ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2015, Vol. 47 ›› Issue (10): 1235-1246.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2015.01235

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇



  1. (1华南师范大学心理应用研究中心/心理学院/心理健康与认知科学广东省重点实验室, 广州 510631)
    (2乐山职业技术学院新能源工程系, 乐山 614000)
  • 发布日期:2015-10-25 出版日期:2015-10-25
  • 通讯作者: 何先友, E-mail:

Dynamic Updating Process of Readers’ Temporal Situation Model: From Short-term Working Memory to Long-term Working Memory

HE Xiayou1; YANG Huilan1; ZHANG Wei1; ZHAO Xueru1; XIE Yi2   

  1. (1 Center for Studies of Psychological Application / School of Psychology / Key Lab of Mental Health and
    Cognitive Science of Guangdong Province, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China)
    (2 Department of Renewable Energy Engineering, Leshan Vocational & Technical College, Leshan 614000, China)
  • Online:2015-10-25 Published:2015-10-25
  • Contact: HE Xiayou, E-mail:


采用移动窗口技术与多指标探测范式, 探讨了时间转换大小对情景模型更新的影响, 包括两个实验。实验1探讨在短时工作记忆中不同时间跨度(大/小)转换条件对情景模型更新的影响; 实验2探讨在长时工作记忆中时间跨度大的转换条件下情景模型的更新进程。研究结果表明, 时间信息随着跨度大小变化在不同的记忆阶段进行着不同的加工。在短时工作记忆中, 时间跨度小的条件下, 在实体移除指标上实体信息在时间转换后提取速度显著变慢, 说明该条件下完成了情景模型的更新; 时间跨度大的条件下, 在实体移除指标上实体信息在转换之后提取速度无显著差异, 说明该条件下情景模型不能得到完全的更新; 而在长时工作记忆中, 时间跨度大的条件下, 在实体移除指标上实体信息在转换之后提取速度显著变慢了, 说明完成了情景模型的更新。该结果表明, 在短时工作记忆与长时工作记忆阶段进行着不同的更新加工, 表现为时间情景模型更新的动态性。

关键词: 时间转换, 时间情景模型, 短时工作记忆, 长时工作记忆



The situation model is a hot topic in current narrative comprehension research. The Event-indexing model proposed by Zwaan, Langson, and Graesser (1995) suggests that readers establish a mental representation of events by tracking them through five dimensions: time, space, characters, causality, and protagonist/object. A large number of previous studies have shown that the temporal dimension plays an important role in constructing the situation model. The Scenario Account (Anderson, 1983) argues that scene provides clues for temporal shifts, but the Strong Iconicity Assumption (Zwaan, 1996) argues that readers update the situation model as soon as temporal shifts appear. In this study, we designed two experiments to resolve the disagreement between the Scenario Account and the Strong Iconicity Assumption. We assume that the Scenario Model and the Strong Iconicity Assumption do not contradict each other due to how the updating of a situation model has a variable processing mode in different stages of memory processing. We designed two experiments to test this hypothesis: Experiment 1 examined the effects of temporal shifts on the updating of the situation model in short-term working memory, and Experiment 2 examined this effect in long-term working memory.
In this study, a moving-window technique was used to explore the extent to which temporal shifts (long/short) affect updating of readers’ situation model. Experiment 1a and 1b examined whether long temporal shifts or short temporal shifts affected updating of readers’ situation model in short-term working memory. A single factor within-subjects design (time shift of a moment after or a day later) was used. We predicted the long temporal shifts (Experiment 1a) would not result in the updating of readers’ situation model due to the time limitation and difficulties of processing in short-term memory, but that short temporal shifts (Experiment 1b) would. Experiment 2 further examined the extent to which long temporal shifts affected updating of the situation model in long-term working memory. We predicted that long temporal shifts would cause the updating of the situation model because there was sufficient time for processing and increased memory capacities associated with long-term working memory.
The results confirmed our predictions that latencies of retrieval of removing entities showed no significant differences as a function of long temporal shifts and non-temporal shifts, which suggested that long temporal shifts did not result in situation model updating in Experiment 1a. However, Experiment 1b revealed the latencies of retrieval of removing entities were much slower in the short temporal shifts condition than those in the non-temporal shifts condition. In addition, when the filler sentences were increased in Experiment 2, we also found slower latencies of retrieval of removing entities in the long temporal shifts, which suggested the situation model had been updated both in Experiment 1b and Experiment 2.

In sum, temporal shifts play an important role in the updating of readers’ situation model. The findings showed that longer the temporal shifts were associated with greater difficulty to update the situation model. Therefore, only the short but not long temporal shifts condition resulted in situation model updating in short-term memory, but when information was stored in long-term memory, updating was possible in the long temporal shifts condition. The results collectively demonstrate that temporal situation model updating is dynamic.

Key words: temporal shifts, temporal situation model, short-term working memory, long-term working memory