ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2010, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (01): 10-21.

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  1. 北京大学光华管理学院, 北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2008-12-04 修回日期:1900-01-01 发布日期:2010-01-30 出版日期:2010-01-30
  • 通讯作者: 张志学

The Contextualization and Multilevel Issues in Research of Organizational Psychology

Zhi-Xue ZHANG   

  1. Guanghua School of Management, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
  • Received:2008-12-04 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2010-01-30 Published:2010-01-30
  • Contact: Zhi-Xue ZHANG

摘要: 由于组织具有明确的目标和特定的任务, 组织心理与一般情境中人的心理有所区别。由于组织情境下的心理与行为受到个体、群体、组织甚至社会几个层次上的多种因素的影响, 组织心理研究者所建立理论要揭示这些情境变量与所研究的现象之间的联系。本文首先介绍了近年来组织研究中的情境化趋势, 举例说明情境化对于理论发展的贡献。随后, 本文阐述了组织心理学研究中的理论层次问题, 强调界定构念和理论层次的必要性, 并说明界定理论层次背后的逻辑。文章以群体层次的研究为例, 说明形成群体层次构念的方法以及测量群体层次构念时需要注意的问题。鉴于组织中个体层次的因变量会受到个体和更高层次变量的共同影响, 文章在最后部分介绍了组织心理学研究中的多层次理论。本文以近年来发表的组织心理学研究报告为例, 说明研究的情境化以及建立多层次理论的方法。

关键词: 组织心理, 情境化, 群体水平的构念, 多层次理

Abstract: As organizations have clear goals and specific tasks, the psychology in organizations is different from that in general social context. The psychology and behavior in organizational contexts are affected by multiple factors at the levels of the individual, group, organization, and even society, organizational psychology scholars need to identify the relationships between these contextual variables and the targeted phenomena. This paper starts with the trend of contextualization in organizational research, and examples are used to illustrate the contribution of contextualization to theory building. Then, the multilevel issues in organizational psychology research are addressed, with an emphasis on the necessity of defining the level of constructs and theories. The underlying rationale of defining the level of theories is explained. Taking the research at the group level as the example, the paper addresses the methods of developing the group level constructs and the questions regarding measuring the group level constructs. Given that dependent variables at the individual level may be influenced by independent variables at both individual and higher levels, the paper describes multilevel theory in organizational psychology research. Recent organizational psychology studies published in top journals are cited to illustrate how to contextualize research and how to develop multilevel theories.

Key words: organizational psychology, contextualization, constructs at the group level, multilevel theories