研究3发现干预时间焦点可以塑造快生命史策略个体的内隐时空映射, 但对慢生命史策略个体内隐时空映射的影响甚微。整个研究从进化适应性角度证明生命史策略能够影响时间焦点和内隐时空映射, 并发现时间焦点假设的影响具有边界条件。

关键词: 隐喻一致性效应, 生命史策略, 时间焦点, 内隐时空映射


It is a fundamental feature of human cognition to understand the abstract concept of time through space. As far as the direction of metaphorical mapping is concerned, space-time mappings in the 'front-back' direction are the most common. At present, most studies have confirmed the psychological reality of spatiotemporal mapping. However, research on implicit space-time mapping in mental thinking and its influencing factors are still controversial. The Temporal Focus Hypothesis (TFH) holds that language is not the only factor affecting the implicit space-time mapping, and that the attention individuals pay to past or future time, namely, Temporal Focus, is the key factor shaping the implicit space-time mapping. Temporal focus refers to the extent to which individuals allocate their attention to past, present and future time periods, and is influenced by a variety of factors such as culture, individual differences, and cognitive training. Life history strategy is a stable pattern of psychological behavior. It is a variable belonging to the category of individual differences. This study builds on existing research by introducing life history strategies, which are stable patterns of mental behavior that individuals develop through trade-offs in order to survive and adapt, and are variables that fall under the category of individual differences. Those with a slow life history strategy attach more importance to events related to the future and show a preference for “future thinking”, while those with a fast life history strategy focus on the present and have no obvious preference for “future thinking” or “past thinking”. This study adopts a time-focus questionnaire, a time-diagramming task and a time-word categorization task to explore the temporal focus and implicit temporal mapping preferences of subjects with different life history strategies, and the effects of life history strategies and time-focus on implicit temporal mapping.

In this paper, we examine the temporal focus and implicit temporal mapping preferences of individuals with different life-history strategies, and further verify the stability and applicable boundary conditions of the temporal focus hypothesis through three studies. In Study 1, the Life History Strategy Questionnaire and Time Focus Scale were used to explore the relationship between life history strategy and time focus. Study 2 explored the relationship between life history strategy type and implicit temporal mapping direction using a temporal diagramming task and a temporal word decision task, respectively. Experiment 3 further tested the stability of the temporal focus hypothesis by initiating different temporal focus in individuals with fast and slow life history strategies. The results showed that the fast-strategy subjects had no obvious preference for temporal focus and implicit temporal mapping, while the slow-strategy subjects preferred future temporal focus and “future-front, past-back” implicit temporal mapping associations. The intervention of temporal focus shaped the implicit space-time mappings direction of fast-strategic individuals with a metaphorical consistency effect, whereas for slow-strategic subjects, the intervention had a limited effect.

The entire study demonstrates that life history strategies can influence temporal focus and implicit space-time mapping from an evolutionary adaptive perspective. And the temporal focus hypothesis has boundary conditions.

Key words: the metaphor congruency effect, life history strategy, temporal focus, implicit space-time mappings